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BOOKS 1-5 

Translated by 

THEOPHRASTUS of Eresus in Lesbos, 
horn about jyo bc, is the author of the 
most important botanical works that have 
survived from classical antiquity. He was 
in turn the student, collaborator, and suc- 
cessor of Aristotle. Like his predecessor he 
was interested in all aspects of human 
knowledge and experience, especially 
natural science. His writings on plants 
form a counterpart to Aristotle's zoologi- 
cal works. 

in the Enquiry into Plants Theophrastus 
classifies and describes varieties — covering 
trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, 
herbaceous plants, and cereals; in the last 
of the nine books he focuses on plant 
juices and medicinal properties of herbs. 
The Loeb edition is in two volumes; the 
second contains two additional treatises: 
On Odors and Weather Signs. 

In De Causis Plantarum Theophrastus turns 
to plant phvsiology. Books One and Two 
are concerned with generation, sprouting, 
{lowering and fruiting, and the effects ot 
climate. In Books Three and Four Theo- 
phrastus studies cultivation and agricul- 
tural methods. In Books Five and Six he 
discusses plant breeding;; diseases and 
other causes of death; and distincti\e 
llaNors and odors. 

Theoj:)hrastus' celebrated Characters^ ot a 
quite different nature, is the earliest know n 
character-writing and a striking reflection 
of contemporarv lite. 

581.0901 T 
Enquiry into plants* 
and minor works on 

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Introductory : How plants are to be classified ; difficulty 
of defining what are the essential ' parts ' of a plant, 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to 

animals 3 

The essential parts of plants, and the materials of which 

they are made 9 

Definitions of the various classes into which plants may 

be divided 23 

Exact classification impracticable: other possible bases 

of classification 27 

Dififerences as to appearance and habitat 29 

Characteristic differences in the parts of plants, whether 

general, special, or seen in qualities and properties 33 

Differences as to qualities and properties 37 

Further 'special' differences 39 

Differences in root 41 

Of trees (principally) and their characteristic special 

differences : as to knots 55 

As to habit 61 

As to shedding of leaves 63 

Differences in leaves 69 

Composition of the various parts of a plant 77 

Differences in seeds 79 



Differences in taste So 

Differences in flowers 89 

Differences in fruits 97 

General differences (affecting the whole plant) .... 99 



Of the ways in which trees and plants originate. In- 
stances of degeneration from seed 10.") 

I']ffects of situation, climate, tendance llo 

Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees, and 

of certain marvels 119 

Of spontaneous and otlier changes in other plants . . . 12;i 

Of methods of propagation, with notes on cultivation 127 
Of the propagation of the date-palm ; of palms in 

general • 133 

Further notes on the propagation of trees 145 

Of the cultivation of trees 145 

Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit : caprification 151 



Of the ways in which M'ild trees originate 150 

Of the differences between wild and cultivated trees . I(i5 
Of mountain trees : of tlie differences found in wild trees 171 
Of the times of budding and fruiting of wild, as com- 
pared with cultivated, trees 179 

Of the seasons of budding 185 

Of the comparative rate of growth in trees, and of the 

length of their roots 191 

Of the effects of cutting down the whole or part of a tree 197 
Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves 

flowers and fruit 199 

Of ' male' and ' female' in trees : the oak as an example 

of this and other differences 203 




Of the differences ill firs 211 

Of beech, yew, hop-hornbeam, lime 221 

Of maple and ash 227 

Of cornelian cherry, cornel, ' cedars,' medlar, thorns, 

sorb 283 

Of bird-cherr}', elder, willow • . 243 

Of elm, poplars, alder, [semyda, bladder-senna] .... 249 

Of filbert, terebinth, box, kralahjos 253 

Of certain other oaks, arbutus, andrachne, wig-tree . . 259 
Of cork-oak, kohUea, kohifia, and of certain other 

trees peculiar to particular localities 265 

Of the differences in various shrubs— buckthorn, withy, 

Christ's thoin, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilax, 

[spindle tree] 269 



Of the importance of position and climate 287 

Of the trees special to Egypt, and of the carob .... 291 

Of the trees and shrubs special to Libya 303 

Of the trees and herbs special to Asia . . 309 

Of the plants special to northern regions 323 

Of the aquatic plants of the Mediterranea?! 329 

Of the aquatic plants of the 'outer sea' (i.e. Atlantic, 

Persian Gulf, etc.) 337 

Of the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, especially 

in Egypt . 345 

Of the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake 

Copais), especially its rccdn, and of reeds in general 361 

Of rushes 379 

Of the length or shortness of the life of plants, and the 

causes ... 383 

Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions . . 391 
Of the effects on trees of renu)ving bark, head, heart- 
wood, roots, etc. ; of various causes of death . . . 405 





Of the seasons of catting 417 

Of the wood of silver-fir and fir 421 

Of the effects on timber of climate 427 

Of knots and * coiling ' in timber 429 

Of differences in the texture of different woods .... 431 

Of differences in timber as to hardness and heaviness . 439 

Of differences in the keeping quality of timber .... 441 
Which kinds of wood are easy and which hard to woik. 

Of the core and its effects 44.5 

Wliich woods can best support weight 451 

Of the woods best suited for the carpenter's various 

purposes 453 

Of the woods used in ship-building 455 

Of the woods used in house-building 459 

Of the uses of the wood of particular trees 459 

Of the localities in which the best timber grows . . 463 
Of the uses of various woods in making fire : charcoal, 

fuel, fire-sticks 467 



This is^ I believe, the first attempt at an English 
translation of the 'Enquiry into Plants.' That it 
should be found entirely satisfactory is not to be 
expected, since the translator is not, as he should be, 
a botanist; moreover, in the present state at least 
of the text, the Greek of Theophrastus is sometimes 
singularly elusive. I should never have undertaken 
such a responsibility without the encouragement of 
that veteran student of plant-lore the Rev. Canon 
EUacombe, who first suggested that I should make 
the attempt and introduced me to the book. It is a 
great grief that he did not live to see the completion 
of the work which he set me. If I had thought 
it essential that a translator of Theophrastus should 
himself grapple with the difficulties of identifying 
the plants which he mentions, I must have declined 
a task which has otherwise proved quite onerous 
enough. However the kindness and the expert 
knowledge of Sir William Thiselton-Dyer came to 
my rescue ; to him I not only owe gratitude for 
constant help throughout ; the identifications in the 
Index of Plants are entirely his work, compared 
with which the compilation of the Index itself was 


but meclianical labour. And he has greatly increased 
my debt and the reader's by reading the proofs of 
my translation and of the Index. This is perhaps 
the place to add a note on the translation of the 
plant-names in the text : — where possible, I have 
given an English equivalent, though I am conscious 
that such names as ' Christ's thorn,' ' Michaelmas 
daisy ' must read oddly in a translation of a work 
written 300 years before Christ ; to print Linnean 
binary names would have been at least equally 
incongruous. Where an Englisii name was not 
obvious, although the plant is British or known in 
British gardens, I have usually consulted Britten 
and Holland's Dictionary of Plant-names. Where 
no English equivalent could be found, i.e. chiefly 
where the plant is not either British or familiar in 
this country, I have either transliterated the Greek 
name (as arakhidnd) or given a literal rendering of it 
in inverted commas (as ' foxbrush ' for dXwTrtKov/aos) ; 
but the derivation of Greek plant-names being often 
obscure, I have not used this device unless the 
meaning seemed to be beyond question. In some 
cases it has been necessary to preserve the Greek 
name and to give the English name after it in 
brackets. This seemed desirable wherever the author 
has ap})arently used more than one name for the 
same plant, the explanation doubtless being that he 
was drawing on different local authorities; thus Kipaao% 
and XuKapyj botii probably represent ' bird-cherry,' 
the latter bein«j the Macedonian name for the tree. 


Apart from this reason, in a few places (as 3.8.2 ; 
3.10.3.) it seemed necessarj'^ to give both the Greek 
and the English name in order to bring out some 
particular point. On the other hand one Greek 
name often covers several plants, e.g. Xa)T6<s ; in such 
cases I hope that a reference to the Index will make 
all clear. Inverted commas indicate that the render- 
ing is a literal translation of the Greek word ; the 
identification of the plant will be found in the Index. 
Thus (fieWoSpv^is rendered ^ cork-oak/ though ' holm- 
oak ' would be the correct rendering, — cork-oak {quer- 
cus Suher) being what Theophrastus calls ^eAXo's. 
which is accordingly rendered cork-oak without 
commas. As to the spelling of proper names, con- 
sistency without pedantry seems unattainable. One 
cannot write names such as Arcadia or Alexander 
otherwise than as they are commonly written ; but 
I cannot bring myself to Latinise a Greek name if it 
can be helped, wherefore I have simply transliterated 
the less familiar names ; the line drawn must of 
course be arbitrary. 

The text printed is in the main that of Wimmer's 
second edition (see Introd. p. xiv). The textual notes 
are not intended as a complete apparatus criticus ; 
to provide a satisfactory apparatus it would probably 
be necessary to collate the manuscripts afresh. I have 
had to be content with giving Wimmer's statements 
as to MS. authority ; this I have done wherever any 
question of interpretation depended on the reading ; 
but I have not thought it necessary to record mere 



variations of spelling. Where the textual notes go 
beyond bare citation of the readings of the MSS., Aid., 
Gaza, and Pliny, it is usually because 1 have there 
departed from Wimmer's text. The references to 
Pliny will, I hope, be found fairly complete. I am 
indebted for most of them to Schneider, but I have 
verified these and all other references. 

I venture to hope that this translation, with its 
references and Index of Plants, may assist some 
competent scholar-botanist to produce an edition 
worthy of the author. 

Besides those already mentioned I have to thank 
also my friends Professor D'Arcy Thompson, C.B., 
Litt.D. of Dundee, Mr. A. W. Hill of Kew, Mr. E. A. 
Bowles for help of various kinds, and the Rev. F. W. 
Galpin for his learned exposition of a passage which 
otherwise would have been dark indeed to me — the 
description of the manufacture of the reed mouth- 
pieces of wood-wind instruments in Book IV. Sir John 
Sandys, Public Orator of Cambridge University, was 
good enough to give me valuable help in matters of 



I. — Bibliography and Abbreviations used 
A. Textual Authorities 

WiMMER divides the authorities on whicli the text 
of the TTcpi (f)VT(t)v IcrTopta is based into three classes : — 

Fir'st Class : 

U. Codex Urbinas : in the Vatican. Collated by 
Bekker and Amati; far the best extant 
MS., but evidently founded on a much 
corrupted copy. See note on 9. 8. 1. 

P2. Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Contains con- 
siderable excerpts ; evidently founded on a 
good MS. ; considered by Wimmer second 
only in authority to U. 

(Of other collections of excerpts may 
be mentioned one at Munich, called after 

Second Class : 

M (Mp M2). Codices Medicei: at Florence. 
Agree so closely that they may be re- 
garded as a single MS. ; considered by 
Wimmer much inferior to U, but of higher 
authority than Aid. 



P. Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Considered by 
Winimer somewhat inferior to M and V, 
and more on a level with Aid. 

mP. Margin of the above. A note in the MS. 
states that the marginal notes are not scholia, 
but vaiiae leclioiies aut eviendaliones. 

V. Codex Vindobonensis : at Vienna. Contains 
the first five books and two chapters of the 
sixth; closely resembles M in style and 

Third Class : 

Aid. Editio Aldina : the ediiio pnnceps, printed 
at Venice 1195-8. Believed by Wimmer 
to be founded on a single MS., and that 
an inferior one to those enumerated above, 
and also to that used by Gaza. Its readings 
seem often to show signs of a deliberate 
attempt to produce a smooth text : hence 
the value of this edition as witness to an 
independent MS. authority is much im- 

(Bas. Editio Basiliensis : printed at Bale, 1541. 
A careful copy of Aid., in which a number 
of printer's errors are corrected and a few 
new ones introduced (Wimmer). 

Cam. Editio Camotiana (or Aldina minor, altera) : 
printed at Venice, 1552. Also copied from 
Aid., but less carefully corrected than Bas. ; 
the editor Camotius, in a few passages, 


altered the text to accord with Gaza's 

G. The Latin version of Theodore Gaza,^ the 
Greek refugee : first printed at Treviso 
(Tarvisium) in 1483. A wonderful work 
for the time at wliich it appeared. Its 
present value is due to the fact that the 
translation was made from a different MS. 
to any now known. Unfortunately how- 
ever this does not seem to have been a 
better text than that on which the Aldine 
edition was based. Moreover Gaza did not 
stick to his authorit}^, but adopted freely 
Pliny's versions of Theophrastus, emending 
where he could not follow Pliny. There 
are several editions of Gaza's work : thus 

G.Par.G.Bas. indicate respectively editions pub- 
lished at Paris in 1529 and at Bale in 1534 
and 1550, Wimmer has no doubt that the 
Tarvisian is the earliest edition, and he 
gives its readings, whereas Schneider often 
took those of G.Bas. 

Vin.Vo.Cod.Cas. indicate readings which Schnei- 
der believed to have MS. authority, but 
which are really anonymous emendations 
from the margins of MSS. used by his pre- 
decessors, and all, in Wimmer's opinion 

See Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship y ii. p. 62, etc. 



traceable to Gaza's version. Schneider's 
so-called Codex Casauboni he knew, ac- 
cording to Wimmer, only from Hofmann's 

B. Editions 

H, Editio Heinsii, printed at Leyden, 1613 : founded 
on Cam. and very carelessly printed, repeating 
the misprints of that edition and adding many 
others. In the preface Daniel Heins ^ pretends 
to have had access to a critical edition and to a 
Heidelberg MS. ; this claim appears to be en- 
tirely fictitious. The book indeed contains what 
Wimmer calls a^ farrago emendationum; he remarks 
that 'all the good things in it Heinsius owed 
to the wit of others, while all its faults and 
follies we owe to Heinsius.' Schneider calls it 
edilio omnium pessima. 

Bod. Editio Bodaei (viz. of Joannes Bodaeus a 
Stapel), printed at Amsterdam, 1644. The text 
of Heinsius is closely followed ; the margin con- 
tains a number of emendations taken from the 
margin of Bas. and from Scaliger, Robertas Con- 
stantinus, and Salmasius, with a few due to the 
editor himself. The commentary, according to 
Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, is 'botanically 
monumental and fundamental.' 

* See Sandys, op. cit. p. 313 eto. 


St. Stackhouse, Oxford, 1813: a prettily printed 
edition with some illustrations: text founded on 
Aid. The editor seems to have been a fair 
botanist, but an indifferent scholar, though occa- 
sionally he hits on a certain emendation. The 
notes are short and generally of slight value. 
The book is however of interest, as being appa- 
rently the only work on the ' Enquiry ' hitherto 
published in England. 

Sch. J. G. Schneider (and Linck), Leipzig : vols. 
i.-iv. published in 1818, vol. v. in 1821 ; contains 
also the Trcpt airiaiv and the fragments, and a re- 
print of Gaza's version (corrected). The fifth, 
or supplementary, volume, written during the 
author's last illness, takes account of the Codex 
Urbinas, which, unfortunately for Schneider, 
did not become known till his edition was 
finished. It is remarkable in how many places 
he anticipated by acute emendation the readings 
of U. The fifth volume also gives an account of 
criticisms of the earlier volumes by the eminent 
Greek Adamantios Koraes ^ and Kurt Sprengel. 
This is a monumental edition, despite the ver- 
bosity of the notes, somewhat careless references 
and reproduction of the MSS. readings, and an 
imperfect comprehension of the compressed 
style of Theophrastus, which leads to a good 
deal of wild emendation or rewriting of the 
text. For the first time we find an attempt at 
> See Sandys, op. cit, iii. pp. 361 folL 



providing a critical text, founded not on the 
Aldine edition, but on comparison of the manu- 
scripts then known ; the Medicean and Viennese 
had been collated a few years before by J. Th. 
Schneider. W'e find also full use made of the 
ancient authors, Athenaeus, Plutarch, Pliny, 
Dioscorides, Nicander, Galen, etc., who quoted or 
adapted passages of Theophrastus, and copious 
references, often illuminating, to those who 
illustrate him, as Varro, Columella, Palladius, 
Aelian, the Geoponica. 

Spr. Kurt Sprengel, Halle, 1822. This is not an 
edition of the text, but a copious commentary 
with German translation. Sprengel was a better 
botanist than scholar ; Wimmer speaks dis- 
paragingly of his knowledge of Greek and of 
the translation. (See note prefixed to the 
Index of Plants.) 

W Fr. Wimmer: (1) An edition with introduction, 
analysis, critical notes, and Sprengel's identi- 
fications of the plant-names ; Breslau, 1842. 

(2) A further revised text with new Latin 
translation, apparatus criticus, and full indices ; 
the Index Plantarum gives the identifications of 
Sprengel and Fraas ; Didot Library, Paris, n.d. 

(3) A reprint of this text in Teubner's series, 

These three books are an indis})ensable su})plement 
to Schneider's great work. The notes in the edition of 



1842 are in the main critical, but the editor's remarks 
on the interpretation of thorny passages are often 
extremely acute, and always worth attention. The 
mass of material collected by Schneider is put into 
an accessible form. Wimmer is far more conservative 
in textual criticism than Schneider, and has a better 
appreciation of Theophrastus' elliptical and some- 
what peculiar idiom, though some of his emendations 
appear to rest on little basis. A collation of the 
Paris MSS. (P and P2) was made for Wimmer ; for 
the readings of U and M he relied on Schneider, 
who, in his fifth volume, had compared U with 
Bodaeus* edition. A fresh collation of the rather 
exiguous manuscript authorities is perhaps required 
before anything like a definitive text can be pro- 
vided. Wimmer's Latin translation is not very 
helpful, since it slurs the difficulties : the Didot 
edition, in which it appears, is disfigured with 
numerous misi)rints. 

(Sandys' History of Classical Scholarship (ii. p, 380) 
mentions translations into Latin and Italian by 
Bandini ; of this work I know nothing.) 

C. Other Commentators 

Seal. J. C. Scaliger : Commentarii et animadversiones on 
the TTcpt (f)VTO)v la-Topia posthumously published 
by his son Sylvius at Leyden, 1584. (He also 
wrote a commentary on the Trcpt alriwy, which 
was edited by Robertus Gonstantinus and pub- 


lished at Geneva in 1566.) The most accurate 
and brilliant scholar who has contributed to the 
elucidation of Theophrastus. 

K. Const. Robertus Constantinus (see above). Added 
notes of his own, many of them valuable, which 
are given with Scaliger's in Bodaeus' edition. 

Salm. Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise). Made many 
happy corrections of Theophrastus* text in his 
Exercitationes Plinianae. 

Talm. Jacobus Palmerius (Jacques de Paulmier). 
His Exercitationes in optimos auctores Graecos 
(Leyden, 1668) contain a certain number of 
acute emendations ; Wimmer considers that he 
had a good understanding of Theophrastus' 

Meurs. Johannes Meursius (Jan de Meurs). Author 
of some critical notes on Theophrastus pub- 
lished at Leyden in 1640; also of a book on 

Dalec. Jean Jacques D'A16champs : the botanist. 
Author of Histoiia plantarum universalis, Lyons, 
1587, and editor of Pliny's Natural History. 

Mold. J. J. P. Moldenhauer. Author of Tentamen 
in Historiam plantarum Theopkrasti, Hamburg, 
1791. This book, which I have not been able 
to see and know only from Wimmer's citations, 
contains, according to him, very valuable notes 
on the extremely difficult Introduction to the 
' Historia ' (Book I. chaps, i.-ii.). 



II. — Theophrastus' Life and Works 

Such information as we possess concerning the 
life of Theophrastus comes mainly from Diogenes 
Laertius* Lives of the Philosophers, compiled at least 
four hundred years after Theophrastus' death ; it is 
given therefore here for what it may be worth ; 
there is no intrinsic improbabihty in most of what 
Diogenes records. 

He was born in 370 b.c. at Eresos in Lesbos ; at 
an early age he went to Athens and there became a 
pupil of Plato. It may be surmised that it was from 
him that he first learnt the importance of that 
principle of classification which runs through all his 
extant works, including even the brochure known as 
the * Characters ' (if it is rightly ascribed to him), 
and which is ordinarily considered as characteristic 
of the teaching of his second master Aristotle. But 
in Plato's own later speculations classification had a 
very important place, since it was by grouping things 
in their ' natural kinds ' that, according to his later 
metaphysic, men were to arrive at an adumbration 
of the ' ideal forms ' of which these kinds are the 
phenomenal counterpart, and which constitute the 
world of reality. Whether Theophrastus gathered 
the principle of classification from Plato or from his 
fellow-pupil Aristotle, it appears in his hands to 
have been for the first time systematically applied 
to the vegetable world. Throughout his botanical 



works the constant implied question is ' What is its 
difference ? ', ' What is its essential nature ? ', viz. ' VVIiat 
are the characteristic features in virtue of which a 
plant may be distinguished from other plants, and 
which make up its own ' nature ' or essential 
character ? 

Theophrastus appears to have been only Aristotle's 
junior by fifteen years. On Plato's death he l)ecame 
Aristotle's pupil, but, the difference in age not being 
very great, he and his second master appear to have 
been on practically equal terms. We are assured 
that Aristotle was deeply attached to his friend ; 
while as earnest of an equally deep attachment on 
the other side Theophrastus took Aristotle's son 
under his particular care after his father's death. 
Aristotle died at the age of sixty-three, leaving to 
his favourite pupil his books, including the auto- 
graphs of his own works, and his garden in tlie 
grounds of the Lyceum. The first of these bequests, 
if the information is correct, is of great historical 
importance ; it may well be that we owe to 
Theophrastus the publication of some at least of 
his master's voluminous works. And as to the 
garden it is evident that it was here that the first 
systematic botanist made many of the observations 
which are recorded in his botanical works. Diogenes 
has preserved his will, and there is nothing in the 
terms of this interesting document to suggest that 
it is not authentic. Of special interest is the 
provision made for the maintenance of the garden ; 



it is bequeathed to certain specified friends and to 
those who will spend their time with tliem in learn- 
ing and philosophy ; the testator is to be buried 
in it without extravagant expense, a custodian is 
appointed, and provision is made for the emancipa- 
tion of various gardeners, so soon as they have 
earned their freedom by long enough service. 

According to Diogenes Theophrastus died at the 
age of eighty-five. He is made indeed to say in the 
probably spurious Preface to the ' Characters ' that he 
is writing in his ninety-ninth year; while St. Jerome's 
Chronicle asserts that he lived to the age of 107. 
Accepting Diogenes' date, we may take it that he 
died about 285 b.c. ; it is said that he complained 
that " we die just when we are beginning to live." 
His life must indeed have been a remarkably full 
and interesting one, when we consider that he 
enjoyed the personal friendship of two such men as 
Plato and Aristotle, and that he had witnessed the 
whole of the careers of Philip and Alexander of 
Macedon. To Alexander indeed he was directly 
indebted ; the great conqueror had not been for 
nothing the pupil of the encyclopaedic Aristotle. 
He took with him to the East scientifically trained 
observers, the results of whose observations were at 
Theophrastus' disposal. Hence it is that his de- 
scriptions of plants are not limited to the flora of 
Greece and the Levant; to the reports of Alexander's 
followers he owed his accounts of such plants as the 
cotton-plant, banyan, pepper, cinnamon, myrrh and 



frankincense. It has been a subject of some con- 
troversy whence he derived his accounts of plants 
whose habitat was nearer home. Kirchner, in an 
able tract, combats the contention of Sprengel that 
his observations even of the Greek flora were not 
made at first hand. Now at this period the Peri- 
patetic School must have been a very important 
educational institution ; Diogenes says that under 
Theophrastus it numbered two thousand pupils. 
Moreover we may fairly assume that Alexander, from 
his connexion with Aristotle, was interested in it, 
while we are told that at a later time Demetrius 
Phalereus assisted it financially. May we not hazard 
a guess that a number of the students were aj>- 
propriately employed in the collection of facts and 
observations ? The assumption that a number of 
'travelling students' were so employed would at all 
events explain certain references in Theophrastus' 
botanical works. He says constantly ^The Maced 
onians say,' ' The men of Mount Ida say ' and so 
forth. Now it seems hardly probable that he is 
quoting from written treatises by Macedonian or 
Idaean writers. It is at least a plausible suggestion 
that in such references he is referring to reports of 
the districts in question contributed by students 
of the school. In that case * The Macedonians say ' 
would mean ' This is what our representative was 
told in Macedonia.' It is further noticeable that 
the tense used is sometimes past, e.g. ' The men of 
Mount Ida said ' ; an obvious explanation of this is 


supplied by the above conjecture. It is even possible 
that in one place (3. 12. 4.) the name of one of these 
students has been preserved. 

Theophrastus, like his master, was a very volu- 
minous writer; Diogenes gives a list of 227 treatises 
from his pen, covering most topics of human interest, 
as Religion, Politics, Ethics, Education, Rhetoric, 
Mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, Meteorology and 
other natural sciences. His oratorical works enjoyed 
;i high reputation in antiquity. Diogenes attributes 
to him ten works on Rhetoric, of which one On Style 
was known to Cicero, who adopted from it the 
classification of styles into the ' grand,' the ' plain,' 
and the * intermediate.' ^ Of one or two other lost 
works we have some knowledge. Thus the substance 
of an essay on Piety is preserved in Porphyry de 
Absiinentia.^ The principal works still extant are 
the nine books of the Enquiry into Plants, and the 
six books on the Causes of Plants ; these seem to be 
complete. We have also considerable fragments of 
treatises entitled : — of Sense-perception and objects 
of Sense, of Stones, of Fire, of Odours, of Winds, of 
Weather-Signs, of Weariness, of Dizziness, of Sweat, 
Metaphysics, besides a number of unassigned excerpts. 
The style of these works, as of the botanical books, 
suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we 
possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken 
of lectures. There is no literary charm ; the sen- 

1 Sandys, i. p. 99. 

* Bernayg, Theophrastus, 1866. 



tences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, 
to the point sometimes of obscurity. It follows that 
translation, as with Aristotle, must be to some extent 
paraphrase. The thirty sketches of ' Characters ' 
ascribed to Theophrastus, which have found many 
imitators, and which are well known in this country 
tiirough Sir R. Jebb's brilliant translation, stand on 
a quite different footing ; the object of this curious 
and anuisinir work is discussed in Sir R. Jebb's 
Introduction and in the more recent edition of 
Kdmonds and Austen. Well may Aristotle, as we 
are assured, have commended his pupil's diligence. 
It is said that, when he retired from the headship of 
the school, he handed it over to Theophrastus. We 
are further told that the latter was once prosecuted 
for impiety, but the attack failed ; also that he was 
once banished from Athens for a year, it does not 
appear under what circumstances. He was con- 
sidered an attractive and lively lecturer. Diogenes' 
sketch ends with the quotation of some sayings 
attributed to him, of which the most noteworthy 
are ' Nothing costs us so dear as the waste of time,' 
• One had better trust an unbridled horse than 
an undigested harangue.' He was followed to 
iiis grave, which we may hope was, in accordance 
with his own wish, in some peaceful corner of the 
Lyceum garden, by a great assemblage of his fellow 


The principal references in the notes are to the 

following ancient authors :- 














Apollonius, Historia Miraculorum. 

Aristotle. Bekker, Berlin, 1831. 

Arrian. Hercher (Teubner). 

Athenaeus. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1827. 

Columella, de re rustica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1794. 


Pedanius Dioscurides, de materia medica. Well- 

mann, Berlin, 1907. 
Geoponica. Beckh (Teubner), 1895. 
Nicander, Theriaca. Schneider, Leipzig, 1816. 
Palladius, de re rustica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1795. 
Pausanias. Schubart (Teubner), Leipzig, 1881. 
Plinius, Naturalis Hii^toria. Mayhoff (Teubner), 

1887. (Reference b}' book and section.) 
Plutarch. Hercher (Teubner), Leipzig, 1872. 
Scylax, Periplaa. Vossius, Amsterdam 1639, 




I. Tcoi^ (f)VTCt)V Ta9 ^ca(popa<; Koi rrjv aW>]i' 
(^vanv Xrjirreov Kara re ra fiepij KaX ra TrdOrj xai 
Ta<; y€V€(Tei<; koI tov<; ^lov^;- r}6r) yap koI Trpd^ei^ 
ovK 6-)(ovaLV wairep ra ^coa. elcrl 8' ai jiev KaTo 
Trjv yevecnv Kal ra TrdOr) koi tou? ^lou<; evOeoypr}- 
Torepau fcal paov<i, al he Kara ra [leprj irXeiovi 
exovai TTOLKiXia^;. avro yap rovro irpcorov ovx 
iKavQ)<; dcpcopLo-Tai ra irota hei /Jiept] Kal firj ^epi] 
KaXeiv, dX\' e;)^et rivd diropiav. 
•I To jJiev ovv jxepo'i are ck tt)? tSta? ^i^crew? 6v dei 
BoK€L Siafieveiv r) avrXw? t) orav yevi^rai, KaOaTrep 
€P T0?9 ^(ooi^ rd varepov yevi^aofjieva, irXrjv ei t/ 

^ TO ins. Sch., om. Ald.H. 

^ ndBT}, a more general word than Supd/nets, 'virtues': 
cf. 1. 5. 4 ; 8. 4. 2 ; it seems to mean here something like 
• behaviour,' in relation to environment. Instances of W(i6ii 
are given 4. 2. 11 ; 4. 14. 6. 

3 ixov<ri conj. H. ; «x<'«'«^'*' ^^- ^^^^ Aid. 



Or THE Parts of Plants and their Composition. 
Of Classification. 

Introductory: How plants are to be classified; diffi.cxdty 
of defining what are the essential ^ jmrts^ of a plants 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to animals. 

I. In considering the distinctive characters of 
plants and tlieir nature generally one must take 
into account their ^ parts, their qualities,^ the 
ways in which their life originates, and the course 
which it follows in each case : (conduct and activities 
we do not find in them, as we do in animals). Now 
the differences in the way in which their life origin- 
ates, in their qualities and in their life-history are com- 
paratively easy to observe and are simpler, while 
those shewn 2 in their '^ parts' present more com- 
|)lexity. Indeed it has not even been satisfactorily 
determined what ought and what ought not to be 
called * parts,' and some difficulty is involved in 
making the distinction. 

Now it appears that by a ^ part.' seeing that it is 
something which belongs to the plant's characteristic 
nature, we mean something which is permanent either 
absolutely or when once it has appeared (like those 
parts of animals which remain for a time undeveloped) 


Sm voaov rj <yr]pa<; rj Tnjpwaiv airo^aXkeraL, twv 
V €V T0?9 <^f TOi? evia TOiavT ea-TLv war iirereiov 
€X€iv TTjv ovaiav, olov dv6o<i ^pvov (pvWov 
Kap7r6<;, aTrXw? oaa irpo rwv Kapircov rj a/ia 
yiveraL to2<; Kapirolv eVt he avro^ 6 ^Xaaro^' 
alel yap i7ri(f)v<rtv Xafx^dvei ra BevBpa Kan 
iviavTov 6fiOL(o<; ev re toU avo) /cat iv toU irepl 
Ta(; pi^a<;' ware, el fiev ti<; ravra Oija-et p^eprj, to 
re TrXrjOof; aopicxTOV earai Kal ovheirore to avro 
royv fjLOpLcov el B^ av firj fieprj, av/jb^'^aeTai, Si* mv 
rekeia ylverai Kal (pauperai, ravra fir] elvai fJiep-ty 
^Xacrrdvovra yap Kal OdWovra Kal Kapirov 
h^ovra irdvra KaWlo) Kal reXetorepa Kal Bokcl 
Kal eanv, ai fiev ovv diropiai a)(^eB6v elaiv 
3 Ta^a Be ov')(^ 6/jLOL(o<^ diravra ^rjrrjreov ovre 
ev TOt? dXXoLf; ov0* ocra tt/oo? rrjv yevecnv, 
avrd re rd yevvoifieva /Jiepi] Oereov olov rov<; 
KapiTovf;. ovBe yap rd e/x^pva r(ov ^cocov. el 
Be ev Tjj wpa o-^^ev rovro ye KaXXiarov, 

^ i.e. the male inflorescence of some trees ; the term is 
of course wider than 'catkin.' 

" i.e. flower, catkin, leaf, fruit, shoot. 


— permanent, that is, unless it be lost by disease, age 
or mutilation. However some of the parts of plants 
are such that their existence is limited to a year, for 
instance, flower, ' catkin,' ^ leaf, fruit, in fact all 
those parts which are antecedent to the fruit or else 
appear along with it. Also the new shoot itself must 
be included with these ; for trees always make fresh 
growth every year alike in the parts above ground 
and in those which pertain to the roots. So that if 
one sets these ^ down as ' parts,' the number of parts 
will be indeterminate and constantly changing ; 
if on the other hand these are not to be called 
' parts,' the result will be that things which are 
essential if the plant is to reach its perfection, and 
which are its conspicuous features, are nevertheless 
not ' parts ' ; for any plant always appears to be, as 
indeed it is, more comely and more perfect when it 
makes new growth, blooms, and bears fruit. Such, 
we may say, are the difficulties involved in defining 
a 'part,' 

But perhaps we should not expect to find in 
plants a complete correspondence with animals 
in regard to those things which concern repro- 
duction any more than in other respects ; and so 
we should reckon as ' parts ' even those things 
to which the plant gives birth, for instance their 
fruits, although ^ we do not so reckon the unborn 
young of animals. (However, if such * a product seems 
fairest to the eye, because the plant is then in its 
prime, we can draw no inference from this in 

^ oiiSe yap : ovSe seems to mean no more than ov [cf. neque. 
enim = non entm) ; yap refers back to the beginning of the §. 

* iv TTJ &pa 6\l/€t tovtS ye I conj.; rp &pa oypei r6 ye vulg. 
W. ; toCto, i.e. flower or fruit. 


ovSev GiffjieloVy eVel koI tmv ^olxdv evOevel ra 

HoWa he koI to, fJikp-q Kar iviavTov airo- 
^ciWei, KaOuTTep oi re €\a(f)oi ra Kepaja koI 
ra ^(joXevovja ra irrepa Koi rpbxci'i Terpdrroha' 
war ovSev dronov aXXco? re /cal o/jlolov ov tw 
(f)vX\o^o\eLV TO 7rdOo<;. 

'OcrauTW? 8' ovhe rd tt^o? rrjv yeveaLV eVel Kal 
€V Tot? ^(iiOL^ rd /lev avpeKTiKTerai rd 8' diro- 
KaOalperai KaOdirep uWoTpia t?}? (f)vaea><;. eotfce 
he TrapairXrjaioo^ Kal rd irepl rrjv ^Xdari-jaLv 
e')(eiv. 7] jdp TOL ^XdaTy]aL<; 'yeveaew^ x^ipiv earl 
rr](; TeXeia<^. 

"OXft)? he KaOdirep eiTro/jiev ouhe irdina 
6/jLOlco(; Kal iirl toov ^(ocov XrjwTeov. hi' o Kal 6 
dpiOpo^i dopiaro'^' TravTa^rj jdp ^Xaarr/riKov 
are Kal 7rapra)(^T] ^wv. ware ravra fxev ovr(i)<; 
VTroXriTTTeov ov fiovov et? rd vvv dXXd Kal rwv 
/leXXovTcov ')(apLV' oaa ydp /jLtj olov re d(f)o- 
fiOLOvv irepiepyov to 'fK.iyeGdai irdvTw^, 'iva /x?) 
KoX TTjv OLKeiav diro^aXXco/jiev Oewpiav. rj he 
[(TTopia Twz^ (pVTMV €(TTLv o}<; aTrXco? elirelv rj KaTd 

^ €v6epu conj. Sch., €u06Tei UMVAld. i.e. we do not 
argue from the fact that animals are at their handsomest 
in the breeding season that the young is therefore ' part ' of 
the animal. 

^ Lit. 'which are in holes,' in allusion to the well-known 
belief that animals (especially birds) which are out of sight 
in the winter are hiding in holes ; the text is supported by 
[Arist.] de plantis 1. 3, the author of which had evidently 
read this passage ; but possibly some such words as ras re 
ipoKiSas Kal have dropped out after <pu\€vovTa, 



support of our argument, since even among animals 
those that are with young are at their best.^) 

Again many plants shed their parts every year, 
even as stags shed their horns, birds which hiber- 
nate 2 their feathers, four-footed beasts their hair : 
so that it is not strange that the parts of plants 
should not be permanent, especially as what thus 
occurs in animals and the shedding of leaves in 
plants are analogous processes. 

In like manner the parts concerned with repro- 
duction are not permanent in plants ; for even 
in animals there are things which are separated 
from the parent when the young is born, and 
there are other things ^ which are cleansed away, 
as though neither of these belonged to the animal's 
essential nature. And so too it appears to be with 
the growth of plants ; for of course growth leads up 
to reproduction as tlie completion of the process.* 

And in general, as we have said, we must not assume 
that in all respects there is complete correspondence 
between plants and animals. And that is why the 
number also of parts is indeterminate ; for a plant has 
the power of growth in all its parts, inasmuch as it 
has life in all its parts. Wherefore we should assume 
the truth to be as I have said, not only in regard to 
the matters now before us, but in view also of those 
which will come before us presently ; for it is waste 
of time to take great pains to make comparisons 
where that is impossible, and in so doing we may 
lose sight also of our proper subject of enquiry. 
The enquiry into plants, to put it generally, may 

^ i.e. the embryo is not the only thing derived from the 
parent animal which is not a ' part' of it ; there is also the 
[ood-8upply produced with the young, and the after-birth. 

♦ cf. C.P. 1. 11. 8. 



ra e^co fiopia kol rrjv oKrjv fiopcj^rjv rj Kara to. 
ivT6<^, WGirep eirl rcop ^cocov ra eK royv avaroficav. 
6 ArjTrreov S' iv avTol<^ ttoIol t€ Traaiv v7rdp')(^€L 
ravra koX irola iBia KaO^ e/caarov y€vo<i, en Be 
rcov avTwv ttolu ofioia' Xeyco 8' olov <f)vWov pl^a 
(j)\oi6<;. ov Bel Be ovBe tovto XavOdvetv ei rt Kar 
dvako'yiav Oecopyreov, wcnrep eVt tmp ^cocov, rrjv 
dva<^opav 'jroiovfievov<; Br]\ov on 7rp6<i ra ep- 
^epearara koX reXeiorara. koX dirXoi^ Be oaa 

TOiV iv <pVTOL<; d^OfJLOLCOTeOP TW ev T01<s ^Ci)Ol<^, ft)9 

dv Tt? Tw 7' dvdXoyov d(pop.oioL. ravra [lev ovv 
BiwpLcrOa) rov rpoirov rovrov. 
At Be rcov p,epwv Bia(j)opal a-)(eBov 0)9 tuttw 
Xa^elv elcnv ev rpialv, rj rw rd fiev e')(eiv 
rd Be p^rj, KaOdrrep ^vWa Koi Kapirov, rj rep 
p,r) op,oia p,r]B€ Xca, tj rpirov ra> p,r] 6yu.ot&>s\ 
rovrcov Be rj p,ev dpop^oLorrj^; opii^erai (T^7]p,aTi 
')(^pd)p,ari irvKvonjrL pLavori-jn rpa)(^vrrjrL Xetorrjri 
Ka\ ro2<; dWoL<; irdOeatv, en Be oaat Biacpopal 
rcov ')(xjk(iov. 7) Be dvL(jorr]<^ hrrepoyrj Ka\ eXXeLyjrei 
Kara 7rXrjOo<; rj p,ey66o<i. &>? S' elirelv rvirw 

^ A very obscure sentence ; so W. renders the MSS. text, 
* I.e. 'inequality' might include ' unlikeness.' 



either take account of the external parts and the 
form of the plant generally, or else of their internal 
parts : the latter method corresponds to the study of 
animals by dissection. 

Further we must consider which parts belong to 
all plants alike, which are peculiar to some one 
kind, and which of those which belong to all alike 
are themselves alike in all cases ; for instance, leaves 
roots bark. And again, if in some cases analogy 
ought to be considered (for instance, an analogy 
presented by animals), we must keep this also in 
view ; and in that case we must of course make the 
closest resemblances and the most perfectly de- 
veloped examples our standard ; ^ and, finally, the 
ways in which the parts of plants are affected must be 
compared to the corresponding effects in the case of 
animals, so far as one can in any given case find an 
analogy for comparison. So let these definitions 

The essential parts of plants, and the materials of tohich 
they are made. 

Now the differences in regard to parts, to take 
a general view, are of three kinds: either one plant 
may possess them and another not (for instance, 
leaves and fruit), or in one plant they maybe unlike 
in appearance or size to those of another, or, thirdly, 
they may be differently arranged. Now the unlike- 
ness between them is seen in form, colour, closeness of 
arrangement or its opposite, roughness or its opposite, 
and the other qualities ; and again there are the 
various differences of flavour. The inequality is seen 
in excess or defect as to number or size, or, to speak 
generally, ^all the above-mentioned differences too 


KuKelva Trnvra KaO^ vTrepo'^^ijv kol eWei'^iv to 

7 yap fidWov kol i]Ttov v7r6poj(ri koI eX/Vei-v/r^?' to 
he fir) 6poiw<^ ttj Oeaet Si,a(f)6per \e7&) 8' oiov ro 
Tou? Kapnov^ ra pev eirdvoi ra 8' viroKarw tmv 
(f)uXko)v ex€iv Kal avTou tov SevBpov ra piev ef 
aKpov ra 8e i/c tmv irXaylcov, evLa he Kal €k tov 
o-reXe^oL'?, olov y AlyvirTia avKuptvo'^, Kal oaa By) 
Kal VTTO 7/79 ^epeu Kapirov, olov r) re apa-)(ihva Kal 
ro ev AlyvTrro) KaXoupuevov oviyyov, Kal el ra pev 
ep^et pLiG-)(ov ra he pt], Kal eVt rcjv avOecov 6poiw<;' 
ra puev yap irepl avrov rov Kapirov ra he aXX&)9. 
oX6t)9 he ro tt}? Oeaeco<; ev rovTOL<i Kal rol<i (})vWol<; 
Kal ev Tot9 ^XaaroU Xyirreov. 

8 ^La<^epeL he evia Kal rfj rd^ei- ra pev m 
eVu^e, T>}9 S' eXdrrjf; ol «:X&)^'69 Kar dWrjXov; 
eKarepcoOev rcov he Kal ol o^oc hi* I'crov re Kal 
Kar dpiOpov laoi, KaOdirep rcov rpio^wv. 

'^ flare Ta9 pev hi.acjyopd'i €K rovrcov Xyirreov e^ 
MV Kal 7) oXt] pop(f)7] avvhyXovrai KaO' eKaarov. 
d Avra he ra pieprj hLapL0p,r]crapevov<; rreipareov 
irepl CKdarov Xeyeiv. ean he irpwra pev Kal 
p^eyiara Kal Koivd rcov irXelarcov rdhe, pu^a 
KavXo<; uKpepcov KXdho'^, 6t9 a hieXoir dv ri<; 

1 cf. G.P. 5. 1. 9. 

2 f/. 1. 6. 11. T. extends the term KapnSs so as to 
include any succulent edible part of a plant. 

^ T. does not consider that KapnSs was necessarily ante- 
ceded by a flower. 



are included under excess and defect: for the ' more ' 
and the ' less ' are the same thing as excess and 
defect, whereas ' differently arranged ' implies a 
difference of position ; for instance, the fruit may 
be above or below the leaves/ and, as to position on 
the tree itself, the fruit may grow on the apex of it 
or on the side branches, and in some cases even on 
the trunk, as in the sycamore ; while some plants 
again even bear their fruit underground, for in- 
stance arakhidna^ and the plant called in Egypt 
ningon ; again in some plants the fruit has a stalk, in 
some it has none. There is a like difference in the 
floral organs : in some cases they actually surround 
the fruit, in others they are differently placed ^ : in 
fact it is in regard to the fruit, the leaves, and the shoots 
that the question of position has to be considered. 

Or again there are differences as to symmetry * : 
in some cases the arrangement is irregular, while the 
branches of the silver-fir are arranged opposite one 
another ; and in some cases the branches are at 
equal distances apart, and correspond in number, as 
where they are in three rows.^ 

Wherefore the differences between plants must 
be observed in these particulars, since taken together 
they shew forth the general character of each plant. 

But, before we attempt to speak about each, we 
must make a list of the parts themselves. Now the 
primary and most important parts, which are also 
common to most, are these — root, stem, branch, twig ; 
these are the parts into which we might divide the 
plant, regarding them as members,^ corresponding to 

* Plin. 16. 1-22. 5 i.e. ternate. 

' i.e. if we wished to make an anatomical division. fi4\r) 
conj. Sch. c/. 1. 2. 7 ; n^pv Aid. 



Mairep et? fieXr], Kaddirep iirl rwv ^oiwv. eKaaroi 
re yap dvo/ioiov koI i^ diravTaiv tovtcov to, o\a. 

"EcTTt Se pl^a [lev hi ov rrjv rpo^i^v eirdyeTai, 
Kav\o^ he eh o c^eperai, KavXov he Xeyco to vTrep 
7^9 7re^VKo<; e'c/)' ev tovto yap KOivorarov oiioioi^ 
€7reTeto£9 Kal ')(popLOL<;, o iirl rwv hevhpwv 
KaXeirai crreXe^^o?* dKp€/iivva<; Be tol'9 utto 
Tovrov axi'^ofievov<;, ou? evioc KaXovaiv o^ov^. 
KKahov he to ^XdarTj/xa to eK tovtcov e^' ev, olov 
fidXiaTa TO eireTeiov. 

Kal TauTa pev ol/ceLOTepa tmv hevhpwv. 

10 o he KavXo^;, wairep etprjTat, KoivoTepo'^' 6)^€i 
he ov irdvTa ovhe tovtov, olov evia tmv ttolw- 
ha)v. TCL 8' €')(ei fiev ovk del he dlOC eireTeiov, 
Kul 6<Ta ')(povi(t)Tepa Tat9 pi^aL<i. oXco^ he 
'TroXv')(pvv TO (j)VTOv Kal itolklXov Kal '^aXeTrov 
elireXv KaOoXov o-ijpelov he to p.^]hev elvat kolvov 
Xa/Belv o irdaiv uirdp^ei, KaOdirep T0t9 ^cooi^ 

11 GTopia Kal KOiXia. to, he dvaXoyia TavTO, to, K 
dXXov TpoTTOv. ovTe yap pi^av irdvT e%e£ ovTe Kav- 
Xov ovT€ uKpep^ova ovts KXdhov ovts cf)vXXov ovtc 
av6o<i ovTe Kapirov out av <^Xolov rj p^rjTpav rj lva<; 7) 
(l)Xe/3a<i, olov p,VK7]<; vhvov iv tovtol^ he rj ovala 
Kal iv TOL^ TOiovTOi^' dXXct p^dXiaTa TavTa 

^ i.e. before it begins to divide. ^ Or ' knots.' 

» i<p' conj. W. 

Xpoviurrcpa conj. Sch.; XP°^^'^'^^P°^ Ald.H 
' avaXof'iCL conj. Sch. ; avaKoyia UAld. H. 



the members of animals : for eacli of these is distinct 
in character from the rest, and together they make 
up the whole. 

The root is that by which the plant draws its 
nourishment, the stem that to which it is eon- 
ducted. And by the ^ stem ' I mean that part 
which grows above ground and is single ^ ; for that 
is the part which occurs most generally both in 
annuals and in long-lived plants ; and in the case 
of trees it is called the 'trunk.' By 'branches' 
I mean the parts which split off from the stem and 
are called by some 'boughs.'- By 'twig' 1 mean 
the growth which springs from the branch regarded 
as a single whole,^ and especially such an annual 

Now these parts belong more particularly to 
trees. The stem however, as has been said, is more 
general, though not all plants possess even this, 
for instance, some herbaceous plants are stemless ; 
others again have it, not permanently, but as an 
annual growth, including some whose roots live beyond 
the year.* In fact your plant is a thing various and 
manifold, and so it is difficult to describe in general 
terms : in proof whereof we have the fact that we 
cannot here seize on any universal character which 
is common to all, as a mouth and a stomach are com- 
mon to all animals ; whereas in plants some characters 
are the same in all, merely in the sense that all 
have analogous ^ characters, while others correspond 
otherwise. For not all plants have root, stem, branch, 
twig, leaf, flower or fruit, or again bark, core, fibres 
or veins ; for instance, fungi and truffles ; and yet 
these and such like characters belong to a plant's 
essential nature. However, as has been said, these 



V7rdp)(ei, KaOdirep el'prjrai, to?? Su'Spoi<; KaKUVwv 
oiKCLOTepo'^ /xepia-fio's' tt/oo? a koX rr)v dvac^opav 
Tojv dWwv TTOLelaOai hiKaiov. 
12 S^eSoi^ Se Kol Td<^ dWa<; /jLop(pd<^ e/cdaTa^v 
ravra BLaay]/jLaLveL. hiacpepovcn yap TrX/jOec tm 
Tovrcov KOL oXiyoTrjTL Kol TTVKvoTyTL Kol fiavo- 
T7]TL KOL rw icf €V rj et9 TrXcLO) ax'i'^eaOai Ka\ 
roL(; dWoL^; tol'^ oijlolou;. can Be eKaarou rwv 
elpTjjjievwv ov)(^ o/noio/iepes' Xe7a) Se ovx ofioio- 
/jL€pe<i OTL i/c Twv avTMv fiev OTLOvv [iepo<^ avy- 
K€LTai rrj's pt^^;? kol rod (xreXei^ou?, dX)C ov 
XeyeraL crreXe^o? to XyjcfjOev dXXd fiopiov, co? 
iv Tot9 Tcov ^d)CL>v /xeXcalv iariv. iic tmv avTMV fiev 
yap OTLOVV t^9 Kvy]/X'r]<; rj tov dy/ccovo^, ov^ 
6/jid)pv/JL0v Se KaOdirep adp^ Kal oarovv, dXX^ 
dvdjvu/jLOV' ovSe Brj to)v dXXcov ovS€vo<i oaa p-ovo- 
eLhr) TMv opyavLKOiV dirdvrwv yap tu>v tolovtcoi' 
dvd)vvp,a rd /u-e^/;. tmv Se iroXveihoyv oivopbaap^eva 
KaOdrrep iroho<; ')(^eipo<^ K6(f)aXri<;, olov SdKTvXo<i 
ph o^OaXpLo^. Kal rd jxev pieyiara p-epr) ax^^ov 
ravrd iariv. 

11. "AXXa 8e ef wv ravra cf)XoLO<; ^v\oi> p,7]rpa, 
oaa e^ei pir^rpav. rravra 6' 6p.OLop.epP]. Kal ra 
TOVTcov Be en rrporepa Kal i^ wv ravra, vypov i? 

1 There is no exact English equivalent for bfxoiofi^pfs, 
which denotes a whole composed of parts, each of which is, 
as it were, a miniature of the whole, cf. Arist. H.A. 1.1. 

* i.e. any part taken of flesh or bone may be called 
' flesh' or ' bone.' 

^ e.g. bark ; c/. 1. 2. 1. * e.g. fruit. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. i. ii-ii. i 

characters belong especially to trees^ and our 
classification of characters belongs more particularly 
to these ; and it is right to make these the standard 
in treating of the others. 

Trees moreover shew forth fairly well the other 
features also which distinguish plants; for they exhibit 
differences in the number or fewness of these whicli 
they possess, as to the closeness or openness of their 
growth, as to their being single or divided, and in 
other like respects. Moreover each of the characters 
mentioned is not '^ composed of like parts'^; by 
which I mean that though any given part of the root 
or trunk is composed of the same elements as the 
whole, yet the part so taken is not itself called 
' trunk,' but ^a portion of a trunk.' The case is the 
same with the members of an animal's body ; to 
wit, any part of the leg or arm is composed of the 
same elements as the whole, yet it does not bear the 
same name (as it does in the case of flesh or bone -) ; 
it has no special name. Nor again have subdivisions 
of any of those other organic parts^ which are uniform 
special names, subdivisions of all such being nameless. 
But the subdivisions of those parts "^ which are 
compound have names, as have those of the foot, 
hand, and head, for instance, toe, finger, nose or eye. 
Such then are the largest ^ parts of the plant. 

II. Again there are the things of which such parts 
are composed, namely bark, wood, and core (in the 
case of those plants which have it *^), and these are 
all ^ composed of like parts.' Further there are 
the things which are even prior to these, from which 

' i.e. the ' compound ' parts. 

^ ^vXov fxriTpa conj. W. from G. u-qTpa ^vKov MSS. 
^vKoy, '6aa conj. W. ; \vKa, r) '6<ra Ald.H. 



(f>\€-\^ adp^' dpxal yap avrar irXi^v et tl<; Xeyoc 
ra<; tcov (TTOiyeicdv Bvvd/jb€i<i, avrat he Koival irdv- 
Twv. rj fiev ovv ovaia koX rj oXrj <pvaL<; iv rovTOL<^. 

"AWa S' iarlv axrirep iTrereia fxeprj rd irpb^ 
rrjv KapiroTOKiav, olov (j)vWov dvdo^ yLttcr;^09* 
TOVTO 8' iarlv w awrjpTy^rai tt/qo? to (^vtov to 
(pvWou Kol 6 KapiTo^' en he [^'Xi^] /Spvop, ol<i 
vTrdpXGi, fcal inl irdai airepfxa to tov Kapirov' 
Kap7ro<i S* eVrt to o-uyfcev/ievov aireppa fxeTa tov 
irepiKapTTiov. irapd he TavTa evicav Ihia aTTa, 
Kaddirep rj Kr)K\<; hpvb<; koI rj eXi^ dfiTreXov. 

Kal TOL'; fiev hevhpeaiv eaTiv ovtw^ hiaXa/Seiu. 
Tot? 5' eVeretot? hrjXov o)? diravTa eVeTeia* 
jxexpi ydp Tcbv KapTTMV i) (pvcn<;. oaa hr] eireTeio- 
Kapira koX oaa hieTi^eL, KaOdirep aeXivov Kal dXX' 
aTTa, KOL oaa he TrXeico ;j^poz/oi/ e%et, TovTOL<i 
diraai Kal 6 KavXo<i dKoXovOrjaei KaTa Xoyow 
OTav yap aTrepfiocpopelu p,€XXcoai, t6t€ eKKavXov- 
aiv, o)? evGKa tov a7repixaT0<^ ovrcov tcov KavXcov. 

TavTa fxev ovv TavTrj htDprjadco. tmv he dpTt 
elprj/ievcov fxepoiv ireipaTeov eKaaTOv elirelv tl 
eaTLV &)? ev tvtto) XeyovTa^. 

To /jtev ovv vypov (^avepov o hrj KaXovai Tive'i 
aTrXco'i ev diraaiv oirov, wairep kol MeveaTcop, ol 

* oviria conj. Sch. (but he retracted it) ; (Tvvovotia MSS. (?) 

2 This definition is quoted by Hesych. s.v. fiiaxos. 
' '! om. €'a<|, which is mentioned below. 

* rh crvyKiijxevov airepfxa, lit. 'the compound seed,' i.e. as 
many seeds as are contained in one vepiKapinov. 



they are derived — sap, fibre, veins, flesh : for these 
are elementary substances — unless one should prefer 
to call them the active principles of the elements ; 
and they are common to all the parts of the plant. 
Thus the essence^ and entire material of plants 
consist in these. 

Again there are other as it were annual parts^ 
which help towards the production of the fruit, as 
leaf, flower, stalk (that is, the part by which the 
leaf and the fruit are attached to the plant),^ and 
again tendril,^ ' catkin ' (in those plants that have 
them). And in all cases there is the seed which 
belongs to the fruit : by ' fruit ' is meant the seed 
or seeds,* together with the seed-vessel. Besides 
these there are in some cases peculiar parts, such 
as the gall in the oak, or the tendril in the vine. 

In the case of trees we may thus distinguish the 
annual parts, while it is plain that in annual plants all 
the parts are annual : for the end of their being is 
attained when the fruit is produced. And with 
those plants which bear fruit annually, those which 
take two years (such as celery and certain others ^) 
and those which have fruit on them for a longer time 
— with all these the stem will correspond to the 
I)lant's length of life : for plants develop a stem at 
whatever time they are about to bear seed, seeing 
fhat the stem exists for the sake of the seed. 

Let this suffice for the definition of these parts : 
and now we must endeavour to say what each of the 
parts just mentioned is, giving a general and typical 

The sap is obvious : some call it simply in all cases 
'juice,' as does Menestor^ among others : others, in 

* c/. 7. 1.2 and 3. * A Pythagorean philosopher of Sybaris. 



6' €V fJL€v TOt? dWoL<i avcDVVfxw^ iv Se Tiaiv oirov 
KoX iv aX\oL<; BaKpvov. Ive^ Be koI 0Xe^e? KaO"" 
avra fxev avcovvfjia tP) Be ofjLOiorrjri, /jLerdXa/Ji^d- 
vovat TMV iv TOfc? ^o)OL^ ixopiwv. e^et Be tVct)? 
KoX ak\a<i Biacf)opa^ koI Tavra kol o\(t)<^ to twv 
<}>vt6!)v <yevo<;' iroXv-^ovv yap loairep elpriKapLev. 
aXyC eVet Blcl tcov yvcopLficoripcov /jLeraBtcoKeiv Bel 
ra dyvoipiara, yvcopi/xcoTepa Be rd fiei^o) kol i[x- 
(pavfj rfj alaOyaeL, BrjXov on KaOdirep v<prjyj]Tai 

4 Trepl rovTcov XcKreov iiravacjiopdv yap e^ofiei' 
TMV dWcov TTyOo? Tavra fie'^pi' irocrov Kal ttw? 
eKaara fxeTe')(eL t>}? o/jLOLOTrjrc;. elXruijievcov Be 
TMV pbepoyv fierd Tavra XTjirreov ra? tovtcov 
Bia<j)opd<;- ovTCO? yap djia Kal rj ovaia (j^avepd 
Kal i) oXrj TMV yevcov tt/jo? dXXi]Xa BidcrTacri^. 

'H fiev ovv TOiV /jLeyi(TT(ov o-')(eBov etprjTar Xeyw 
8' olov pi^'y]'i KavXou tmv dXXwv at yap Bvvdfi€L<; 
Kal o)V xdpLV GKaaTOV vaTepov prjOrjaovTai. i^ 
MV yap Kal ravTa Kal ra dX\a crvyKeiTai 
ireipaTeov elirelv dp^afievov^; diro twv TrpcoToyv. 

Upcora Be iaTi to vypov kol Oepfiov dirav yap 
(pVTOV e%et Tivd vypoTrjTa Kal OepjioT^^Ta avjx- 
(f)VT0v coairep Kal ^coov, cov vTroXenrovTcov yiveTat 
yrjpa<^ Kal ^Oicn^iy TeXeto)? Be xjTroXnrovTwv Odva- 

5 T0<; Kal avav(TC<;. iv fxev ovv rot? rrXeicTTOL^i dvco- 

^ Lit. ' muscles and veins.' 

^ i.e. the analogy with animals is probably imperfect, but 
is useful so far as it goes. 

* 1. 1. 10. * e.g. the root, as such. 

^ e.g. the different forms which roots assume. 



the case of some plants give it no special name, while 
in some they call it 'juice/ and in others 'gum.' 
Fibre and ' veins ' ^ have no special names in relation 
to plants, but, because of the resemblance, borrow 
the names of the corresponding parts of animals. ^ It 
may be however that, not only these things, but the 
world of plants generally, exhibits also other differ- 
ences as compared with animals : for, as we have 
said,^ the world of plants is manifold. However, 
since it is by the help of the better known that we 
must pursue the unknown, and better known are the 
things which are larger and plainer to our senses, 
it is clear that it is right to speak of these things in 
the way indicated : for then in dealing with the 
less known things we shall be making these better 
known things our standard, and shall ask how far and 
in what manner comparison is possible in each case. 
And when we have taken the parts,^ we must next 
take the diff'erences which they exhibit,^ for thus 
will their essential nature become plain, and at the 
same time the general differences between one kind 
of plant and another. 

Now the nature of the most important parts has 
been indicated already, that is, such parts as the 
root, the stem, and the rest : their functions and the 
reasons for which each of them exists will be set forth 
presently. For we must endeavour to state of what 
these, as well as the rest, are composed, starting from 
their elementary constituents. 

First come moisture and warmth : for every plant, 
like every animal, has a certain amount of moisture 
and warmth Avhich essentially belong to it ; and, if 
these fall short, age and decay, while, if they fail 
altogether, death and withering ensue. Now in 



vv/jio<; T) vypoTT]';, ev evioL^ he aovofutcr/jLevT] KaOd-nep 
eiprjraL. to avro Be fcal iirl tmv ^cocov V7rdp)^6i' 
liovTj yap /; tcov evaifjbwv vypoTrj^ wPOfiaaTai, 8i 
o KoX hirjprjTaL irpo'i tovto crTeptjaer to, fiev yap 
dvaLfia rd 8' evaip^a Xeyerai. ev ri /lev ovv tovto 
TO /jLepo<; Kal to tovtw avvripTif^evov Oepjiov. 

"AXXa 8' jJSt? eTepa twv ivTo^, a fcaO' eavTa fiev 
icTTiv dvcovvfia, Sid Be tt]v ofioioTrjTa direiKd^eTai 
T0t9 rwv t^diwv pLopioL<i. €\^ovaL ydp cocnrep Iva^- 
6 iaTi avve^e<s Kal a^t'O'Top Kal irrifjirjKe^, dirapd- 
/SXaaTOP Be Kal d^XaaTov. eVt Be </)\e/5a9. avTat 
Be Ta fiev dXXa elalv ofioiat ttj Ivi, fieL^ov; Be Kal 
'Tra')(yT€pai Kal 7rapa^XdaTa<; e)(ovaai Kal vypo- 
TrjTa. eVi ^vXov Kal adp^. Ta puev ydp e^^^ 
crdpKa ra Be ^vXov. ecFTi Be to fiev ^vXov crx^^- 
Tov, T) Be crdp^ irdvTrj BiaipeiTai Manep yr) Ka\ 
oaa yrj<;' fieTa^u Be yiveTai lvo<^ Kal ^Xe/So?" 
(j)av€pd Be T) cj)v(TL<; aurT/? iv dX')\0L<i re Kal ev rot? 
Tcov TrepLKapiTLcop Bep/jLacn. (f)Xoio<; Be Kal [xrjTpa 
KvpLcof; jiep XeyeTaiy Bel Be avTd Kal tw Xoyw 
Biopiaai. (f)Xoio<i fiep ovp eVrt to ea')(^aTop Kal 
^wpLCTTov Tov viTOKet jievov acofiaTo<;. fjn'^Tpa Be 
TO ficTa^u TOV ^vXov, TpiTOP aTTo TOV (f)Xoiov olov 
€P TOi? 6(TT0L<i jiiveXo^. KaXovac Be Tipe^ tovto 

' 7r\6/(TTOjj conj. Mold.; irplrois Ald.H. ^ 1. 1. 3. 

^ o.Trapa/SXao-Toi' conj. R. Const. ; d7rapa;8ArjTor UMVAld. 

* tTi 5e conj. W. ; <exov Aid. ^ Fibre. 

* i.t. can be split in one direction. 
' e.g. an unripe walnut. 



Jiiost ^ plants the moisture has no special name, but 
in some it has such a name, as has been said 2 : and 
this also holds good of animals : for it is only the 
moisture of those which have blood which has 
received a name ; wherefore we distinguish animals 
by the presence or absence of blood, calling some 
'animals with blood,' others 'bloodless.' Moisture 
then is one essential ' part,' and so is warmth, which 
is closely connected with it. 

There are also other internal characters, which in 
themselves have no special name, but, because of 
their resemblance, have names analogous to those of 
the parts of animals. Thus plants have what 
corresponds to muscle ; and this quasi-muscle is 
continuous, fissile, long : moreover no other growth 
starts from it either branching from the side ^ or 
in continuation of it. Again * plants have veins : 
these in other respects resemble the ' muscle,' ^ but 
they are longer and thicker, and have side-growths 
and contain moisture. Then there are wood and 
flesh : for some plants have flesh, some wood. Wood 
is fissile,^ while flesh can be broken up in any 
direction, like earth and things made of earth : it is 
intermediate between fibre and veins, its nature being 
clearly seen especially in the outer covering''' of 
seed-vessels. Bark and core are pro})erly so called,^ 
yet they too must be defined. Bark then is the 
outside, and is separable from the substance which it 
covers. Core is that which forms tlie middle of the 
wood, being third ^ in order from the bark, and 
corresponding to the marrow in bones. Some call this 
part the ' heart,' others call it ' heart-wood ' : some 

' i.e. not by analogy with animals, like ' muscle,' * veins,' 
' flesh.' * Reckoning inclusively. 


KapBlav, ol S' ivT€pL(ovr}v' evioL he to evTO<; Tr]<; 
fM7]Tpa^ avTr}<s KapSuav, ol Se /iveXov. 

Ta fiev ovv /xopia (j-)(eh6v icm roaavra. avy- 
KciraL Se ra varepov eV royv TTporepoiV ^v\ov 
fiev ef tVo9 Kal uypov, Koi evia aaprco^' ^yXovrai 
yap aKkrjpvvopevrj, olov ev rol'; (^olvl^l kol vdp- 
0)]^L Kal €i TL aWo i/c^vXovTai, coawep al rcor 
pa(f)avLSa)V pi^af pr^rpa Be i^ vypov kol aapKO's' 
<p<,OLO<; Be 6 fiev Ti? eK Trdvrcov tmv rpcwv, olov 6 
tt}? Bpvo^ KOL alyeipov Kal diriov' 6 Be Trj<i dfi- 
TTeXov e^ vypov Kal lv6<;' 6 Be rod (peWov €k 
(TapKO<i Kal vypov. jtuXlv Be eK tovtcov avvOera 
TO. peyuara Kal irpoira prjOevra KaOanepavel 
fieXr], TrXrjv ovk eK tcjp avrcov ircivra ovBe cocrav- 
Tft)9 ciXXa BLa(j)6p(o<;. 

F,iXr}/jLp,€va)V Be irdvTwv tmv popiwv w? elirelv 
Ta? TOVTwv Bi,a(f)opa<s Tveipareov ciiroBiBovai Kal 
Ta? oX(ov TMV BevBpcov Kal (^vroiv ovaia^. 

III. 'Evret Be avplSaivet aa(f)€arepav elvau t}]v 
pbaarjCTLV Biaipovfievcov Kara etBr], koXm^ e^^L 
TovTO iroielv i<p^ wv evBe-x^erai. irpSiTa Be eari 
Kal p^eyiara Kal a')(eB6v vcj)' wv Trdvr rj rd 
TrXelara Trepicx^raL rdBe, BevBpov 6dpLvo<^ <ppv- 
yavov TToa. 

AevBpov p,ev ovv icm to diro pl^r)<; popoareXe)(€^ 

^ (ptWov conj. H.; (pvWov UVP2P3Ald. ; (pvWov M. 

^ i.e. root, stem, branch, twig : cf. 1. 1. 9. 

•' (ra(p^aT4pav conj. W. ; aacpeaTepou Altl. 

* elfSrj here = 76Vr; ; rf. 6. 1. 2. n. 

^ irdvT" f] conj. Sch. after G ; TrarxTj UMVAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. ii. 6-111. i 

again call only the inner part ot the core itself 
the 'heart,' while others distinguish this as the 
' marrow.' 

Here then we have a fairl}^ complete list of the 
'parts,' and those last named are composed of the first 
'parts' ; wood is made of fibre and sap, and in some 
cases of flesh also; for the flesh hardens and turns to 
wood, for instance in palms ferula and in other 
})lants in which a turning to wood takes place, as in 
the roots of radishes. Core is made of moisture and 
flesh : bark in some cases of all three constituents, 
as in the oak black poplar and pear ; while the 
bark of the vine is made of sap and fibre, and that 
of the cork-oak ^ of flesh and sap. Moreover out of 
these constituents are made the most important 
parts,2 those which I mentioned first, and whicli may 
be called 'members' : how^ever not all of them are 
made of the same constituents, nor in the same 
proportion, but the constituents are combined in 
various ways. 

Having now, we may say, taken all the parts, we 
must endeavour to give the differences between them 
and the essential characters of trees and plants taken 
as w^holes. 

Definitions of the various classes into ivhich plants may be 

III. Now since our study becomes more illumin- 
ating 2 if we distinguish different kinds,^ it is well to 
follow this plan where it is possible. The first and 
most important classes, those which comprise all 
or nearly all ^ plants, are tree, shrub, under-shrub, 

A tree is a thing which springs from the root with 



TToXv/cXaSoi' o^MTov ovK evaTToXvTov, olov iXda 
avKTj ainreXo<^' Odfivo^ he to diro pi^rj^ ttoXv- 
KXahov, olov l3dT0<i iraXiovpo'^. (^pvyavov he to 
diTo pL^V'^ 'TToXvareXex^^i koX TroXvKXaBop olov 
Kal Ovfx^pa Kol ir/^yavov. irba Se to diro pi^i]^ 
(f>vXXo(})6pov irpolov daTeXex^^, ^^ ^ Arai'Xo? airep- 
p.o(f)6po<;, olov 6 crtTO? kol to, Xd^ct-va. 

2 Ael he tou? opov^ ovtclx; aTrohexea-dat Kal Xa/x- 
^dveiv &)? TVTTM Kai eiri to ttclv Xejofievov^;' evta 
yap L<Tco<; eiraXXdTreiv ho^eie, tcl he kol irapd ttjv 
dy(oyt]V dXXoLOTepa yiveadai Kal eK^alveiv r?}? 
(fivaeo)<;, olov /xaXd^V '^^ f^? i^'^o? dvayojievr] 
Kal dirohevhpovfJLevrj' av/bi^aLvei yap tovto Kal 
OVK ev TToXXfp XP^'^V <^^^' f'^ ^^ V ^'^'^ci firjaiv, 
MCTTe jJLrjKo^ Kcil Trd^o^i hopaTtatov yiveaOat, hi* o 
Kal ^aKT7]pLai<i avTal^ ^^/xwi^ra^ irXeiovo'^ he %/3o- 
vov yivo/J-evov KaTO, Xoyov ?; dirohoai'^' ofiolw^; 
he Kal eVl tmv TevTXcov Kal yap TavTa Xafi^dvet 
fjLey€6o<;' ert he fidXXov ay vol Kal 6 TraXiovpo^; 
Kal 6 kitt6<;, mctO' 6fjLoXoyov/jLeva)<; TavTa ylveTai 

3 hevhpa' Kai tol Oa/xvajhr] ye iaTiv. 6 he fivppLVo<i 
fiv dvaKaO aupo fxevo^ eK0afivovTaL Kal r) rjpaKXefo- 
TLKrj Kapva. hoKel he avTr} ye Kal tov Kapirov 
/SeXTtft) Kal TrXelo) (fyepeiv edv pd^hov^ Ti? ea 

^ eiiivos . . . TTT^yavov. AV.'s text transposes, without 
alteration, the definitions of 6d/iivos and (ppvyavov as given 
in U. (ppvyavov h\ rh airh yL^rjs Kal TroAucrTeAexes Kal Tro\vK\aSov 
olov 0dTos iraxiovpos, Aid. So also M, but with a lacuna 
marked before (ppvyavov and a note that the definition of 
6d.iJ.vos is wanting. <ppvyaPov Se tJ> airb ^i^tjs Kal no\v(rTf\ex(s 
Kol iroXvKKaiov oTou Kal ydfiBpri Kal irrjyavoi'. Bdfxvos St airh 1)1^7)$ 
iroKvKkaZov olov ^dros naXiovpos U. So also very nearly P1P2. 
G gives to Qdfxvos {frntex) the definition assigned in U to 
Kppvyavov (eiiffnitex) and the other definition is wanting. 


a single stem, having knots and several branches, 
and it cannot easily be uprooted ; for instance, olive 
fig vine. ^A shrub is a thing which rises from the 
root with many branches ; for instance, bramble 
Christ's thorn. An under-slu'ub is a thing which 
rises from the root with many stems as well as many 
branches ; for instance, savory ^ rue. A herb is a 
thing which comes up from the root with its leaves 
and has no main stem, and the seed is borne on the 
stem ; for instance, corn and pot-herbs. 

These definitions however must be taken and 
accepted as applying generally and on the whole. For 
in the case of some plants it might seem that our de- 
finitions overlap ; and some under cultivation appear 
to become different and depart from their essential 
nature, for instance, mallow ^ when it grows tall and 
l)ecomes tree-like. For this comes to pass in no long 
time, not more than six or seven months, so that in 
length and thickness the plant becomes as great as a 
spear, and men accordingly use it as a walking-stick, 
and after a longer period the result of cultivation is 
proportionately greater. So too is it with the beets ; 
they also increase in stature under cultivation, and so 
still more do chaste-tree Christ's thorn ivy, so that, 
as is generally admitted, these become trees, and yet 
they belong to the class of shrubs. On the other 
hand the myrtle, unless it is pruned, turns into a 
shrub, and so does filbert "* : indeed this last appears 
to bear better and more abundant fruit, if one leaves 

Note that W.'s transposition gives koI . . . /col the proper 
force; § 4 shews that the typical (ppvyapov in T.'s view was 

- evjxBpa conj. W.; yafx^ti-q MSS. But the first «ral being 
meaningless, W. also suggests aiav^x^piop for koL yd/xfiprf. 
3 r/. Plin. 19. 62. •* cf. 3. 15. 1. 



TrXeiof? W9 T>}? cf)va€U)<; 6a/xP(i)Bov<; oucr;;?. ov 
IJLOVoaTe\e')(e<^ 5' av ho^eiev ov8' 77 fiyjXea ovS^ ?} 
/DOta OLiS' »7 aiTLO^ elvai, ovK 6\a)<i oaa irapa^Xa- 
(TrrjTLKa airo tmv pi^Mv dWa rfj dyojyfj rotavra 
Trapaipovjievojv tmv ciXXcov. euia Be kol iaxri 
7roXvcTr6\€)(r) Sea XeTTTorrjra, KaOdirep poav 
fxrfkeav icoai Be kol Td<; eX«a? KOirdBa^ fcal Td<^ 

Td-^a 8' dv Ti? (pal^j kol oXw? fieyedet kol /il- 
KponjTL Biaipereov elvai, rd Be Icrx^'' '^^^^ daOeveia 
KoX iroXvxpoviorrjTi, kol oXiyoxpopiorrjri. tmv re 
yap (f)pv<yaP(JL>B(bv koI Xaxavf^Boyv evia fiovo- 
aTeXexv Kal dlov BevBpov (pvcTLV e^ovra yiverai, 
KaOdirep pd^avo<; ir^jyavov, 66ev kol /caXoval 
Tive^ rd TOiavra BeyBpoXd^ava, rd re Xa^avdiBi] 
Trdvra rj rd irXelara orav iyKarafielvrj Xa/x/SdveL 
Tivd<^ warrep aKpepiova^ Kal yiverat ro oXov ev 
(TXVjxaTL BevBpd)BeL ttXyjv oXtyoxpovidyrepa. 

Aid Br] ravra Mairep Xeyofiev ovk aKpi^oXoyij- 
reov TM optp dXXa tm tvttm XrjTrreov tov^ 
d(f}opt,a/jiov<;' eireX Kal rd<; Biaipeaei<; 6/jL0La)<;, olov 
r}/j,ep(ov dyplwv, KapTTOCpopcov dKdpircov, dvOochopcov 
dvavOoyv, deixpvXXcou (pvXXo^oXcov. rd filv ydp 
dypia Kal ypepa rrapd tj]V dycoyr^v elvai BoKer 
irdv ydp Kal dypiov Kal I'lixepov (f)^]<TLP "Yttttcov 
yiveaOai Tvyydvov t) /jLtj rvy^dvov Oepaireia'^. 

* i.e. so that the tree comes to look like a slirub from the 
growth of fresh shoots after cutting, cf. 2. 6. 12 ; 2. 7. 2. 

2 l>a.<pavo% conj. Bod. from G ; pa<pai>\s Aid. 
» cf. 3. 2. 2. The Ionian philosopher. See Zeller, Pre 
Socradr Philosophy (Eng. trans.), 1. 281 f. 

* Koi add. W.; soO. 

^ ^ conj. Sch.; koX UAld.Cam.Bas.H. 



a good many of its branches untouclied, since it is by 
nature like a shrul). Again neither the apple nor the 
pomegranate nor tlie pear would seem to be a tree of 
a single stem, nor indeed any of the trees which have 
side stems from the roots, but they acquire the char- 
acter of a tree when the other stems are removed. 
However some trees men even leave with their 
numerous stems because of their slenderness, for in- 
stance, the pomegranate and the apple, and they 
leave the stems of the olive and the fig cut short.^ 

Exact classification impracticable: other 2)ossible bases oj 

Indeed it might be suggested that we should 
classify in some cases simply by size, and in some 
cases by comparative robustness or length of life. 
For of under-shrubs and those of the pot-herb 
class some have only one stem and come as it were 
to have the character of a tree, such as cabbao'e - 
and rue : wherefore some call these Hree-herbs'; and 
in fact all or most of the pot-herb class, when 
they have been long in the ground, acquire a sort 
of branches, and the whole plant comes to have a 
tree-like shape, though it is shorter lived than a tree. 

For these reasons then, as Ave are saying, one 
must not make a too precise definition ; we should 
make our definitions typical. For we must make 
our distinctions too on the same principle, as 
those between wild and cultivated plants, fruit- 
bearing and fruitless, flowering and flowerless, 
evergreen and deciduous. Thus the distinction 
between wild and cultivated seems to be due 
simply to cultivation, since, as Hippon ^ remarks, 
any plant may be either* wild or cultivated ac- 
cording as it receives or ^ does not receive attention. 



cLKapira 8e koX KapiTL^ia kol avdo(f>6pa koX avavdij 
irapa roi"? tottol'? kol tov aepa rov trepLe^ovTa- 
rov avTOV he rpoirov koI (fivWo^oXa koi aei- 
^vWa. irepl yap ^K\e(f)avTLPrjv ovde Ta<i dfiTreXov^ 
ovSe ra<i avKd<; (f)aat (fivWo^oXeiv. 
^ ^AX>J 6p.o)<; TOiavTa Siaipereov' 6%et yap tl t?}? 
cf)va€a)<; kolvov oyLtoto)? eV hevhpOL's fcal OupLvoL^ Ka\ 
Tot9 (^pvyaviKo2<; KaX TroicohecrLV' inrep cop Kal ra? 
alTLa<i orav Ti? X^yrj irepl ttcivtwv KOLvfj hrfK.ov on 
XeKTeov ov')(^ opi^ovra KaO' CKaarov evXoyov Be 
Kal ravra^ KOLva<; elvai rrdvrwv. ap.a Se Kal 
(paLperai riva e-^etv ^vaLK7]v hiacpopdv evOii^ eV) 
Twr dypiwv Kal tcov r)p,€po)v, elirep evia firj Bvva- 
rat t,riv Mcnrep tcl yewpyovp.eva puyB' oXw9 he^erai 
Oepaireiav aXXa x^^P^ yiverai, KaOdirep eXdr)] 
irevKy] Kifkaar pov Kal dirXco^ oaa yp^v^pov'; tottou^ 
(f)LXeL Kal ')(^iov(oSeL<;, (joaavTu><i Be Kal tmv ^pvyavt- 
KO)V Kal iroLwBoiv, olov KaTTTrapi^ Kal depjj,o<;. 
rjfiepov Be Kal aypiov BiKaiov KaXelv dvacfyepovra 
7r/909 re ravra Kal 6Xco<; Trpo? to rj/jLepcorarov' [6 
8' dvOpwTTO^ i) jxovov i) pudXtara ijpLepov.^ 

IV. ^avepal Be Kal Kar avra^ rd<i /jiop(pa<; ai 
Biaf^opal roiv oXa>v re Kal pLopiwv, olov Xeyco 

* avdocpopa koI avavOrj conj. Sch. from G ; KapvSfopa &p9r] 
P2Ald. 2 (.f^ 1. 9. 5 ; Plin. 16. 81. 

^ TOLavra 'COnj. W. ; Staiperfov conj. Sch.; to7s av7o7s 
alperfov Aid. The sense seems to be : Though these 
' secondary ' distinctions are not entirely satisfactory, j^et 
(if we look to the caiises of different characters), they are 
indispensable, since they are due to causes which affect all 
the four classes of our 'primary' distinction. 

* I.e. we must take the extreme cases. 

' i.e. plants which entirely refuse cultivation. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. iir. 5-iv. i 

Again the distinctions between fruitless and fruit- 
bearing,! flowering and flowerless, seem to be due 
to position and the climate of the district. And 
so too with the distinction between deciduous and 
evergreen. ^ Thus they say that in the district of 
Elephantine neither vines nor figs lose their leaves. 

Nevertheless we are bound to use such dis- 
tinctions.2 For there is a certain common character 
alike in trees, shrubs, under-shrubs, and herbs. 
Wherefore, when one mentions the causes also, 
one must take account of all alike, not giving 
separate definitions for each class^ it being reasonable 
to suppose that the causes too are common to all. 
And in fact there seems to be some natural difference 
from the first in the case of wild and cultivated, 
seeing that some plants cannot live under the 
conditions of those grown in cultivated ground, 
and do not submit to cultivation at all, but de- 
teriorate under it ; for instance, silver-fir fir holly, 
and in general those which affect cold snowy 
country ; and the same is also true of some of the 
under-shrubs and herbs, such as caper and lupin. 
Now in using the terms ' cultivated ' and ' wild ' 
* we must make these ^ on the one hand our standard, 
and on the other that which is in the truest sense *^ 
' cultivated.' "^ Now Man, if he is not the only 
thing to which this name is strictly appropriate, is at 
least that to which it most applies. 

Differences as to appearance and habitat. 
IV. Again the differences, both between the plants 
as wholes and between their parts, may be seen in 

* SAwj Trpbj rb. ? Trpbs tI '6Xu)S conj. St. 
' i 8' 6.vdpc>}Tros . . . TfiiJ.€pop. I have bracketed this clause, 
which seems to be an irrelevant gloss. 



/i€y€0o<; KoX fiiKp6rri<;, (T/c\r]p6rt]<i /jLaXaKOTr)-;, 
\eL6r7)<; T/^a^urr/?, <p\oLou <f)vX\(i>i' tmv aXXwv, 
aTrXw? evfiopcpla koI Sva/xopipLa tl<^, en he kol 
KaXkLKapiTia kol KaKOKapiria. TrXeiw p,ev <yap 
Bofcel ra dypta cf)ep€Lv, wairep a^pa<; kotlvo^, koX- 
\i(o he TO, rjfiepa kol TOv<i %l'Xou? he avroi)^ 
jXvKvrepovi; koX rjhiov; kol to 6\ov o)? elirelv 
evfcpdrov^ fiaWov. 

Avrai re ht] (pva-iKal rive^ wairep el'pyrai hia- 
(jiopai, KOL en hrj fidWov tmv uKapTTcov kol Kapno- 
(f)6p(0P Kal (})vWo^6\fjL)V KOL a€i(f)vX\cL>v kol ocra 
aXKa TOiavTa. ttcivtcov he Xr^ineov ae\ fcal ra? 
Kara tol"? tottou?* ov yap ovh^ olov re i(rci)<; 
aXXct)?. al he roiavrai ho^aiev av yeviKov nva 
TTOielv ')^copi(TfjL6v, olov ivvhpwv Kal ')(epaaiwv, wcnrep 
eul TCt)v ^(jtiwv. eaTL yap evia rwv cf)VT(ov a ov 
hvvaraL /xt] ev vypfo ^rjv hir/prjTaL he dWo Kar 
aXXo yevo<; roiv vypcov, ware to, fiev ev reXfiaai 
ra he ev \ip.vaL<^ ra 8' ev Trorapot^; ra he Kal ev 
avTrj TTJ OaXdriT] (fyveaOat, to, p,ev eXdrrco Kal ev 
rfi Trap rjpLV ra he pel^co Trepl rrjv epvOpuv. evia 
he oiairepel KciOvypa Kal eXeia, KaOdirep Iria kol 
rrXdravo';, ra he ouk ev vhan hwdfieva ^tjv ovh' 
oXft)9 dXXd hidiKOvra roii^i ^ypov'^ roirov^' rcov h' 
eXarrovcdV eanv a Kal rov<; alytaXoixi. 

^ Kar' avra? tols conj. Sch. ; Kal ri t' auras raj U ; Karo 
ravras tols MVAld. 

2 ndvTwv . . . t6ttovs, text perhaps defective. 

3 i.e. as to locality. * cf. 4. 7. 1. 



tlic appearance itself' of the plant. I mean difi'erences 
such as those in size, hardness, smoothness or their 
opposites, as seen in bark, leaves, and the other 
parts ; also, in general, differences as to comeliness 
or its opposite and as to the production of good or ot 
inferior fruit. For the wild kinds appear to bear 
more fruit, for instance, the wild i)ear and wild olive, 
but the cultivated plants better fruit, having even 
flavours which are sweeter and pleasanter and in 
general better blended, if one may so say. 

These then as has been said, are differences of 
natural character, as it were, and still more so are 
those between fruitless and fruitful, deciduous and 
evergreen plants, and the like. But with all the 
differences in all these cases we must take into 
account the locality ,2 and indeed it is hardly possible 
to do otherwise. Such ^ differences would seem to 
give us a kind of division into classes, for instance, 
between that of aquatic plants and that of plants of 
the dry land, corresponding to the division which we 
make in the case of animals. For there are some 
plants which cannot live except in wet ; and again 
these are distinguished from one another by their 
fondness for different kinds of wetness ; so that some 
grow in marshes, others in lakes, others in rivers, 
others even in the sea, smaller ones in our own 
sea, larger ones in the Red Sea.* Some again, one 
may say, are lovers of very wet places,^ or plants 
of the marshes, such as the willow and the plane. 
Others again cannot live at all ^ in water, but seek 
out dry places ; and of the smaller sorts there are 
some that prefer the shore. 

' i.e. though not actually living in water, 

*> oii5' '6Xws conj. W.; iv rSvrois Ald.H. Minime G. 


3 Ou [Jir)v aXXa koI tovtwv el Tt<; uKpi^oXo- 
yelaOat OeXoi, ra /jLeu av evpoL kolvcl kol Mcnrep 
a/jL(l)i^ia, KaOdirep fivpiKrjv Ireav Kki]9paVy ra he 
Koi t€)v opoXoyov/jbivcov ')(epaai(iiv '7re<pv/c6ra irore 
ev rfi OaXdrrr) ^lovv, c^oivLKa aKuXXav dvOepiKOv. 
ciXXd ra roiavra koI 6Xci)<; to ovtco aKoirelv ovk 
olK6La)<; earl (JKoirelv ovSe yap ovS' r; (pvai<; ov- 
Tco? ovh^ ev TOi? TOLOvTOi^; e;^et to dvayicalov. Td<i 
/xev ovv SiaLpeaea fcal oXw? ttjv IcTTopiav twv (f)u- 
Tcov ouTO) XijTTTeov. [aTTavTa 8' ovv Ka\ TavTa Kal 
ra dXXa SioiaeL KaOdirep eLprjrac Tal<^ re tmv 
6Xo)v /jLop^aL<; Kal rat? tcoi^ /j,opLcov 8ia(jiopaL<;, rj 
T(p ex^i-v TO, Se p.7] e^eiv, r) Ta> rrXelo) ra 8' 
eXdrrw, rj rw dvopoiw^ i) oaoL rpoiroi Sirjprjvrai 

4 irporepov. oIkgIov he taoi<i kol Tov<i tottou? avp- 
rrapaXap^dveiv ev ot? eKaara 7re(f)VK€v r) py 
7r€(f)UKe jiveaOai. peydXy] yap Kal avrrj hiacpopd 
Kal ov')(^ rjKKTTa OLKeta tmv ^vtcov hid to crvvr/p- 
Tr}(j6aL TTJ yfj Kal p,T] diroXeXvaOaL KaOdirep 
Ta ^wa.] 

V. IleipaTeov S' elirelv rd^ Kard pepo<^ hta- 
(f)opd<; o)? dv KaOoXov XeyovTa<; irpwrov kol koivm^;, 

^ e4\oi conj. Sch.; fle'Acj Ald.H. 

"^ fupoi conj. Sch.; evprj Aid. ; (vpr) H. 

3 Presumably as being sometimes found on the shore below 
high-water mark. 

■* a-nai'Ta . . . (coa. This passage seems not to belong 

* Tp6nui conj. Sch. ; tJjtoi UMVAld. 



However, if one should wish ^ to be precise, one 
would find ^ that even of these some are impartial 
and as it were am})hibious, such as tamarisk willow 
alder, and that others even of those which are 
admitted to be plants of the dry land sometimes live 
in the sea,^ as palm squill asphodel. But to con- 
sider all these exceptions and, in general, to consider 
in such a manner is not the right way to proceed. 
For in such matters too nature certainly does not 
thus go by any hard and fast law. Our distinctions 
therefore and the study of plants in general must be 
understood accordingly. ^ To return — these plants 
as well as all others will be found to differ, as has 
been said, both in the shape of the whole and 
in the differences between the parts, either as to 
having or not having certain parts, or as to having 
a greater or less number of parts, or as to having 
them differently arranged, or because of other dif- 
ferences ^ such as we have already mentioned. And 
it is perhaps also proper to take into account the 
situation in which each plant naturally grows or 
does not grow. For this is an important distinc- 
tion, and specially characteristic of plants, because 
they are united to the ground and not free from 
it like animals. 

Characteristic dijferences in the parts of plants, ivhether 
general, special, or seen in qualities and properties. 

V. Next we must try to give the differences as 
to particular parts, in the first instance speaking 
broadly of those of a general character,*^ and then 

' i.e. those which divide plants into large classes [e.y. 
evergreen and deciduous). 



€LTa read' e/caarov, varepov iirl irXelov waTTcp 

"EcTTt Se ra pbh opdocpvrj Kal p^aKpoareXexv 
KaOciTrep iXdrr] Trev/crf KvirdpLTTO^, ra he gko- 
Xicorepa Kal /9/3a;\;f crreXe;)^?/ olov irea avKrj poid, 
Kal Kara 7ra;)^o? Be Kal XeTrronira ofioiwi;. 
Kal TToXiv rd pLev pLOvoareXexv '^^ ^^ woXv- 
areXe^V touto Se ravro rpoirov nvd Kal rw 
Trapa/SXacrrt-jriKd t] dirapd^Xaara eJvar Ka\ 
TToXvKXaSrj Kal oXcyoKXaSa KaOdirep 6 cfiotvL^, 
Kal ev avroL^ rovrot^; en Kara ia')(yv rj 7ra;^09 i) 
2 T«<> roiavra<^ hia(^opd<^. rrdXiv ra pLev Xeirro- 
(f)Xoia, KaOdrrep Sd(f)vr] (piXvpa, rd Se 7ra'XV(f)Xoia, 
KaOdrrrep Spv<i. en rd puev XeiocpXoia, KaOdirep 
pLijXea dUKj), rd 8e rpaxi'<j)Xoia, KaOdirep dypia 
Spv<; (f)eXX6<; (fyoivi^. irdvra he vea pcev ovra 
Xeio^Xotorepa, diro'yyipdaKovra he rpa')(y<^Xoi6- 
repa, evia he Kal f)t]^i(f)Xoia, KaOdirep dpiTreXo';, rd 
he Kal &)? rrepLTTLTrreiv, olov dphpd')(Xt] prjXea 
K6piapo<;. eart he Kal rcov puev aapKcohyj^i 6 (fiXoio^, 
olov (f)€XXou hpvo<; alyeupov' rwv he lvcoh^]<; Kal 
d(TapKO<; opLOLco^i hevhpwv Kal OdpLVcov Kal eirereiwv, 
olov dpLireXov KaXdpov irvpov. Kal rcjv puev 
TToXuXoTTO?, olov (^iXvpa^i eXdrr)^; dpLireXov Xlvo- 
airdprov Kpo /.ivcov, rwv he pLovoXo7ro<^, olov avK)}^ 

' i.e. taking account of differences in qualities, etc. See 
§ 4, but the order in which the three kinds of ' differences ' 
are discussed is not tliat which is here given ; the second is 
taken first and resumed at 6. 1, the third begins at 5. 4, the 
first at 14. 4. 

2 ravrh conj. Sch. ; avrh UMVPAld. 

' Tpaxv(p\ot6Tepa conj. H. from G ; 'naxv<p. UMAM. 
rf. Plin. 16. I'ilJ. 



of special differences between individual kinds ; and 
after that we must take a wider range, making as it 
were a fresh survey.^ 

Some plants grow straight up and have tall stems, 
as silver-fir fir cypress ; some are by comparison 
crooked and have short stems, as willow fig pome- 
granate ; and there are like differences as to degree 
of thickness. Again some have a single stem, others 
many stems ; and this difference corresponds ^ more 
or less to that between those which have side- 
growths and those which have none, or that between 
those which have many branches and those which 
have few, such as the date-palm. And in these 
very instances we have also differences in strength 
thickness and tlie like. Again some have thin 
bark, such as bay and lime ; others have a thick 
bark, such as the oak. And again some have 
smooth bark, as ap])le and fig ; others rough bark, 
as 'wild oak' (Valonia oak) cork-oak and date-palm. 
However all plants when young have smoother 
bark, which gets rougher ^ as they get older ; and 
some have cracked bark,^ as the vine ; and in some 
cases it readily dro})s off, as in andrachne apple ^ 
and arbutus. And again of some the bark is fleshy, 
as in cork-oak oak poplar ; while in others it is 
fibrous and not fleshy ; and this applies alike to trees 
shrubs and annual plants, for instance to vines 
reeds and wheat. Again in some the bark has more 
than one layer, as in lime silver-fir vine Spanish 
broom ® onions '^ ; while in some it consists of only 

* pr)^l(p\oia conj. St.; piCi(poia (?) U ; 
(pxoia PgAld. cf. 4. 15. 2, Plin. I.e. 

' liirjXea conj. H. Steph., etc.; V7)\ela 
l\V. cf. Plin. I.e. 

* G appears to have read Klvov, (nraprov. 

piii^Xoia P. 

; ^.Co- 



' cf. 5. 

1 6. 



KoXdfiov aipa<;. Kara /jl€V St) tov^ ^Xoiov^i eV 
TovroL<; at hLa<^opaL 

'YCiv he ^v\(ov avTcov kol oXco'i twv KavXwv ol 
fiev elcTi (rapKcoSei^;, olov Spvo<; gvktj^, kol twv 
eXaTTovwv pdfivov revrXov Kwveiov' ol he daapKoi, 
KaOdrrep KeBpov Xcotov KvirapiTTOv. kol ol [lev 
ivciihei's' ra <ydp t?}9 eX-axi;? /cal rod ^oivlko<; ^vXa 
Toiavra' ra Be diva, KaOdirep tt)? avKr]<;. coaav- 
T&)9 Be KOL rd fxev cpXe/ScoBr] rd 5' d(j)Xe^a. Trepl 
Be rd ^pvyavLKd Kai OafivcoB)] /cal oXw? rd vXi]- 
/juara /cal dXXa<; Ti? dv Xd^8oi Bia<f)opd<;' 6 /xev 
yap /cdXa/jiO<; yovarcoBe^, 6 Be ySaro? Kal 6 
TraXiovpo'^ d/cavdcoBr]. y) Be TU(f)i] Kal evia rcov 
eXeloiv rj Xtpvaiwv opoiw^ dBi,d(ppa/CTa /cal opaXr), 
Kaddirep cr^oFi'o?. o Be rov Kvireipov Kal /Souto- 
fxov KavXo<i opaXorrjrd riva e%ei irapd rovrov^' 
en Be pdXXov co-w^ 6 rod p.VK7]T0^, 

Kvrai pev Bjj Bo^aiev dv e'f wv r] avvOecri^. al 
Be Kard rd irdOj] Kal Td<; BvvdpeL<; olov aKXy- 
p6rr)<i paXaKOT'y]'; <yXi(TXpoT7]<; Kpavpory^; <7rvKv6- 
T^9> pavoTT)^; KovcpoTT]^ ^apvTi)^ kol\ 6(xa dXXa 
roiavra' rj pev ydp Irea Kal ')(Xwpov ev()v KOv<pov, 
Mairep 6 <^eXX6<^, i) Be 7rv^o<; Kal ?} ejSevo^ ovBe 
avavdevra. Kal rd pev a^l^eTai, KaOdirep rd rr}? 

^ pd/ixvov conj. W.; Bdfivov Pg ; BaKavov Akl.H. 

'^ Kwviiov conj. Sch.; Kojviov Ald.U (corrected to Kwvdou). 
cf. 7. 6. 4. 

» 8c &iva conj. Son from G. ; Se ^Iva U ; Se fiavd AM. ; 
0^ . . , va M. 

* v\rifxaTa conj. Sch. (a general ^ernl including shrubs, 
under-shrubs, etc. r/. 1. 6. 7 ; 1. 10. 6) ; Khv^iara, Aid. 



one coat, as in fig reed darnel. Such are the 

respects in which bark differs. 

Next of the woods themselves and of stems 
generally some are fleshy, as in oak and fig, and, 
among lesser plants, in buckthorn ^ beet hemlock ^ ; 
u hile some are not fleshy, for instance, prickly cedar 
nettle-tree cypress. Again some are fibrous, for of 
this character is the wood of the silver-fir and the 
date-palm ; while some are not fibrous,^ as in the 
fig. In like manner some are full of ' veins,' others 
veinless. Further in shrubby plants and imder- 
shrubs and in woody plants ^ in general one might 
find other differences : thus the reed is jointed, 
while the bramble and Christ's thorn have thorns on 
the wood. Bulrush and some of the marsh or pond 
plants are in like manner"* Avithout joints and smooth, 
like the rush ; and the stem of galingale and sedge 
has a certain smoothness beyond those just men- 
tioned ; and still more perhaps has that of the 

Differences as to qiialities and properties. 

These then would seem to be the differences in 
the parts which make up the plant. Those which 
belong to the qualities ^ and properties are such as 
liardness or softness, toughness or brittleness, close- 
ness or openness of texture, lightness or heaviness, 
and the like. For willow-wood is light from the 
first, even when it is green, and so is that of the 
cork-oak ; but box and ebony are not light even 
when dried. Some woods again can be split,^ such 

' bfioiws, sense doubtful ; dfiwyv/xuv conj. W. 
• irden, cf. 1. 1. 1 n. 

' axK^Tai conj. W.; <rx"''^«''^« UMVAld.; <rx«o'To H. : 
fissilea G. 



iXdrrj^;, ra 8e evOpavara /xaXXor, olov ra tt)*^ 
eXaa9. koI to. fiev do^a, olov ra t^? a^rf;?, ra Be 
o^coSr}, olov ra t/}? irevKi]'; kol i\drr)<;. 
5 Ael Be Kal Ta^; roiavTa<; iiiroXa^^dveLV •/?}? 
(f>vaeo)<;. eva^Larov fiev yap rj iXciTrj r& ev6v- 
TTopeiv, evOpavarov Be rj iXda Blci to aKoXiov Kal 
(TKXypov. euKa/jLTTTOv Bt 1] (f)L\upa Kal oaa dWa 
Bid TO yXiaxpav e^eiv Trjv vyporrjTa. ^apv Be 7} 
fiev TTu^o? Kal rj e^evo<; on irvKvd, y Be Bpv^ on 
jecoBe^. a)(TavTco<; Be Kal rd dWa irdvra irpo's 
TTjv ^vatv TTO)? dvdyeTac. 

VI. Aiacpepovac Be Kal ral^ ixrjTpai,^' irpoiTOv 
fiev el evia e'X^et rj fir) e^^ef, KaOdirep rti^e? (paaiv 
dXXa re Kal ryjv dKTr}V' eTreira Kal ev avroU 
TOL^ ex^ovar rcov fiev ydp ian aapKcoBt]^; rcov 
Be ^v\(t)Bi]<i rcov Be v/x€vcoBt]<;. Kal aapKoyBi)^ 
fiev olov d/nreXou avKfj^i fi7]\ea<; poid<i a/CTvyv 
vdp9i)K0<;. ^v\d}B7](; Be ttituo? eXar??? Trei^/c?;?, 
Kal fidXiara avrrj Bid rb €vBaBo<; elvai. rovTcov 
S* en aKXriporepau Kal irvKvorepaL Kpav€La<i 


2 Aia(})epovai Be avral Kal tol^; 'X^pcofiaar 
fieXaivau ydp t?}? ejBevov Kal t^9 Bpv6<i, fjv KaXovai 
fieXdvBpvov. diraaai Be (TKXy]p6T€paL Kal Kpavpo- 

' i.e. break across the grain. ivdpavcrTa mP ; i^Opavara 
VVk\a.;fra(jilis{}. cf. 5. 5, Plin 16. 186. 
2 iLo(a conj. Palm, from G ; Ao|a UPAld 
' i.e. across the grain. •* cf. 5. 6. 2. ^ rj. 5. 1.4. 

^ T. appears not to agree as to elder : see below. 



as that of the silver-fir_, while others are rather break- 
able,^ sucli as tlie wood of the oHve, Again some 
are without knots/ as the stems of elder, others 
have knots, as those of fir and silver-fir. 

Now such differences also must be ascribed to the 
essential character of the plant : for the reason why 
the wood of silver-fir is easily split is that the 
grain is straight, while the reason why olive-wood is 
easily broken^ is that it is crooked and hard. Lime- 
wood and some other woods on the other hand are 
easily bent because their sap is viscid.* Boxwood 
and ebony are heavy because the grain is close, and 
oak because it contains mineral matter.^ In like 
manner the other peculiarities too can in some way 
be referred to the essential character. 

Further ' special ' differences. 

VI. Again there are differences in the ^core' : in 
the first place according as plants have any or have 
none, as some say ^ is the case with elder among other 
things ; and in the second place there are differences 
between those which have it, since in different plants 
it is respectively fleshy, woody, or membranous ; 
fleshy, as in vine fig apple pomegranate elder ferula ; 
woody, as in Aleppo pine silver-fir fir ; in the last- 
named ^ especially so, because it is resinous. Harder 
again and closer than these is the core of dog- wood 
kermes-oak oak laburnum mulberry ebony nettle- 

The cores in themselves also differ in colour ; for 

that of ebony and oak is black, and in fact in 

the oak it is called 'oak-black'; and in all these the 

core is harder and more brittle than the ordinary 

' aZrr] conj. Sch.; uutt; UAld.; uut^ MV ; auTTjs 1*.^. 



repat rcov ^vXcov Be o koI oh\ vTTop,evov(jL 
Kafiin]v. fxaiorepaL 5e ai jiev al 8 ov. vjievoo- 
Sci? 8' ev /uL€V Tot? SevSpoi.<; ovk elalv rj ottuvlol, 
ev he Toi<i Oap-vooheai koI o\oi<i tol<; vXy^fxaaLV 
olov KaXdfjLO) re koI }'dp0)]KL Koi rol^i TOiovTOL<i 
elaiv, €^€i Be rrjv /irjrpau ra fiev /j.eydXr]p kol 
(pavepdv, ax? nrplvo^ Bpv<i koX TuXXa irpoeiprj- 
p,eva, TCL 5' d(^aveaTepai', olov eXda 7Tv^o<i' ov 
yap eaTiv d(pcopL(r/xeu7]v ovtm Xa^etv, dXXd kul 
(f)aaL TLve'i ov Kara to jxeaov dXXa Kara ro irav 
e^eiv codTG fi^] elvai roirov oipiafievov Bl o Kal 
evia ovB^ av Bo^eiev oXo)? e^civ' eVet Kal rov 
(f)0iVLK0<^ ovBcfiia (^aiverai Bia(f)opd Kar ovBev. 

i Aiacpepovai Be Kal ral's pl^ais. rd piev yap 
TToXvppi^d Kal paKpoppL^a, KaOdirep crvKfj Bpv^ 
irXdravo^- edv yap e)(U)aL tottov, e^' oaovovi' 
'Trpoep)(ovTaL. rd Be oXtyoppL^a, KaOdirep poid 
pirjXia' rd Be povoppi^a, KaOdirep eXdir) TvevKiy 
p,ov6ppL^a Be ouTO)?, otl pLiav p,eydX7]p ti]v eiV 
^dOo<; €')(ei pLKpd^ Be d-no ravryfi TrA-etou?. €)(^ovai 
Be Kal TMV pi] povoppi^wv evta Trjv €k rov peaov 
peyiarn^v Kal Kard ^dOov<i, oiairep dp,vyBaX7]' 
eXda Be piKpdv ravrrjv ra? Be dXXa'i pLel^ov^ Kal 
ft)? KeKapKLV(typeva<^. en Be rwv pev TTa-)(elai 
p,dXXov rcov Be dv(i3paXel<i, KaOdirep Bd(f)vi]<; iXda^;' 

4 rcov Be Trdaai Xeirrai, KaOdirep dpireXov. Bta- 
<f>epov(Ti Be Kal XetorrjrL Kal rpax^ryri Kal itukvo- 
rrjri. irdvrwv yap al pi^ai p^avorepai rcov dvo), 

* ^avciTepai ... of/ : text can liardly be sound, but sense is 
clear. '^ i.e. homogeneous. ^ Plin. IG. 127. 

■• 3. 6. 4 seems to give a different account. 
5 cf. C.P. 3. 23. 5, and KapKivd^^-qs C.P. 1. 12. 3 ; 3. 21. 5. 



wood ; and for this reason the core of tliese trees can 
not be bent. Again the core differs in closeness 
of texture.^ A membranous core is not common 
in trees, if indeed it is found at all ; but it is found 
in shrubl>y plants and woody plants generally, as in 
reed ferula and the like. Again in some the core is 
large and conspicuous, as in kermes-oak oak and 
the other trees mentioned above ; while in others it 
is less conspicuous, as in olive and box. For in these 
trees one cannot find it isolated, but, as some say, it 
is not found in the middle of the stem, being diffused 
throughout, so that it has no separate place ; and for 
this reason some trees might be thought to have no 
core at all ; in fact in the date-palm the wood is 
alike throughout.^ 

Differences m root. 

5 Again plants differ in their roots, some having 
many long roots, as fig oak plane ; for the roots of 
these, if they have room, run to any length. Others 
again have few roots, as pomegranate and apple, 
others a single root, as silver-fir and fir ; these have 
a single root in the sense that they have one long 
one ^ which runs deep, and a number of small ones 
branching from this. Even in some of those which 
have more than a single root the middle root is the 
largest and goes deep, for instance, in the almond ; 
in the olive this central root is small, while the 
others are larger and, as it were, spread out crab- 
wise.^ Again the roots of some are mostly stout, of 
some of various degrees of stoutness, as those of 
bay and olive ; and of some they are all slender, 
as those of the vine. Roots also differ in degree 
of smoothness and in density. For the roots of all 



iTVKvorepai he ciWai aWo)v kol ^vXcoSearepai- 
Koi al fiev IvcoSei^, co? ai t?}? iXdnjs^, al Se aapK- 
coBeK; fxaXkov, uyarrep al r?}? hpv6<;, al he olov 
6^a)Sei<; kol dvaavwhei'^, (oairep ai t% ekda^- 
TOVTO Be on ra? Xeina^; KaX fiLKpa<; ttoWcl^ 
€')(ovaL Kal aOpoa^' eirel Traaai ye KaX ravra^; 
dirocfyvouaiv o-tto tmv /xeyaXcov dX)C ov^ ofMOico'; 
d6p6a<; Kal TroXXa?. 

"EcTTf Be Kal ra fiev jSadvppL^a, KaOdirep Bpv^, 
TO, 5' e-TTiiroXaLoppL^a, KaOdirep e\da poid pajXea 
KV7rdpiTT0<;. ctl Be al fiev evOecai Kal 6fia\ei<;, 
al Be cTKoktai Kal TrapaWdrrovaaL' tovto yap 
ov iiovov orvpi^aivei Bta tou? tottol'? tw p,y 
evoBelv dXXa Kal tt)? (pvaeco^; avTr)<; eariv, coavep 
eVt tt}? Bd^vrj'^ Kal rrj^ eXda^- i) Be avKrj Kal rd 
Toiavra (t KoXiovrai Bia rb fir] evoBelv. 

5 " Kiraaav 8' efi/xrjrpoi KaOdirep Kal rd crreXe^j] 
Kal ol uKpefiove'^' Kal evXoyov diro Trj<^ dp-)(rjs. 
elal Be Kal al fiev 7rapa/3\aar)]TiKal et? to dvco, 
KaOdirep d/jL7reXov p6a<;, al Be dirapd^XacnoL, 
KaOdirep eiVarr;? KUTraptTTOv TrevKr}<^. al avral 
Be Biacpopal Kal tmp (fypvyaviKcov Kal tmv ttoicoBcov 
Kal Tcov dXXcov irXt-jV el oXcy? hvia fir) e^ei, 
KaOdirep vBvov fivKr/^; Tre^i? KspavvLOV. rd fiev 
iroXvppL^a KaOdirep irvpb<; rij)r) KpiO)], irdv to 
roLOVTO, KaOdirep elKa^ovaai^;- rd 5' oXiyoppi^a 

6 KaOdirep rd ^(eBpoird, a^eBou Be Kal rwv Xa'^av- 
wBmv tcl TrXelara fxovoppil^a, olov pd(^avo^ 

^ TT((is Kepavviov : ttv^os Kpdviov UMVAlcl. ; 7re(,'»s conj. Sell. 
from Athen. 2. 59 ; K€pavi^iov conj. W. cf. Plin. 3. o6 and 37, 
Juv. 5. 117. '^ flKuCovjais : word corrupt; so UMVAld. 

3 riin. 19. 98. 



plants are less dense than the parts above ground, 
but the density varies in different kinds, as also does 
the woodiness. Some are fibrous, as those of the 
silver-fir, some fleshier, as those of the oak, some are 
as it were branched and tassel-like, as those of the 
olive ; and this is because they have a large number 
of fine small roots close together ; for all in fact pro- 
duce these from their large roots, but they are not 
so closely matted nor so numerous in some cases as 
in others. 

Again some plants are deep-rooting, as the oak, 
and some have surface roots, as olive pomegranate 
apple cypress. Again some roots are straight and 
uniform, others crooked and crossing one another. 
For this comes to pass not merely on account of the 
situation because they cannot find a straight course ; 
it may also belong to the natural character of the 
plant, as in the bay and the olive ; while the fig and 
such like become crooked because they can not find 
a straight course. 

All roots have core, just as the stems and branches 
do, which is to be expected, as all these parts are 
made of the same materials. Some roots again have 
side-growths shooting upwards, as those of the vine 
and pomegranate, while some have no side-growth, 
as those of silver-fir cypress and fir. The same 
differences are found in under-shrubs and herbaceous 
j)lants and the rest, except that some have no roots 
at all, as truffle mushroom bullfist^ 'thunder-truffle.' 
Others have numerous roots, as wheat one-seeded 
wheat barley and all plants of like nature, for 
instance,^ .... Some have few roots, as legu- 
minous plants. 2 And in general most of the pot- 
herbs have single roots, as cabbage beet celery 



revrXov aeXivov XdiraOo'i' ttXijv evia Kal aTrn- 
(f>vdSa<; €)(€L fieyaka'^y olov to creXivov koX lo 
revTXov Kal o)? av Kara Xoyov ravra ^aOvppi^- 
orepa tmv hevhpwv. elcrl he tmv fiev aapKooheL^, 
Kaddirep pac^avlho^i joyyvXLSo<i dpov KpuKov 
Tcov Be ^vXcoSeif;, olov ev^cofiov coAri/xof Kal tmv 
dypicov he tmv irXeiaT wv , oawv fii] €vOv<; TrXetou? 
Kal axi'^ofJLevat, KaOdirep irvpov Kpid7]<; Kal rr}? 
KaXov/jL€V7]<; 7r6a<;. avrrj yap ev tol<; eVeretot? Ka\ 
iv roL<i TTOicoSeaiv 7) Sia(f)opd tmp pu^wv cocxTe ra? 
fjiev €vOv<; a'Xi^eaOai TrXelov; ovaa<^ Kal opaXel^i, 
Tcou Se aXXfov pbiav 07 hvo rd<; fieyiara^; Kal dXXa<i 

dlTO TOVT(t)V. 

"OXa)<; he TrXetof? al hia<^opa\ twv pc^MV ev 
Tol<; vXrjp.aaL Kal Xaxavco^eaiv elal yap al jxev 
^vXd)Bei<;, uicyirep al rod wKipLov al he aapKcohet^;, 
wairep al tov tgvtXov Kal en hr) fidXXov rov 
dpov Kal dacpoheXov Kal KpoKov al he wairep 
€K (pXoiov Kal aapKo^, coairep at tmv pacpavlhcov Kal 
yoyyvXihcov al he yovarcohei^, Mcirep al tmv KaXd- 
fiwv Kal dypcocTTecov Kal et tl KaXap(hhe<;, Kal povat 
hr) avrat 1) /udXiaO^ op^oiai rol^i vrrep yP]<;' oiairep 
yap KoXap^oi elcnv eppi^wjievoL ral^; XeTrrat?. al 
he XcTTupcoheif; i) (f)XoLd)hei<;, olov a'i re tt}? cr/ctW?;? 
Kal rov ^oX^ov Kal en Kpo/jLvov Kal tcov tovtoi*; 
o/jlolcov. alel yap eaTi irepiaipelv avrcov. 

UdvTa he to, TOiavra hoKcl Kaddirep hvo yevi) 
pi^ayv e')(eLv' T0t9 he Kal oXo)? to, Ke(f)aXo/3apl} 
Kal Kardppi^a irdvra' rijv re aapKOihrj ravrrjv 

^ The same term being applied to ' herbaceous ' plants in 
general. 2 pii^, 19 93, 



monk's rhubarb ; but some have large side-roots, as 
celery and beet, and in proportion to their size these 
root deeper than trees. Again of some the roots are 
fleshy, as in radish turnip cuckoo-pint crocus ; of 
some they are woody, as in rocket and basil. And 
so with most wild plants, except those whose roots 
are to start with numerous and much divided, as 
those of wheat barley and the plant specially ^ called 
* grass.' For in annual and herbaceous plants this is 
the difference between the roots : — Some are more 
numerous and uniform and much divided to start 
with, but the others have one or two specially large 
roots and others springing from them. 

To speak generally, the differences in roots are 
more numerous in shrubby plants and pot-herbs ; 
■^ for some are woody, as those of basil, some fleshy, as 
those of beet, and still more those of cuckoo-pint 
asphodel and crocus ; some again are made, as it 
were, of bark and flesh, as those of radishes and 
turnips ; some have joints, as those of reeds and 
dog's tooth grass and of anything of a reedy charac- 
ter ; and these roots alone, or more than any others, 
resemble the parts above ground ; they are in fact 
like ^ reeds fastened in the ground by their fine roots. 
Some again have scales or a kind of bark, as those of 
squill and purse-tassels, and also of onion and things 
like these. In all these it is possible to strip off 
a coat. 

Now all such plants, seem, as it were, to have two 
kinds of root ; and so, in the opinion of some, this is 
true generally of all plants which have a solid Miead'* 
and send out roots from it downwards. These have, 

' i.e. the main root is a sort of repetition of the part 
above ground. * i.e. bulb, corm, rhizome, etc. 



Kol (f)\oio)S)], KaOdirep i) aKiWa, /cat ra^ anro 
ravT)]<; a.TTOTrecpvKVLa';- ov yap 'XeTrroTTjTi kol ira^v- 
Ti]rL 8ia(f)€poucrL fiovov, oiaiTep al twv hevhpwv /cal 
rcov Xaxf^voiv, aXV aWolov €)(^ovaL to 'yevo<i. 
€K<j)av€aTdTT] 6' y/S/; ?; re rod dpou kol t) rov kv- 
ireipov r) fiev yap nrayeia kcli Xela kcu aapKa)8y<;, 
7) Be XeTTTT] Kal tVcoS?;?. BcoTrep d7ropi](jeLev civ 
Ti^ el pL^a^ Ta<i Toiaura^; OeTeov fj /xeu yap Kara 
yrj'i ho^aiev av, fj Se virevavTiw^ eyovcn ra?? 
dWaL<^ ovK av So^aiev. rj p,ev yap pu^a Xenro- 
repa 7rpo<; to iroppco Kal del auvo^v<;' ?} Be tmv 
aKtXXcjv Kal rwv ^oX^oiv Kal ro)v apcov dvd- 

'']liTi, 8' al jJLev aXXai Kara to TrXdyiov d(f)idai 
pL^a<;, al Be twv (tklWoov Kal twv ^oX/3mv ovk 
d(f)idaiv' ouBe twv aKopoBcov Kal tmv Kpofivcov. 
oA,&)? Be ye ev ravTai<; at Kara jieaov eK t/}? 
Ke^aXi]^ r)pTr]p,€vaL (palvovTai, pl^aL Kal Tpecpov- 
rac. TOVTo 8' oicriTep KVfia i) Kaprro'?, oOev Kal oi 
eyyeoTOKa Xeyovre<; ov KaKco^- eirl Be t6)v aXXwv 
TOLOVTO [xev ovBev iaTiv eVel Be TrXelov rj (jivcn^ 
rj KaTCL pltav Tavrr) dTTopiav fc'%ti. to yap B)) 
irdv Xeyeiv to Kara 7/}? pl^av ovk opOov Kal yap 
av 6 KavXo<^ tov ^o\/3ov Kal 6 tov yrjOvov Kal 

^ ras conj. Sch. ; ttjs Ald.H.; ttji' . . . a.iroTr^<^vKv7av^. 

^ a\\' a\\o7ov exot'tri conj. St.; aXAa Xe7ov exovres PM^' 
Aid.; aWolov ix- inBas.mP from G; a\\' a\\o7ov Ix*"''^"' 
conj. Seal. 3 cf. 4. 10. 5. 

* Kal ael Aid. : ^ei Kal conj. W. » Plin. 19. 99. 

' cf. the definition of ' root,' 1. 1. 9. 

' fyyiOTOKa \4yovres conj. W. ; cf. ?; rcov iy toTSKwy 
TovTuv ytyfffis in Athenaeus' citation of this passage '2. 60) ; 



that is to say, this fleshy or bark-like root, like squill, 
as well as the ^ roots wliich grow from this. For 
these roots not only differ in degree of stoutness, 
like those of trees and pot-herbs ; they are of quite 
distinct classes. 2 This is at once quite evident in 
cuckoo-pint and galingale,^ the root being in the one 
case thick smooth and fleshy, in the other thin and 
fibrous. Wherefore we might question if such roots 
should be called ' roots ' ; inasmuch as they are under 
ground they would seem to be roots, but, inasmuch 
as they are of opposite character to other roots, they 
would not. For your root gets slenderer as it gets 
longer and tapers continuously * to a point ; but the 
so-called root of squill purse-tassels and cuckoo-pint 
does just the opposite. 

Again, while the others send out roots at the 
sides, this is not the case ^ witli squill and purse- 
tassels, nor yet with garlic and onion. In general 
in these plants the roots which are attached to 
the ' head ' in the middle appear to be real roots 
and receive nourishment,^ and this ' head ' is, as 
it were, an embryo or fruit ; wherefore those who 
call such plants ^plants which reproduce them- 
selves underground ' *' give a fair account of them. 
In other kinds of plants there is nothing of this 
sort.^ But a difficult question is raised, since here 
the *root' has a character which goes beyond what 
one associates with roots. For it is not right to call 
all that which is underground M-oot,' since in that 
case the stalk ■' of purse-tassels and that of long 
onion and in general any part which is under- 

ivreocr oiaaKeyones U ; (V tc to7s ootois aKeyopres MV (omit- 
ting re) Aid. (omitting toTs). 

* roiovTo ficv ovSev conj. W.; tovto fiev MSS 

^ tv 6 Kav\6s conj. St.; avaKavXos Aid. 



oX&)9 oaa Kara ^ddov<i earlv eirjaav av pi^ai, 
Kal TO vSvov Be Kal o KaXovai riv€<; a(T')(lov Kal 
TO ovlyyov Kal et tl aXXo vTroyeiov iaTiv mv 
ovSei^ icTTL pl^a' Bvvdfiei yap Bel (pvaiKrj Biatpelp 


10 Tdxa Be tovto fxev 6p6oi<^ XeyeTai, pl^a Be ouBev 
TjTTov eaTiv aXXa Bi,a(f}opd t^? avrij to)V pi^ojv, 
ware ttjp /xev TLva TotavT7]v eluai ti-jv Be TOiavTi]v 
Kal Tpe(f)€cr0aL tt)v krepav inro t?}? erepa';. KaiTOL 
Kal avTal at crapK(iiBeL<^ eoiKacnv e\Keiv. Ta<i 
yovv TMV apwv irpo tov ^Xaardveiv (TTpe^ovaL 
Kal yiyvovTaL /jiel^ou^ KcoXvo/JLevat Bta/3>]vai irpo^ 
TrjV /3\d<TTr]<Tiv. eVel otl ye iravroiv tmv tolov- 
Twv 7) (pvcTL'; irrl ro kutco /jbdWov peirei <^avep6v 
ol fiev yap KavXol Kal o\&)? tcl dvw ^pa')(ea Ka\ 
dadevfj, TO, Be Kdro) fieydXa Kal iroWa Kal 
l(T')(^vpa ov /lovov eirl twv elpriixei'cov dWa Kal eirl 
KaXdjiov Kal dypct)aTiBo<; Kal 6X(o<; oaa KaXa/jicoB}] 
Kal TOVTOL<; 6/xota. Kal oaa Bt] vapOrjKcoBrj, Kal 
TOVTOiv pi'C^ai jieydXaL Kal aapKcjoBet<^. 

11 UoWd Be Kal twv iroLCdBcov e%ei roiavTaf; p^^a<;, 
olov airdXa^ KpoKO^; Kal to irepBiKLov KaXovjievov 
Kal yap tovto Trai^eta? re Kal irXeiov^ ex^t' ra? 
pL^a<; rj <l)vXXa' KaXelrat Be irepBiKLov Bid to tov^ 
7repBiKa<: eyKvXieaOat Kal opvTTeiv. 6fioiw<; Be 

* ^adovs con]. Sell.; )8a0os Aid. 

' Koi. & W. after U; Koi om. Aid.; G omits also t}> before 
ot'iyyov, making the three plants synonymous. The passage 
is cited by Athen., /.c, with considerable variation. 

' ToiauTTji/ conj. St.; roaavTriv MSS. 

* i.e. the fleshy root (tuber, etc.). 

' ». e. the fibrous root (root proper). 



<> round 1 would be a root, and so would the trufHe, 
the plant which 2 some call puff-ball, the uingon, and 
all other underground plants. Whereas none of these 
is a root ; for we must base our definition on natural 
function and not on position. 

However it may be that this is a true account and 
yet that such things are roots no less ; but in that 
case we distinguish two different kinds of root, one 
being of this character ^ and the other of the other, 
and the one * getting its nourishment from the 
other ^ ; though the fleshy roots too themselves seem 
to draw nourishment. At all events men invert^ the 
• oots of cuckoo-pint before it shoots, and so they 
become larger by being prevented from pushing'^ 
through to make a shoot. For it is evident that the 
nature of all such plants is to turn downwards for 
choice ; for the stems and the upper parts generally 
are short and weak, while the underground parts 
are large numerous and strong, and that, not only in 
the instances given, but in reeds dog's-tooth grass 
and in general in all plants of a reedy character and 
those like them. Those too which resemble ferula "^ 
have large fleshy roots. 

^Many herbaceous plants likewise have such roots, 
as colchicum 1° crocus and the plant called ' par- 
tridge-plant ' ; for this too has thick roots which are 
more numerous than its leaves. ^^ (It is called the 
' partridge-plant ' because partridges roll in it and 
grub it up.) So too with the plant called in Egyj)t 

^ (rTp4(pov(n conj. Sch.; rpapovaL MVAld.; c/. 7. 12. 2. 

^ dia^rjvai conj. W. ; Siade7vai UMV. 

" i.e. have a hollow stem (umbelliferous plants, more or 
less). » Plin. 19. 99. 

1** ffvd\a^ UMV; oKTTraAal mBas. : perhaps corrupt. 
11 Plin. 21. 102. 



KOL TO €v AlyvirTw KaXovfxevov ovlyyov ra /xh> 
yap (pvWa jxeydXa koX 6 ^Xaaro^ avrov ^paxv^> 
7) he pi^a fiaKpa kul eariv wairep 6 Kap'Tr6<i. 
BiacpepcL re kol eaOierai, kol avWejouai Se orav 
12 o 7roTafio<i arro^f) aTp6(j)0VT6<; Ta<; ^coXov;. (^ave- 
pcoTara he /cal 7rXeiaT7]v e^^ovra 7rpo<; ra dWa 
hiacpopdv ro (tlK^lov Kal i) KaXov jxevi] iiayvhapL<=;' 
d/jL(porepci)v yap rovrcov Kal diravrcov rMv roLovrwv 
ev ral^ f)L^ai<i /xdWov t) (j)v(Ti<;. ravra p,ev ovv 
ravry Xfjirrea. 

"^viaL he roiv pc^cov rrXeiw ho^aiev av ex^iv 
hia(popdv irapd ra? elprjixeva^' olov aX re rrj<; dpa- 
')(ihvri^ KOL rov o/jlolov too dpaKW- (pepouaL yap 
d/j,(f)6repaL Kapirov ovk eXdrro) rod dvw Kal fiiav 
/j,ev pl^av ro apa/cwSe? rovro irax^lav e'^ec rrjp 
Kara ^ddov^, ra? S' dXXa<i i(f o)v 6 KapTTu^ 
Xeirrorepa^ Kal eV uKprp [^kuX] a^i^opbeva^ rro\- 
Xa^rj' (piXel he pdXicrra y^Mpia ra vcpafi/xa' (f)vX- 
Xov he ovherepov e^et rovrwv ovh^ o/xoia roU 
(pvXXoL<;, dXX^ (oairep dpi<\)iKapira pdXXov earLV' v 
Kal (palveruL Oavpidaiov. at jiev ovv ^vaet^ 

KOL hvvdpei<; roaavra<^ ej(ovaL hLa(^opd'^. 

VII. Aii^dveaOai he rrdvrcov hoKovaip al pl^ai 
irporepov roiv duw Kal yap (pveraL et? /3d0o<;- 
ovhe/jbca he Ka6)]KeL rrXeov i) oaov 6 ijXio^ i<pLKuel- 
rar rb yap BeppLov ro yevvdv ov p,rjp dXXd 

' oij'iyyou mBas.H. ; oH'Ctov MV; ov'irov Aid.; cf. 1. 1. 7 ; 
I'lin. 21. 8S {oetum). 

'^ fj.eyd\a: text doubtful (W.). 

' Siacpipei: text doubtful (Sch.). 

* aTpe(povTei ray ffuKovs conj. Coraes ; ar-T(<povris ^o>ixovs 
UMVAld. ' iv ina. Sch. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vi. ii-vii. i 

iiingon 1; for its leaves are large ^ and its shoots short, 
while the root is long and is, as it were, the fruit. 
It is an excellent thing ^ and is eaten ; men gather 
it when the river goes down by turning the clods.'* 
But the plants which afford the most conspicuous 
instances and shew the greatest difference as com- 
pared with others are silphium and the plant called 
magydaris ; the character of both of these and of all 
such plants is especially shewn in ^ their roots. Such 
is the account to be given of these plants. 

Again some roots would seem to shew a greater 
difference ^ than those mentioned, for instance, those 
of arakhidna^ and of a plant ^ which resembles 
arakos. For both of these bear a fruit underground 
which is as large as the fruit above ground, and this 
arakos-\\\i.e^ plant has one thick root, namely, the 
one which runs deep, while the others which bear 
the ' fruit ' are slenderer and branch ^^ in many 
directions at the tip. It is s})ecially fond of sandy 
ground. Neither of these plants has a leaf nor 
anything resembling a leaf, but they bear, as it 
were, two kinds of fruit instead, which seems sur- 
prising. So many then are the diflferences shewn 
in the characters and functions of roots. 

VII. The roots of all plants seem to grow earlier 
than the parts above ground (for growth does take 
j)lace downwards ^^). But no root goes down further 
than the sun reaches, since it is the heat which 
induces growth. Nevertheless the nature of the soil, 

" i.t. to be even more abnormal .- Siacpopav conj. Sch. ; 
ota<popa\ Aid. 7 Plin. 21. 89. 

** tine-tare. See Index, App. (1). 

" apa/fiSes conj. Sell.; crapwiiSej Ald.G. 
10 Kol before ax'C- ^^^- ^^h. from G. 
" (f. G.P. 1. 12. 7. (cited by Varro, 1. 45. 3); 3. 3. 1. 



TavTU fieydXa av/u^dWerai tt/jo? ^aOvppi^lav 
Koi en jjidWov 7rp6<i fia/cpoppi^lav, ?; t/}? ^co/aa? 
<f>vaL<; idv fj Kovcpr) Kal fiavt) kol evhioho<^' ev ydp 
TaL<i TOLavTaL<; iroppcoTepcd kol fiei^ov^ ai av^i]- 
aei^. (pavepov Be eVt tmv rj/nepco/idrcov e^opra 
yap vScop oTTOvovv hleicnv (jo<; elirelv, iireiBav 6 
roTTO^ y Kevo<; kol p,'7]8€v to dvTiararovi^. i^yovu 
ev Tft) AvK€L(p 7) TrXurai'Oii rj /card tov 6-)(eTov en 
via ovaa eirl r/jet? Kal rpidKovTa 7r7j-)(^€L<^ dcprjKev 
e')(ov(ja TOTTov re d/xa Kal rpo(f)/jV. 

Ao^eie Be oo? elirelv r) avKTJ /juaKpoppi^orai ov 
elvai Kal 6\co(; Be fidWov rd p^avd Kal evOvppL^a. 
-ndvra Be rd vecorepa royv TraXaicov, idv el<; uK/jLyv 
ijKcoaiv, rjBr) ^advppt^orepa Kal /xaKpoppi^orepa. 
au/jicpOivouai, yap Kal ai pi^at rw dWco craypaTi. 
Trdvrcov Be o/jlolco^ ol %i^A,o) tol^ c^vtoI^ Beivorepoi, 
T0i9 Be o)? eirlirav Bt o Kal eviwv iriKpal mv ol 
Kapirol y\vKeL<;' at Be Kal (pap/j.uKdjBei'^' eviat B 
ev(oBei<;, Mcnrep al rrj<i ipiBot;. 

'ISta Be pl^'t]'^ (pvaL'i Kal BvvapL<^ y r^? 'lvBiKp]<y 
(TVKrjf;' diTO ydp rcov /BXaarMV dcpnja-t, P'e^pi ov 
av avvdylrrj ttj yy Kal pil^codrj, Kal ylverai irepl ro 
BevBpov kvkXo) avvex^'i to tmv pt^cov ov)(^ dirro- 
fievov TOV crreXe'^oi'? aXX' d(f)eaT7]K6^. 

^ ravra before fxtyaha om. W. 

^ T]fxepci)/xdTci>v conj. Sch.; rnj-epaiTOLTcov UP.^Ald. : rf. C.P. 
5. 6. 8. 

* btrovovv MSS. ; 6-noaovo\n> coiij. W. from G, in quantum 
libeat. * inetSau conj. Sch.; inel K^y UMVPAld. 

' Quoted by Varro, 1. 37. 5. 

' iirl conj. Sch.; irapa Pg ; irepl Aid. 

^ avjxcpQlvovfn : avfx<p(»vov(Ti COnj. St. 



if it is light open and porous, contributes greatly ^ to 
deep rooting, and still more to the formation of long 
roots ; for in such soils growth goes further and is 
more vigorous. This is evident in cultivated plants. ^ 
For, provided that they have water, they run on, one 
may say, wherever it may be,^ whenever* the ground 
is unoccupied and there is no obstacle. * For instance 
the plane-tree by the watercourse in the Lyceum 
when it was still young sent out its roots a distance 
of*^ thirty-three cubits, having both room and 

The fig would seem, one may say, to have the 
longest roots, and in general plants which have wood 
of loose texture and straight roots would seem to 
have these longer. Also young plants, provided that 
they have reached their prime, root deeper and have 
longer roots than old ones ; for the roots decay along 
with " the rest of the plant's body. And in all 
cases alike the juices of plants ^ are more powerful in 
the roots than in other parts, while in some cases 
they are extremely jiowerful ; wherefore the roots 
are bitter in some plants whose fruits are sweet ; 
some roots again are medicinal, and some are frag- 
i-ant, as those of the iris. 

The character and function of the roots of the 
• Indian fig' (banyan) are peculiar, for this plant sends 
out roots from the shoots till it has a hold on the 
ground^ and roots again ; and so there comes to be 
a continuous circle of roots round the tree, not 
connected with the main stem but at a distance 
from it. 

^ TO?? <pvTo7s Aid. ; tois ^l(ais conj. W. from G : text pro- 
l>ably defective. 

" TT) 7fj conj. iScal. from G; ovk^ U ; ttj avKfi P.^Ald. 



Ilapa7r\t](TL0P Se tovtw jxaWov Be rponrov tlvcl 
OavfiaaicoTepov et ti ck TUiv (^vWwv a.(f)L)](TL pi^av, 
oLov (paab TTepX ^OirovvTa iroidpLov eivai, o kul 
iaOLeaOai iariv i]Su. to yap av tcov Oepficov 
Oavpaarbv rjri-oVy on av ev v\y ^aOeia airapf] 
hieipeL Tr)v pt^av tt/oo? rr]v yrjp Kal ^Xaardvei Sia 
rT]V la')(yv. aXXa Sr) Ta9 pev rwv pc^wv Bia^o- 

pa<; CK TOVTcov Oewpifjeov. 

VTII. Twy oevhpwv ra? TOiavra^ av ti<; \d/3oi 
hia^^opd^. eaTL yap rd pev o^wSr) rd S' dvo^a 
Kal ^ixret kol tottm Kara to pdWov Kal 7]ttov. 
uvo^a Be Xeyco ov')(^ wcrre /xr/ e^eii^ oXw? — ovBev 
yap TOiovTO Bevhpov, a\V elirep, errl tmv dWcov 
olov a^o2vo<; Tixpij KUTreipo^ oXw? tVi tcov \ip,vco- 
Bon> — dX}C wcTTe oXiyouf; e';\;6/i/. (f)va€L p,ev olov 
uKTij Bd(j)vyj cruKi] 6Xo)<; irdvTa Ta \€i6(f)\oLa kuI 
oaa KoTka Kal pavd. o^wSe? Be eXda TrevKtj 
KuTLvo<;' TOVTOiV Be Ta pev ev 7ra\icr/<:L0i<; Kai 
v7)vep.0L<; Kal €(f)vBpoL<;, Ta Be ev €V7]\iot<; Kal ;^ef- 
pepioi^; KOL irievpLaTOiBecn Kal XeTrrow Kal ^i]pol^- 
Ta pev yap uvo^oTepa, Ta Be o^coBecrTepa tmv 

1 T< conj. W.; T.s MSS. ' Plin. 21. 104. 

3 cf. 8. 11. 8 ; Plin. 18. 133 and 134. 

* Sidpet conj. Sch. ; Sm.per P,,Ald.; c/. C.P. 2. 17. 7. 

^ u(os is the knot and the bough starting from it : cf. 
Arist. de iuv. tt sen. 3. 

^ 4x\ Twv conj. Coraiis ; r] rwv UM ; r\rrov (erased) P (*'« 
Twv inarg. ) tittov Aid. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vii. 3-viii. i 

Something similar to this, but even more surprising, 
occurs in those plants which ^ emit roots from their 
leaves, as they say does a certain herb - which grows 
about Opus, which is also sweet to taste. The 
j)eculiarity again of lupins ^ is less surprising, namely 
that, if the seed is dropped where the ground is 
thickly overgrown, it pushes * its root through to the 
earth and germinates because of its vigour. But 

we have said enough for study of the differences 
between roots. 

Of trees {principally) and their characteristic special differences: 
as to knots. 

VIII. One may take it that the following are 
the differences between trees : — Some have knots,^ 
more or less, others are more or less without them, 
whether from their natural character or because of 
their position. But, when I say ^without knots,' I 
do not mean that they have no knots at all (there is 
no tree like that, but, if it is true of any plants, it is 
only of*^ other kinds, such as rush bulrush^ galingale 
and plants of the lake side ^ generally) but that they 
have few knots. Now this is the natural character 
of elder bay fig and all smooth-barked trees, and 
in general of those whose wood is hollow or of a 
loose texture. Olive fir and wild olive have knots ; 
and some of these grow in thickly shaded windless 
and wet places, some in sunny positions exposed to 
storms and winds,^ where the soil is light and dry ; 
for the number of knots varies between trees of the 

' Tv(pr} coiij. Bod. ; Ti(pi} UAId.H. ; cf. 1. 5. 3. 
** i-rrl rwv conj. W. ; et Tt inl tuv Aid. 

" ■nuevf.i.aTui^fffi conj. Seal.; TrujwaTwSciri U; trvy/xaruibeat 



ofioyevMV. oXco? Be o^coBecrrepa ra opecva tmv 
ireBeLvwv kol ra ^VP^ '^^^ eXelwv. 

"Ert Be Kara rrjv ^vreiav ra fiev irvKva dvo^a 
KOL opdd, ra Be /lava o^wBearepa kol (TKokLOirepa' 
(TVfi/SaiveL yap Mcrre ra p,ev iv iraXiaKiw elvai ra 
Be iv evrjXiO). Kal ra dppeva Be rcov drjXeLOiv 
o^coBecrrepa iv ol? iariv dfxcfxo, olov KvirdpLrro^ 
iXdrrj oarpv'ls Kpaveia' KaXovac yap yevo'i ri 
drjXvKpaveiav' Kal ra dypia Be rwv rjfjiepcov, Kal 
ttTrXoo? Kal ra viro ravrb yevo^, olov Korivo^; 
iXda^; Kal iptveo<; (7VKrj<; Kal dxpd<; diriov. irdvra 
yap ravra o^coBearepa' Kal co? eVt to ttoXv 
irdvra ra ttukvcl rcov fiavMV' Kal yap ra dppeva 
TTVKVorepa Kal ra dypia' ttXtjv ei n Blo, ttvkvo- 
rr)ra Trai^reXw? dvo^ov rj oXiyo^ov, olov rrv^O'^ 

E/crt Be roiv fiev draKroi Kal co? erv')(ev ol o^oi, 
roiv Be rerayfievoL Kal rw BLaart'^ixarL Kal ra) 
irXi^OeL KaOdirep eiprjrai- Bl o Kal ra^LO^oyra 
ravra KaXovaLV. roov /lev yap olov Bt 'Icrov rcov 
Be fiel^ov alel ro tt/oo? rw rrd^eL. Kal rovro Kara 
Xoyov. oirep /idXiara evBrjXov Kal iv roL<i Korl- 
voL^ Kal iv rol<; KaXd/ioi<;' to yap yovv KaOdirep 
0^09. Kal ol fiev Kar dXXyjXouf;, loairep ol rwv 

J Plin. 16. 125. M. 8. 1. 

' ra^io^wTa conj. W. ; a^ioXoywrara Aid.; cf. Ta^i(pv\\o'. 
. 10. 8. * Plin. 16. 122. 



same kind. And in general mountain trees have 
more knots than those of the plain, and those that 
grow in dry spots than those that grow in marshes. 

Again the way in which they are planted makes a 
difference in this respect ; those trees that grow close 
together are knotless and erect, those that grow far 
apart have more knots and a more crooked growth ; 
for it happens that the one class are in shade, the 
others in full sun. Again the ^ male ' trees have 
more knots than the ' female ' in those trees in which 
both forms are found, as cypress silver-fir hop-horn- 
beam cornelian cherry — for there is a kind called 
' female cornelian cherry ' (cornel) — and wild trees 
have more knots than trees in cultivation : this is 
true both in general and when we compare those of 
the same kind, as the wild and cultivated forms of 
olive fig and pear. All these have more knots in the 
wild state ; and in general those of closer growth 
have this character more than those of open growth ; 
for in fact the 'male' plants are of closer growth, 
and so are the wild ones ; except that in some cases, 
as in box and nettle-tree, owing to the closer growth 
there are no knots at all, or only a few. 

^ Again the knots of some trees are irregular and 
set at haphazard, while those of others are regular, 
alike in their distance apart and in their number, as 
has been said-; wherefore also they are called 'trees 
with regular knots.' ^ ^ For of some the knots are, 
as it were, at even distances, while in others the 
distance between them is greater at the thick end of 
the stem. And this proportion holds throughout. 
This is especially evident in the wild olive and in 
reeds — in which the joint corresponds to the knot in 
trees. Again some knots are opposite one another, 



Koiivwv, 01 S' o)? erv')(ev. ecrri he ra fih> Slo^a, ra 
Be TpLo^a, ra Be 7r\6LOV<; e^ovra' evia Be rrevTao^d 
ecrri. koI tt}? fiev eXar?;? opOol kol ol o^ot koI o'l 

4 kKclBoi oiairep €/j,7re7rr]y6r€<;, tmv Be aXXcov ov. Bi' 
o Kol la^vpov 7) eXdryj. lBta)raTOi Be ol t^9 
jxriXea^;- Ofioioi <yap Oyjpicov 7Tpocr(07roi<;, el? /xev 6 
fie^LCTTO^ aWoi Be irepl avrov fiifcpol TrXeioi/?. 
elal Be tmv o^wv ol /lev rvc^Xoi, ol Be yovLfioi. 
Xejo) Be Tfc/jXou? ckJ) wv /jLrjBe\(; ^\acn6<;. ovtoi 
Be KoX (pvaei koI TTijpcoaet yu-oi>Tai, orav rj fiy 
\v6fj KOI eK^id^7]TaL rj koI diToicoTTfj kol olov 
eiTLKavOel'^ TrtjpwOfj' lyivovrai Be /laXXov ev ro2<^ 
Tra-^ccn tcov aKpefiovcov, evicov Be kol iv rot? 
areXex^aiv. 6X(o<i Be kol tov <jT€Xe)(OV^ koI tov 
kXuBov KaO^ o av eTnKo^jrrj r) iTriTe/nrj Tf9, o^o^ 
jLveraL Kadanepavel Biaipcov to ei> kol ttolmv 
erepav dpyj]v, ecTe Bia TrjV jnjpcoaLV eiTe Bi aXXrjv 
alTiav ov yap Br) Kara (fivcriv ro vtto tt}? 

6 Alel Be iv airaaiv ol KXaBoi (paupovTai ttoXvo- 
^oTcpoL Bia TO jiriTrco Tava fxeaov irpoarju^TJaOaL, 
KadaTrep Kal t?}? avK7]<; ol veojSXacrTOi Tpa')(y- 
TaTOi Kal T?}? dfiTreXov ra aKpa tcov KXrjfiaTwv. 
fo? yap 6^o<i iv tol^ aX\oL<; ovtq) fcal 6(f)0aX/iio'; 

1 cj. 4. 4. 12. 2 pijn^ 16 i22. 

^ i.e. primary and secondary branches. 

* cf. 5. 2. 2. 6 Plin. 16. 124. 

« cf. Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3 ; Plin. 16. 125. 

' Stov . . . TrrjpccOri conj. W. ; rj %Tav r) fj.r) \vdri koI iK0id(T)Tai 
Kol f] atroKonri Kal U ; orav fj fi^ \vdfi Kol iK$td^r}Tai fj avoKOTri) 
P ; fj Srau XvOfi Ka\ CKfitd^TjTai fj awoKoirr] Ka\ ol nv Pj ; OTav j) 
fiT] \vdfi Kal iK^id^7]Tai Kol % ctTTOKOTrp Koi Ald.H. ; G differs 



as those of the wild olive, while others are set at 
random. Again some trees have double knots, some 
treble,^ some more at the same point ; some have as 
many as five. ^ In the silver-fir both the knots and 
the smaller branches ^ are set at right angles, as if 
they were stuck in, but in other trees they are not 
so. And that is why the silver-fir is such a strong 
tree.^ Most peculiar ^ are the knots of the apple, for 
they are like the faces of wild animals ; there is one 
large knot, and a number of small ones round it. 
Again some knots are blind,'' others productive ; by 
M)lind ' I mean those from whicii tliere is no growtli. 
These come to be so either by nature or by mutilation, 
according as either the knot^ is not free and so the 
shoot does not make its way out, or, a bough having 
been cut off, the place is mutilated, for example by 
burning. Such knots occur more commonly in the 
thicker boughs, and in some cases in the stem also. 
And in general, wherever one chops or cuts part of 
the stem or bough, a knot is formed, as though one 
thing were made thereby into two and a fresh 
growing point produced, the cause being the mutila- 
tion or some other such reason ; for the effect of such 
a blow cannot of course be ascribed to nature. 

Again in all trees the branches always seem to 
have more knots, because the intermediate parts ^ 
have not yet developed, just as the newly formed 
branches of the fig are the roughest,'-^ and in the 
vine the highest ^*^ shoots. ^^ (For to the knot in other 

^ i.e. the internodes ; till the branch is fully grown its 
knots are closer together, and so seem more numerous : firiiru 
Tctva jxeffov irpoff'qv^riadai conj. Sell.; iJ.r}nci) Tava /j.4aov irpoaKv- 
CrjOai U ; ;UtJt' ava fxeaov TrpocrKv(e7(TdaL MAld. ; /j.r]TroT' apdfxf<rov 
rrpoff-nv^riaeai Pg. * i.e. have most knots. 

"> i.e. youngest. " Plin. 16. 125. 



eV dfiTreXw fcau iv KaXd/xw jovv . . . ivioL^ he 
Kol olov KpdhaL ^ivovrai, Kaddirep ineXea koi 
Bpu'i KOL /idXiCTTa iv TrXardvco- eciv Se iv Tpa-)(i<jL 
Koi dvvBpoi<i Kol irvevfiaroiSeai kol iravreXo)'^. 
7rdvTco(; Be Trpo? rfj yfj koI olov rfj KCcpaXfj rov 
areXexpy^ d-no'y^ipaaKovTwv to irdOo'; tovto 
6 "Rvia Be Koi Xayei tov<; KaXovfievov<^ v-no tivmi' 
r) yoyypovf; rj to dvdXoyov, olov rj iXda' Kupico- 
rarov yap eVt TavTt]<; tovto tovvo/jLU kol 7Td(j)(eiv 
BoKCL jidXiaTa to elpf^fievov' /caXovai 3' evioi 
tovto Trpe/Jivov oi Be KpoT(i)vr)v ol Be aXXo 6vo/ia. 
TOt? Be evOeat fcal piovoppi^oi^ koX dirapa^Xd 
(TTOf? ov yiveTai tovO^ oAw? rj t^ttov [^^oIvl^ 8t 
irapa^XacTTTjTLKov'] r) Be iXda kol 6 k6tivo<s 
KoX Ta<; ovXoTTjTaf; IBla^; e^ovai xa? iv toU 

IX. "EcTTi jjiev ovv TCL /lev ft)? 6t9 jirjKOf; av^ij- 

TLKCL pidXlCTT Tj /lOVOV, oloV ikUTr] (pOLI'L^ KVird- 

pLTTO<i Kal oXfo? TO, jJLOVoaTeXex^ kol oaa /X7] 
TToXvppt^a /jLTjBe iroXvKXaBa' <r) Be (jyoivi^ dirapa- 
^Xa(JTi-}TLK6v> TCL Be ofiola tovtol<; dva Xoyov 
fcal ek ^ddo<;. evia S' evdv^ cr^/^eTat, olov y 

^ The opening of the description of the diseases of trees 
seems to have heen lost. '^ KpdSai ; cf. G.P. 5. 1. 3. 

' Tiavruis . . . yivfrai COnj. W. ; itavrcos St 6 irp))! rrj y^ Ka\ 
oTov T. K, <TT. anoyr]pd(TKCA>u rwv traxvTfpccv ytverai Aid. ; 80 U 
except iraxvTepov, and M except iraxvTfpos. 

* '\6yypous : cf. Hesych., s.vv. yoyypoSy Kporuvt). 
" The word is otherwise unknown. 

* T\rrov T) be i\a.a conj. W. ; tjttop- 7/ 8e <po7vi^ irdpa^Kaa- 
VtihSp' r] 5e i\da U ; 80 Aid. except irapa^\aariK6p, The 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. viii. 5-ix. i 

trees correspond the ' eye ' in the vine, the joint ni 

the reed) ^ In some trees again tliere occurs, 

as it were, a diseased formation of small shoots,- as 
in elm oak and especially in the plane ; and this is 
universal if they grow in rough waterless or windy 
spots. Apart from an}^ such cause ^ this affection 
occurs near the ground in what one may call the 
' head ' of the trunk, when the tree is getting old. 

Some trees again have what are called by some 
' excrescences ' * (or something corresponding), as the 
olive ; for this name belongs most properly to tiiat 
tree, and it seems most liable to the affection ; and 
some call it ' stump,' some krotojie,^ others have a 
different name for it. It does not occur, or only 
occurs to a less extent, in straight young trees, which 
have a single root and no side-growths. To the 
olive ^ also, both wild and cultivated, are peculiar 
certain thickenings ^ in the stem. 

As to habit. 

IX. ^ Now those trees which grow chiefly or only^ 
in the direction of their height are such as silver-fir 
date-palm cypress, and in general those which have 
a single stem and not many roots or branches (the 
date-palm, it may be added, has no side-growths at 
alP^). And trees like^^ these have also similar growth 
downwards. Some however divide from the first, 

note about the pahn {(poivi^ 5e iTapa^Ka(Trr)riK6v) I have omitted 
as untrue as well as irrelevant ; possibly with airapa$a. for 
irapaBa. it belongs to the next section. 

' ov\6rr]Tas conj. W.; KoiXorrjTas MSS. (?) Aid. 
8 Plin. 16. 125. 

' jxaKiffT ^ iJLOvov conj. W. ; (xaKiara /xava Ald.H. 
10 See 3. 8. 6. u. 
" 2/io»o conj. Sch. : Suolws MSS. Sense hardly satisfactory. 



fjL'yjXea' ra Be iroXvicXaha kuI /j.eL^o) tov oyKov 
ex^L TOV civo), KaOdirep poa- ov fxi^v aXhJ ovv 
fieyiaTa je avfi/SdWerai irpo^ eKuarov rj djcoyr] 
Kol 6 TOTTO? Kal 7) Tpo(f)y. (TrjfjLelov 8' OTt ravrd 
TTVKva fiev ovra fxaKpa Kal Xeirra jiveTaL, pLava 
he Tra-^vTepa Kal ^pa^vrepw Kal eav piev evOix; 
ri<; dip if) Tou? 6l^ov<; ^payea, eav he dvaKaOa'ipr] 
fiaKpd, KaOdirep t) a/^TreXo?. 

2 '\Kavov he Kd/cecvo irpo^ TTiariv ore Kal tcov 
Xax^vcov evia \afxl3dv6L hevhpou a^Vpia, KaOdirep 
etiTopiev T)]v piaXdxyjv kol to revrXov diravja 
8' iv TOi? OLKeuoL^; roTroi^; evav^Pj . . . Kal to avTo 
KoXXLarov. eirel Kal TOiv op-oyevoiv dvo^orepa 
Kal pL€L^(o Kal KaXXiw rd ev Tol<i oiKeloL^, olov 
eXdrrj 7; MaKehoviKt) tt)? T[apva(TLa<; Kal twv dX- 
Xcov. diravTa he ravTU Kal oXw? y vXrj 7) dypia 
KaXXlcDV Kal irXelwv tov 6pov<=; ev toI^ irpoajSo- 
peioL<; Tj ev rot? Trpo? pea7]p./3pLav. 

3 "E(TTt he Ta pev deL<pvXXa Ta he (pvXXo- 
fjoXa. TOiv pev 7)p,epa)v d€L<pvXXa eXda (f)OLvi^ 
hd(pvr] pivppivo<; irevKi-j^i rt <yevo<^ KVTrdpiTro^- rcov 
S' dypLcov eXdjT] irevKT) dpKev6o<i paXo'; Ovia Kal 
rjv ^ApKdhe<i KaXovcn (peXXuhpvv (jicXvpea Kehpo<; 
TTtTL"? dypia pLvpiKT] TTu^o? 7rpLvo<; K'^Xaarpop 
(juXvKr] o^vdKavOo'i d(pdpK7i, ravra he (pveraL 
Trepl TOV "OXvp.TTov, dvhpd-vX^j KopLapo^ TeppbLv6o<; 

1 ovv marked as doubtful in U. '1.3. 2. 
' Kttl rb avrh KaWiaroy. The first part of the sentence to 
which these words belong is apparently lost (W.). 

* i.e. the fir and other trees mentioned in the lost words. 

6 Plin. 16. 80. 

« nl\os conj. Sch.; afiiXa^ PgAld.; c/. 3. 3. 3. 



such as apple ; some have many branches, and theii 
greater mass of growth high up, as the pomegranate : 
however^ training position and cultivation chiefly 
contribute to all of these characters. In proof of 
which we have the fact that the same trees which, 
when growing close together, are tall and slender, 
when grown farther apart become stouter and 
shorter ; and if we from the first let the branches 
grow freely, the tree becomes short, whereas, if we 
prune them, it becomes tall, — for instance, the vine. 
This too is enough for proof that even some pot- 
herbs acquire the form of a tree, as we said ^ of 
mallow and beet. Indeed all things grow well in 
congenial places. . . .^ For even among those of the 
same kind those which grow in congenial places have 
less knots, and are taller and more comely : thus the 
silver-fir in Macedon is superior to other silver-firs, 
such as that of Parnassus. Not only is this true of 
all these,^ but in general the wild woodland is more 
beautiful and vigorous on the north side of the 
mountain than on the south. 

As to shedding of haven. 

Again some ^ trees are evergreen, some deciduous. 
Of cultivated trees, olive date-palm bay myrtle a 
kind of fir and cypress are evergreen, and among 
wild trees silver-fir fir Phoenician cedar yew ^ odorous 
cedar the tree which the Arcadians call ' cork-oak ' 
(holm-oak) mock-privet prickly cedar ' wild "^ pine ' 
tamarisk box kermes-oak holly alaternus cotoneaster 
hybrid arbutus^ (all of which grow about Olympus) 

' o7pio after virvs conj. Sch.; after itplvos UPAld.: c/. 
3. 3. 3. 

* KSfiapos conj. Bod.; aivapos \JMV; oivapos Aid.; avvaposV^- 



aypla Bd(f)vrj. 8ok€i S' 97 avhpd'x}^^) koI 6 KOfxapos 
TO, piev fcdro) (jivWo^oXelv rd Be ea^ara twv 
uKpepLovcdv dei(^vWa e^efz^, 6'ttl(^v6lv Be del rov^ 

4 Ilwv p,ev ovv BevBpcdv ravra. rcov Be dapLVw- 
Bayv /ftTTO? ^dTO<; pdp,vo<; /cd\ap,o<i KcBpl'^' €(tt( 
ydp TV pLiKpov ov BevBpovrai. tmv Be (ppvyaviKCov 
fcal ttoicoBmv irrj'yavov pd(f)avo<; poBcovia iwvia 
d^poTovov dpidpaKOV epTrvWo^; opuyavov aekivov 
ImrocreXLvov pn'^KOiv kol tmv dypiwv eiBrj ir'Keico. 
Biapbevet Be kol rovrcov evia to?? UKpoi^; rd Be 
dWa diTO^dWeL olov opiyavov aeXivov . . . iire] 
Kol TO TT^yavov Kafcovrai kol dWdrTeraL. 

5 Yldvra Be Kal tmv dWcov rd dei^vWa arevo- 
(fyvWorepa kol e^ovrd riva XiTraporrjra Kal 
evcoBuav. evia 8' ov/c ovra rfj (fyvaei irapd rov 
roTTOV earlv deL(f)vWa, /caOdirep eXex^V 7J'€pL rwv 
ev 'FiXecpaPTLVT] Kal Me/x^ei* Karwrepco S' ev rfo 
AeXra puKpov irdvv ')(^p6vov BiaXeiTrei rov ptr] dei 
/SXaardveiv. ev lxpr]Tr] Be Xeyerai nXdravov 
riva elvai ev rfj Voprvvaia tt^o? Trrjyfj rivi ^ ov 
(j)vXXo^oXeL' puvOoXoyovac Be co? vtto ravr)] 
epiiyri rfj JLvpcoTrrj 6 Zey?" Ta? Be irXijala^ ndcras 
<f)vXXo^oXeLV. ev Be Xv^dpec Bpv^; eanv ev- 
avvoiTTo^ €K T?}? TToXew? Tj OV (pvXXo/SoXel' <f)aal 

' riin. 16. 80. 

^ Some words probably missing (W.) which would explaii 
the next two clauses. ' Plin. 16. 82. * 1. 3. 5. 
5 Plin. 12. 11 ; Varro, 1. 7. 



aiidiachne arbutus terebinth * wild bay' (oleander). 
Andrachne and arbutus seem to cast their lower 
leaves, but to keep those at the end of the twigs 
perennially, and to be always adding leafy twigs. 
These are the trees which are evergreen. 

^ Of shrubby plants these are evergreen : — ivy 
bramble buckthorn reed kedris (juniper) — for there 
is a small kind of kedros so called which does not 
grow into a tree. Among under-shrubs and herba- 
ceous plants there are rue cabbage rose gilliflower 
southernwood sweet marjoram tufted thyme mar- 
joram celery alexanders poppy, and a good many 
more kinds of wild plants However some of these 
too, while evergreen as to their top growths, shed 

their other leaves, as marjoram and celery 2 

for rue too is injuriously affected and changes its 

3 And all the evergreen plants in the other classes 
too have narrower leaves and a certain glossiness and 
fragrance. Some moreover which are not evergreen 
by nature become so because of their position, as 
was said ^ about the plants at Elephantine and 
Memphis, while lower down the Nile in the Delta 
there is but a very short period in which they are not 
making new leaves. It is said that in Crete ^ in the 
district of Gortyna there is a plane near a certain 
spring ^ which does not lose its leaves ; (indeed the 
story is that it was under ^ this tree that Zeus lay 
with Europa), while all the other plants in the 
neighbourhood shed their leaves. ^ At Sybaris there 
is an oak within sight of the city which does not shed 

^ Trrj7p conj. H. from G ; cr/cTji/p UM VAld. ; K7]vr) V^; k()T]pv 
' vTtl conj. Hemsterhuis ; cttI Aid. « Plin. 16. 81. 



Be ov fi\aardp€LV avrrjv a/xa Tal<i aWai<; aWa 
jxerh }Lvva. Xeyerai Se Kal ev KvTrpoy irXdravo's 
elvai. TOLavTif. 

^vWojSoXel Be iravra rov /leroTrcopov koX fierci 
TO /leroTTCopov, TrXrjp rb fjiev Occttov to Be ^paBv- 
repov axrre kuI tov ')(^eLp.coi'0'i eTrL\.afij3dveiv. ovic 
dudXoyoL Be at ^vWo^o\iaL Tal<i ^\a(TT7Jaeaiv, 
coare ra irporepov ^\aaTy]cravra irporepov (pvX- 
Xo^oXecv, dXX' evua irpwl^Xacrrel fiev ovBev Be 
rrporepei twv dXXwv, dXXd nvwv koX varepel, 
KaOdirep rj dfivyBaXi]. 

Ta Be o^lri^Xaarel /neu ovBev Be o)? elirelv 
varepel rcou dXXcov, wairep y avKd/xivo^. Bokcl Be 
Kol ij 'X^ypa av/i/SdXXeaOai Kal 6 totto? o eviKjJio^; 
irpo^ rb Biaiieveiv. rd yap ev tol<; ^TjpoL<; Kal 
o\a)9 XeTTToyeloL^ irporepa cpvXXo^oXel Kal rd 
irpea^vrepa Be tmv vewv. etna Be Kal Trpb rov 
rreirdvai rbv Kapirbv dirojBdXXeL rd (pvXXa, KaOd- 
irep at oyjriaL avKal Kal d'^pdBe';. 

'Ymv S' dei(f)vXXo)u 7) diro/SoXr) Kal 1) avavai<; 
Kara /iepo<;' ov yap By ravrd alel Biafjuevei, dXXd 
rd fiev eTTijBXaardveL rd B' dcj^avaiverai. rovro 
Be rrepl rpo7rd<; /idXiara yiverau OepLvd<i. el Be 
nvcov Kal fjier ^KpKrovpov fj Kal Kar dXXrjv a>pav 
eTTLaKeirreov. Kal ra fiev irepL ryv (pvXXo- 

^oXlav ovra)^ ^'%et. 

1 riiu. 16. 82 and 83. 


its leaves, and they say that it does not come into 
leaf along with the others, but only after the rising 
of the dog-star. It is said that in Cyprus too there 
is a plane which has the same peculiarity. 

^ The fall of the leaves in all cases takes place in 
autumn or later, but it occurs later in some trees 
than in others, and even extends into the winter. 
However the fall of the leaf does not correspond to 
the growth of new leaves (in which case those that 
come into leaf earlier would lose their leaves earlier), 
but some (such as the almond) which are early in 
coming into leaf are not earlier than the rest in 
losing their leaves, but are even comparatively 

^ Others again, sucli as the mulberry, come into 
leaf late, but are hardly at all later than the others 
in shedding their leaves. It appears also that position 
and a moist situation conduce to keeping the leaves 
late ; for those which grow in dry places, and in 
general where the soil is light, shed their leaves 
earlier, and the older trees earlier than young ones. 
Some even cast their leaves before the fruit is ripe, 
as the late kinds of fig and pear. 

In those which are evergreen the shedding and 
withering of leaves take place by degrees ; for it is 
not the same ^ leaves w^hich always persist, but fresh 
ones are growing while the old ones wither away. 
This happens chiefly about the summer solstice. 
Whether in some cases it occurs even after the rising 
of Arcturus or at a quite different season is matter for 
enquiry. So much for the shedding of leaves. 

* vffrepe? con]. H.; varepov UMVPAld. 
3 Plin. 16. 84. 

* ravTO. conj. Sch. ; ravra Aid. 


X. Ta Be (pvWa rcov fiev aWoiv SevSpcov o/jioia 
iravTcov avra eavTOL<;, tt)? Be Xev/cr)<; kol tov 


irepoax'j/J'Ova' ra piev yap vea irepL^eprj ra Be 
TTaXaLorepa ycdvoeLBr), /cal et? tovto 7) fMeTdaTaai<; 
iravTOiv. TOV Be klttov avdiraXiv veov p,ev oVto? 
eyycovKOTepa irpea^VTepov Be TrepicfyepeaTepa' fiCTU- 
^dWcL yap Kal ovto<;. lBiov Be kuI to tt) eXda Kal 
TT) (piXvpa /cal T7J TTTeXea /cal TfjXevKr] avp^jSaLvov 
aTpe(p€Li' yap Bo/covaiv to. virTia /xeTO, Tpoird^ 6epi- 
vd<i, /cal TOVTCp yvoipi^ovaiv otl yeyevipnac TpoiraL 
2 irdvTa Be tcl cf)vXXa Bia(f)epeL /cutcl tcl vivTia /cal to, 
Trpavrj. Kal tmv fxev aXXcov to, virTia iroicoBeaTepa 
/cal Xeiorepa' Ta<i yap Iva^ Kal Ta<^ (f)Xe^a^ iv 
TOt? irpaveaiv exovaiv, coairep 1) ')(elp <Ta apOpa>- 
t;'}? B' eXda^i XevKOTepa Kal rJTTOV Xela evioTe 
Kal TCL vTTTta. irdvTa Br) rj ra ye irXelaTa eK(^avrj 
e^eL TO, vTTTLa Kal TavTa yiveTai iw ifxlw c^avepd. 
Kal aTpe(p€TaL tcl ttoXXcl tt/qo? tov )]Xloi'' Bl o Kal 
ov pdBiov elirelv oiroTepov 7rpo9 tw kXmvl fidXXov 
iariv f) fiev yap virTioTt}*; /laXXoi' BoKel Troteiv to 
7rpave<i, rj Be (j)uaL<i ov-^ tjttov ^ovXeTat to vittlov, 
aXXco^i re Kal 1) dvdKXaai<; Blcl tov ijXiov' iBol B' 

1 Plin. 16. 85. 

^ Kol TOV KiTTOv Kol TOV MSS. cf. Pliii. I.c; DlOSC. 4. 164. 
Koi TOV kikIov TOV Koi coMJ. W. ; Galen, Lex. Hipp., gives 
kIkiov as a name for the root of KpoTwv. c/. G.P. 2. 16. 4. 

^ I.e. not 'entire.' ' Young leaves ' = leaves of the young tree. 

* This seems to contradict what has just been said. 

* TO. &pdpa add. Sch. from Plin. 16. 88, incisu7-as. cf. Arist. 
II.A. 1. 15, where Plin. (11. 274) renders &pdpa incisuraa. 



Differences in leaves. 

X. ^ Now, while the leaves of all other trees are 
all alike in each tree, those of the abele ivy ^ and 
of the plant called kroton (castor-oil plant) are 
unhke one another and of different forms. The 
young leaves in these are round, the old ones 
angular,^ and eventually all the leaves assume that 
form. On the other hand^ in the ivy, when it is 
young, the leaves are somewhat angular, but when 
it is older, they become rounder : for in this plant 
too a change of form takes place. There is a 
peculiarity special to the olive lime elm and abele : 
their leaves appear to invert the upper surface after 
the summer solstice, and by this men know that the 
solstice is past. Now all leaves differ as to their 
upper and under surfaces ; and in most trees the 
upper surfaces are greener and smoother, as they 
have the fibres and veins in the under surfaces, even 
as the human hand has its ' lines,' ^ but even the upper 
surface of the leaf of the olive is sometimes whiter 
and less smooth.*^ So all or most leaves display 
their upper surfaces, and it is these surfaces which 
are exposed to the light.^ Again most leaves turn 
towards the sun ; wherefore also it is not easy to say 
which surface is next to the twig^; for, while the 
way in which the upper surface is presented seems 
rather to make the under surface closer to it, yet 
nature desires equally that the upper surface should 
be the nearer, and this is specially seen in the 
turning back ^ of the leaf towards the sun. One 

® ivlore Ka\ ra vnTia conj. W. ; AeFa Se Kol ra rod kittov 
MSS. A makeshift correction of an obscure passage. 
^ cf. Plin. I.e. ^ i.e. is the under one. 

® Whereby the under surface is exposed to it : see above. 



dv Ti? oaa irvKva Kal Kar aWifK.a, KaOdirep ra 


OiOVTaL he TLve<^ kcli ttjv rpo(f)T)v tm vittIw Bia 
rov Trpavov^; elvai. Si a to evLKfjcov ael rovro kcli 
^j^i/ocoSe? elvaL, ov Ka\.(o<; Xeyovref;. dWa rovro 
fiev t'cro)? avp^aivei %&>/9t9 t?}? tSta? (/)ucre&)? kol 
Sid TO fir] ofjLOico^ 7]\tov(Tdai, 7] Se Tpo(f)r} Sid rwv 
(pXe^MV Tj IvMv 6/ioLO)<; d/jL(l)OTepoL<i' ck Oarepov K 
et? ddrepov ovk euXoyov yCtr; ey^ovai 7r6pov<; firjSe 
(3d6o^ Sl ov' dWd irepl fiev Tpo(j)i]<; Sid rivwv 
€T€po<; X0709. 

h^ia^epovdL Se kol rd (f)vWa TrXetocri Sia- 
<f)opaL<;' rd [lev yap ecrri 7rXarv(pvXXa, KaOdirep 
a/xTTcXo? avKTi 7rXdravo<;, rd Se arevoc^vXXa, 
KaOdirep iXda poa fjivppLVo^' rd S' Mdirep aKavOo- 
(f)vXXa, KaOdirep TrevKij ttitl'? KeSpo^;- rd 5' olop 
aapK6<puXXa' rovro S' on aapxcoSe^i eyovau ro 
(puXXov, olov KV7rdpLrro<; fjivpLKrj firjXea, rCov Se 
(ppvyaviKMV Kvewpo'^ aroijSi] Kal ttolcoSmv del^wov 
ttoXlov [rovro Se kol 7Tpo<i rov<i aT)ra<; rov<; ev 
rols Ipbarioi^ dyaOow] rd ydp av rwv revrXiwv 
Tj pacpdvcov dXXov rpoirov crapKcoSy Kal rd tmv 
irriyaviwv KaXovfievwv ev irXdreu ydp Kal ovk ev 
(TrpoyyvXorrjri ro aapKchSe^. Kal royv OapvcoSwv 
Se 7) pvpLKTj aapKcoSe^ rb (pvXXov e%6i. evia Se 

» cf. 1. 8. 3 ; 1. 10. 8 ; Plin. 16. 92. 

^ 4k daTfpov S* els conj. Sch. from G ; 5e iic darepou els with 
stop at Ipwv Aid. 3 5i' ov I conj.; Si^ wu U. 

* CLKapdScpuWa COnj. W. ; aTrav6<pv\Xa UMAld.; av6(pv\Ka 
P2 ; cj. 3. 9. 5, whence Sch. conj. TpixcxpvWa: Plin. I.e. has 
capillata pino cedro. 

' fxr]\fa probably corrupt ; omitted by Plin. I.e. 



may observe this in trees whose leaves are crowded 
■iiid opposite,^ such as those of myrtle. 

Some think that the nourishment too is conveyed to 
the upper surface through the under surface, because 
this surface always contains moisture and is downy, 
but they are mistaken. It may be that this is not 
due to the trees' special character, but to their not 
getting an equal amount of sunshine, though the 
nourishment convej-ed through the veins or fibres 
is the same in botli cases. That it should be con- 
veyed from one side to the other ^ is improbable, 
when there are no f)assages for it nor thickness for it 
to pass through. 3 However it belongs to another 
part of the enquiry to discuss the means by whicli 
nourishment is conveyed. 

Again there are various other differences between 
leaves ; some trees are broad-leaved, as vine fig and 
plane, some narrow-leaved, as olive pomegranate 
myrtle. Some have, as it were, spinous * leaves, 
as fir Aleppo pine prickly cedar ; some, as it were, 
fleshy leaves ; and this is because their leaves are of 
fleshy substance, as cypress tamarisk apple,^ among 
under-shrubs kneorofi and s/oihe, and among herba- 
ceous plants house-leek and hulwort. ^ This plant 
is good against moth in clothes. For the leaves of 
beet and cabbage are fleshy in another way, as are 
those of the various plants called rue ; for their fleshy 
character is seen in the flat instead of in the round.'' 
Among shrubby plants the tamarisk ^ has fleshy 

" Probably a gloss. 

7 Or ' solid,' such leaves being regarded as having, so to 
speak, three, and not two dimensions. crTp(^7'yi;Aos = ' thick- 
set' in Arist. H.A. 9. 44. 

8 ijLupiKri probably corrupt ; ix. was mentioned just above, 
among trees ; ipilK-ri conj. Dalec. 



Kol KaXafjL6(pvXXa, KaOairep 6 (jiolvi^ kol 6 kol^ 
KoX 6<ja Toiavra' ravra Se co? Ka6' 6\ov elirelv 
ycovLocpvWa' kol yap o Ka\a[xo<i kol 6 Kvireipos 
KOL 6 ySoUTO/XO? Kal TuWa Be TMV Xl/jLvcoSmi' 
Toiavra' iravra Se coairep €k Svolv avvdera Kal 
TO fxecrov olov rpoTrt?, ov ev rot? ciWoi^ /leyas 
7r6po<; 6 /jL€ao<;. SiacfiepovaL Be Kal roi<i a-)(p]iiaor 
ra [lev yap Trepicpepf], Kaddrrep ra tt}? cIttlov, to. 
Be Trpo/jLTjKearepa, KaOdirep ra tt}? uyXea^;' ra Be 
6i9 o^u Tvpoi'jKovra Kal TrapaKavOi^ovra, KaOdirep 
TO, rod pikaKo<i. Kal ravra fxev da)(^ifjra' <rd Bt 
(T)(iara> Kal olov TrpiovcoBrj, KaOdirep ra tt}? 
€Xdr^j<i Kal ra t?}9 irrepuBo^;- rpoirov Be riva 
ayiard koI ra rr}<^ dfjureXov, Kal ra rfj(; crvKrj^ 
6 Be oiairep av etiroi rt? KopayvoTToBdiBri. evia Be 
Kal ivro/jia<; e^ovra, KaOdirep ra t?}? irreXea^ Kal 
ra T?}? 'HpaKX€cori,K7]<; Kal ra tt}? Bpvo^. ra Be 
Kal TrapaKavOi^ovra Kal eV rov aKpov Kal eK rcov 
irXayiwv, olov rd rrj<i Trplvov Kal rd rr}<i Bpv6<; 
Kal p.LXaKo<i Kal /3arov Kal rraXiovpov Kal rd roiv 
dXXwv. aKavO o)Be<; Be eK ro}v uKpcov Kal to rfj^ 
7TevKV(; Kal 7TLrvo<; Kal eXdr7)<; en Be KeBpov ko] 
KeBpiBo<;. (f)vXXdKai'Oov Be oXw? ev fiev rol<; 
BevBpoL<^ ovK eariv ovBev mv 7]/jl€l<; I'a/xev, ev Be 
rol<i dXXoi<; vXrjpaaiv eariv, olov i] re aKopva Kal 
rj Bpv7rl<; Kal 6 dKavo<i Kal cr^eBov dirav ro rcov 
uKavcdBoiV yevo<;' wairep yap (f)vXXov ecrrlv /; 
aKavOa Trdaiv el Be fir] <^vXXa ri<i ravra Oi^aei, 

1 Plin. Ix. and 13. 30. ^ ol h conj. W.; Ubv Aid. H. 
' irapaKavBi^ovTa con]. Sell.; irapaywj'f^oi'Ta UMVAld. 
* TO 5f (TX'fTa add. W. 



leaves. Some again have reedy leaves, as date-palm 
doum-palm and such like. But, generally speaking, 
the leaves of these end in a point ; for reeds galin- 
gale sedge and the leaves of otlier marsh plants are 
of this character. ^ The leaves of all these are com- 
pounded of tw^o parts, and the middle is like a keel, 
placed where in^ other leaves is a large passage 
dividing the two halves. Leaves differ also in their 
shapes ; some are round, as those of pear, some 
rather oblong, as those of the apple ; some come to a 
sharp point and have spinous projections^ at the 
side, as those of smilax. So far J have spoken ot 
undivided leaves ; but some are divided * and like 
a saw, as those of silver-fir and of fern. To a 
certain extent those of the vine are also divided, 
while those of the fig one might compare to a crow's 
foot." ^ Some leaves again have notches, as those of 
elm filbert and oak, others have spinous projections 
both at the tip and at the edges, as those of kermes- 
oak oak smilax bramble Christ's thorn and others. 
The leaf of fir Aleppo pine silver-fir and also of prickly 
cedar and kedris (juniper) ^ has a spinous point at 
the tip. Among other trees there is none that we 
know which has spines for leaves altogether, but it 
is so with other woody plants, as akorna drypis pine- 
thistle and almost all the plants which belong to 
that class.^ For in all these spines, as it were, take 
the place of leaves, and, if one is not to reckon these 

5 Kopwvorro^w^t] conj. Gesner. The fig-leaf is compared to a 
crow's foot, Plut. de defect, orac. 3 ; aKoXoirwdrj Aid. , which 
word is applied to thorns by Diosc. ** Plin. 16. 90. 

■^ KedpiSos conj. Dalec. ; KeSpias MSS. cf. Plin. I.e., who 
seems to have read aypias. 

8 aKauuSwv conj. W., cf. 1. 13. 3; uKavOwSciv MSS.; olkuj/- 



(TVfi^aivoi av 6\o)<; axpvWa elvai, iviOL<^ he anavdav 
[lev elvat (jyuWov Se 0X0)9 ov/c eyeiv, KaOdirep 

7 WoXlv 8' OTL TCI fiev d^ucr^a, KaOdirep ra t?)s 
a/clX\7}<i Kol Tov ^oXfSou, rd S' e)(0VTa fiia-)(ov. 
Kol rd fiev [xaKpov, olov 1) d/nTveXo'i kol 6 /t^tto?, 
rd he ^pa-xvv koI olov efinrecpvKoTa, KaOdirep ekda 
fcal ovx Mcnrep eirl t/)9 irXardvov kol dpureKov 
irpoai-jpryifievov. hLa(f)opd he koI to pLrj eV twv 
avTMV elvai rrjv 7rpua(f)vaiv, dWa rot? /Jtev 

7T\eiaT0l<i €K TMV IcXdhfOV Tol'i he KOL CK ruiv 

dKpejiovoyv, tt}? hpvo<; he kol €k tov (TTe\e)(ov'^, 
TMV he \ay(avwh6)v toi<; ttoXXoa? evdv<; €K rf/? 

pi^T]^, olov KpOflVOV CTKOphoV Ki)(^OpLOV, €TL he 

dcr(j)ohe\ov cr/ctXXry? /SoX/Sov aLavpi'y')(lov kol 

6XC0<; TMV ^oX/3MhMV' KOL TOVTMV he OVX V T^pdiTt] 

fiovov eKCJiuai^ dXXd Kat 6Xo<; o KavXo<; dcfyvXXov. 
ivLMV S' oTav yevijrai, (pvXXa el/co'^, olov 6 pihaKivri^; 
mkl/jLOV aeXivov koI Tcof criTijpMV ofxoLM^. e')(^ei 
S* evia TOVTMV kol tov kuvXov elr aKavOli^ovTa, 
CO? rj OpLhaKLvq /cal rd (pvXXdKavda iruvTa kcu 
Twr/ Oa/xvMhcbv he kol eTi fiuXXov, olov /Saros' 

8 Koivy he hia(f)opd irdvTMV 6fiOLM<; hevhpMV kul 
Twt' dXXMV OTL Ta fiev iroXixfivXXa ra 8' oXljo- 
(f)vXXa. CO? h' €7rl to irdv ra irXaTixjivXXa Ta^i- 
(f)vXXa, KaOdirep pLvppivo^;, Ta 8' draKTa Kal ws" 
CTVX,^, KaOdirep a^ehov Ta irXelara tmv uXXmv 

1 Plin. 16. 91. 2 ^^1 conj. W. ; t? Ald.H. 

' Mwv . . . fhc6s. So Sch. explains : text probably de- 



as leaves, they would be entirely leaHess, and some 
would have spines but no leaves at all, as asparagus. 

^ Again there is the difference that some leaves 
have no leaf-stalk, as those of squill and purse- 
tassels, while others have a leaf-stalk. And some 
of the latter have a long leaf-stalk, as vine 
and ivy, some, as olive, a short one which grows, as 
it were, into the stem and is not simply attached to 
it, as it is in^ plane and vine. Another difference is 
that the leaves do not in all cases grow from the 
same part, but, whereas in most trees they grow from 
the branches, in some they grow also from the twigs, 
and in the oak from the stem as well ; in most 
pot-herbs they grow directly from the root, as in 
onion garlic chicory, and also in asphodel squill 
purse-tassels Barbary-nut, and generally in plants 
of the same class as purse-tassels ; and in these 
not merely the original growth but the whole 
stalk is leafless. In some, when the stalk is pro- 
duced, the leaves may be expected to grow,^ as in 
lettuce basil celery, and in like manner in cereals. 
In some of these the stalk presently becomes spinous, 
as in lettuce and the whole class of plants with 
spinous leaves, and still more in shrubby plants, as 
bramble and Christ's thorn. 

* Another difference which is found in all trees 
alike and in other plants as well is that some have 
many, some few leaves. And in general those that 
have flat leaves^ have them in a regular series, as 
myrtle, while in other instances the leaves are in no 
particular order, but set at random, as in most other 

* Plin. 16. 92. 

^ vXaTvcpvWa UVP ; no\v(pv\\a conj. W. ; but ir\aTvTijs is 
one of the * differences ' given in the summary below. 



[Ty^*]. lSiop Be irrl tmv \a-)(av(i)ho)v, olov Kpofxuov 

y7]T€L0V, TO K0l\6(f)v\\0P. 

'AttXcu? 8' al hiac^opai rwv (PvWcov i) fxe'^kdei 
rj 7rXy0€L rj (J%>;yu.aTi 17 TrXarvryrL i) aTevorrjri 
r] kolX6t7]tl rj Tpa')(^VTi~iTi rj \€l6t)]tl kol tw irap- 
afcavOi^eiv y pur), en Be Kara rtjv irpoac^va-iv 
69 ev 7) Bl* ov' to piev 66 ev, airo pi^rj(; r; kXciBov 
rj Kavkov r} aKpepbovo^;- to Be Bi ov, rj Bta p,La)(^ov 
rj Bl avTOv Kal el Sr; noWa etc rod avrov. Kal 
evia KapiTucpopa, psTa^v 7r€pieL\'i](l)6Ta tov Kapirov, 
loairep y 'AXe^avBpeua Bdcpvy iTTKpvWuKapTro'^. 

At piev ovv Bia^opal tmv (^vWwv KOLvorepo)^ 
irdcrai el'pyvTUi Kal oyeBov elaiv ev tovtoi<;. 

(^vyKGLTat Be to, piev e^ Ivb^ Kal (pXoiou Kal 
aapKo^, olov to, t?}? avKi]<; Kal tt}? dpuTreXov, to, Be 
(ocnrep i^ tVo? piovov, olov tov KaXcipuov Kal ctltov. 
TO Be vypov uTrdvTcov kolvov ciTraaL yap evv- 
Trdpxj^L Kal TOVTOL^ Kal rot? ciXXoL<; rot? eVeretots 
[yLitcr;^09 dvOo<; Kap7ro<^ et tl dXXo\ puaXXov Be Kal 
Tol<s piy eireTeioL'i' ovBev yap civev tovtov. Bokcl 
Be Kal TMV pbla')((ov tcl piev i^ Ivcov puovov avyKel- 
aOai, KaOdirep to, tov cjitov Kal tov KaXdpLOV, to. 
5' e'/c Tcov avTcov, wairep 01 KavXol. 

^ rwv &\\(i.<v ?iv MSS. ; Tuv ■notuSan' conj. W. ^y, at all 
events, cannot be right. ^ Plin. 19. 100. 

■* ?; areuSTTjTi f} koiXSttjti : SO G ; y) KotXorrjTi fi aTev6Tr]Ti 
MSS. ■* i.e. petiolate. ^ i.e. sessile. 

* i.e. compound : ej 5?j conj. W. ; etdv UMVAltl. 

' The passage from here to the end of the chapter is a 



})lants.^ 2 jt js peculiar to pot-herbs to have hollow 
leaves, as in onion and horn-onion. 

To sum up, the differences between leaves are 
shewn in size, number, shape, hollowness, in breadth,^ 
roughness and their opposites, and in the presence or 
absence of spinous projections ; also as to their 
attachment, according to the part from which they 
spring or the means by which they are attached ; 
the part from which they spring being the root or a 
branch or the stalk or a twig, while the means by 
which they are attached may be a leaf-stalk,* or they 
may be attached directly ; ^ and there may be ♦^ 
several leaves attached by the same leaf-stalk. 
Further some leaves are fruit-bearing, enclosing the 
fruit between them, as the Alexandrian laurel, which 
has its fruit attached to the leaves. 

These are all the differences in leaves stated some- 
what generally, and this is a fairly complete list of 

Compofiition 0/ the various parts of a plant. 

''(Leaves are composed some of fibre bark and flesh, 
as those of the fig and vine, some, as it were, of 
fibre alone, as those of reeds and corn. But moisture 
is common to all, for it is found both in leaves and in 
the other annual parts,^ leaf-stalk, flower, fruit and so 
forth but more especially in the parts which are 
not annual'-'; in fact no part is without it. Again it 
appears that some leaf-stalks are composed only of 
fibre, as those of corn and reeds, some of the same 
materials as the stalks. 

^ ixlaxo^ ■ • • i-^^o has no construction ; probably a (correct) 
gloss, taken from 1,2, 1. 

^ i.e. while these are young, W. 



10 Tmv 8' avOoiv TO, fjLev eK (pXoLOv kol (^\e^o<; /cai 
(TapK6<^, <Trt h^ eK crapK()<;> fxovov, olov ra ev fxean^ 
TMV apcov. 

'OyLtotco? Se KOL eVl TMV KapiTwv' o'i fiev yap i/c 
aapKO<; koI lv6<;, ol Be i/c aapKO'^ fiovov, ol Ze Kai 
€K Sep/j,aro<; (Tvy/ceiprar rb Se vypov uKoXovdel 
fcal TouTOi?. €K aapKo^ /nev koI iVo? o twi> 

KOKKVfJLrjXwV Kol (TLKVCOV, €^ tVo9 Sc Kol Sep^aTO? 

o rcov avKafiiPcov kol t?}? p6a<;. aWoi he /car 
aXXov rpoTTov ixepLepiaixevoL. iravrcov Se &)? 
elirelv to p,ev e^co (f)\oio<^ to 8' cVto? aap^ tmv Sf 
/cat TTVpjJV.) 

XI. "EcrxciTov S' eV airaaL to aireppba. tovto 
Be e'xpv ev eavTw avfKpvTov vypov koI Oep/biov, cov 
eicknrovTCdv ayova, KaOdirep to, wd. Kal tcov fxev 
evOv TO (T7rep/jLa /leTa to Trepiey^av, olov ^olviko<; 
Kapvov d/ivySd\r)i;, TrXeiw Be tovtwv to, epurepi- 
e^ovTa, CO? tcl tov (poLVLKO^. TMV Be fxeTa^u aap^ 
/cat 7rvp7]v, Mairep e\da<^ Kal KOKKVjJiTfKea^ Kal 
eTepMV. evia Be KaX ev Xo^m, tcl S' ev vfievi, to, 
S' ev dyyeiM, to, Be Kal yvpiv oairepjxa reXetw?. 
2 ^Ev Xo/3ft) jxev ov fjLovov TCL €7reTeia, KaOdirep to. 
X^Bpojra Kal eTepa TrXelw tmv dypiMv, dXka Kal 
Twi/ BevBpMV evia, KaOdirep >/ re KepMvia, tjv Tive<i 
KaXovai GVKyjV AlyuTTTiav, Kal r) KepKl<i Kal i) 
KoXoLTia irepl Acirdpav ev v/xevL B' evia tmv 

^ rhU; rh Aid. 

' ra S' iK (TapKhs preserved only in mBas.; om. UMVPo 
Sch. reads rb. 

3 Spoil/ conj. W.; oi/jo)*/ MSS. ■* i.e. rind. 

5 Plin. 18. 53. 8 j,^ conj. Sch.; olv Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. x. lo-xi. 2 

Of flowers some ^ are composed of bark veins and 
riesh, some of flesh only,^ as those in the middle of 

So too with fruits ; some are made of flesh and 
fibre, some of flesh alone, and some of skin ^ also. 
And moisture is necessarily found in these also. 
The fruit of plums and cucumbers is made of flesh 
and fibre, that of mulberries and pomegranates of 
fibre and skin. The materials are differently distri- 
buted in different fruits, but of nearly all the outside 
is bark, the inside flesh, and this in some cases 
includes a stone.) 

Differences in seeds. 

XI. Last in all plants comes the seed. This possesses 
in itself natural moisture and warmth, and, if these 
fail, the seeds are sterile, like eggs in the like case. 
In some plants the seed comes immediately inside 
the envelope, as in date filbert almond (however, as 
in the case of the date, there may be more than one 
covering). In some cases again there is flesh and a 
stone between the envelope and the seed, as in olive 
plum and other fruits. Some seeds again are enclosed 
in a pod, some in a husk, some in a vessel, and some 
are completely naked. 

^ Enclosed in a pod are not ^ only the seeds ot 
annual plants, as leguminous plants, and of con- 
siderable numbers of wild plants, but also those of 
certain trees, as the carob-tree (which some "^ call 
the ' Egyptian fig '), Judas-tree,^ and the koloitia ^ 
of the Liparae islands. In a husk are enclosed the 

' i]v rives conj. St. from G ; y]vrLva Ald.H. 

* Clearly not the KepKis (aspen) described 3. 14. 2. 

" KoKonia MSS. ; KoXovrea Conj. .St., cf. 3. 17. 2 n. 



eTrereiufV, Mairep 6 7rupo<; kol 6 Key^po^' oyaavrco^ 
Se KoX ivayyeLocnTepfjLaTa Kal yv/jLvocTTTep/jiara. 
ivayyeioairepf.iaTa fiev olov y re pn'jKwv kol oaa 
fj,7]KQ)viKd' TO yap (Djcrafiov ISicoTepco^;' yvjivo- 
aTrep/jiaTa Be toov re \a)(^dvcov iroWd, KaOdirep 
dprjOov Kopiavvov dvvrjcrov kv/jllvov fidpaOov kol 
€T6pa irXelw. roiv he hevhpwv ovhev yvjivoairepfiov 
dXk' 7/ aap^l 7repie-)(^6fievoi' y KeXvcpecrip, ra fiev 
S€p/naTLK:oL<;, Mcrirep r) ^d\avo<; Kal to I^u/BoIkov, 
TO, Be ^uXcoSeaiv, oiarrep ?; a/jLvySdXrf kol to 
Kapvov. ovBev Be evayyeiocjireppiov, el pnq ti<; tov 
Kcovop dyyelov Oijaei Blo, to ')(^copLl^ea6aL twv 


AvTCL Be TO, airep/iaTa tmv fxev evOv aapKcoBr], 
Kaddirep oaa Kapvrjpd Kal /BaXavrjpd- tmv Be ev 
irvprjvL TO aapKa)Be<; e^eTat, KaOdrrep e\da<^ Kal 
Ba(f)ViBo(: Kal aXXcov. tcov 6' ip.irvpriva fiovov r; 
iTvprjvdiBrj ye Kal coairep ^rjpd, KaOdirep Ta 
KvrjKcoBrj Kal Key')(pa/jLtBd)B7j Kal iroXXd tcov 
\a-)(av7]pct)V. epcjiaveaTaTa Be to, tov (f)0iviK0<=;- 
ovBe yap KOiXoTTjTa e^eu tovto ovBefxiav aXV 
6\ov ^Tjpov' ov fi7]V aXX' vyp6Tr)<; Byj Ti? Kal 
OepixoTi)^ V7rdp')(eL BrjXov otl Kal tovto), Kaddirep 

^ fxrjKwviKo. . . . Th yap conj. W. from G ; iit]kcdvi- Kara yap 

^ Kopiafvof iuyqa-ov conj. Sell.; Kopiii.vvT)crov UAI Aid. ; ko- 
pivv-naov Y ; cf. Plin. 19. 119. 

* ^ Kf\v(p€(Tiv conj. Sch., cf. C.P. 4. 1. 2 ; ^ 5f Kv/j-aaiy U; 
Plin. 15. 112, crusta teguntur glandes. * Plin. 15. 113. 



seeds of some annuals, as wheat and millet ; and 
in like manner some plants have their seeds in a 
vessel, some have them naked. In a vessel are 
those of the poppy and plants of the poppy kind ; ^ 
(the case of sesame however is somewhat peculiar), 
while many pot-herbs have their seeds naked, as 
dill coriander 2 anise cummin fennel and many 
others. No tree has naked seeds, but either they 
are enclosed in flesh or in shells/ which are some- 
times ..of leathery nature, as the acorn and the sweet 
chestnut, sometimes woody, as almond and nut. 
Moreover no tree has its seeds in a vessel, unless one 
reckons a cone as a vessel, because it can be separated 
from the fruits. 

The actual seeds are in some cases fleshy in them- 
selves, as all those which resemble nuts or acorns ; 
^ in some cases the fleshy part is contained in a stone, 
as in olive bay and others. The seeds in some 
plants again merely consist of a stone,^ or at least 
are of stone-like character, and are, as it were,^ dry ; 
for instance those of plants like safHower millet and 
many pot-herbs. Most obviously of this character 
are those of the date,^ for they contain no cavity, 
but are throughout dry ^ ; — not but what there must 
be even in them some moisture and warmth, as we 
have said.^ 

^ i/xTTvpiqva fiopov ^ Trvprivw^r] conj. Sch.; iv irvpTJvi fiSyoy ^ 
TTvprjuctiSei Aid. (P has -nvprjuuibri). 

® i.e. no seed can really be without moisture ; cf. 1. 11. 1. 

7 cf. a P. 5. 18. 4. 

' ^Tjphv I conj. , as required by the next clause ; e^opdov PAld. ; 
€^oppov W. from Sch. conj. The germ in the date-stone is so 
small as to be undiscoverable, whence the stone seems to be 
homogeneous throughout, with no cavity for the germ. 

9 1. 10. 9. 



4 AiacfiepouaL Be kol tw ra jxlv aO poa fier 
aWjjXcov elvai, to, Se BiecTTCOTa kol aroi'^^^TjBov, 
Mairep ra t% Ko\oKVVTr]<^ /cal ai/cva^ kol roiv 
BevSpcov, &)? n€pcnK)}<i /xr/Xea?. kol tcop dOpowv 
ra fxev evi tlvl 7TepLe)(^ea0ai, KaOcnrep ra t>}? p6a<i 
Kot T?}? airiov koI fxrfkea^ kol t?]'^ afnreXov koX 
crvKr}<;' ra Be fxeT aXkijXoyv fiev elvai, /ultj irepi- 
e-)(ea6ai Be vcf)* ev6<;, coairep ra a-raj^yripa tmv 
eTTereiwv, el //.r; ri? Oecr] rov aru'^^vv &>? 7repie')(ov 
ovro) S' earat koI 6 ^orpv; koX raXka to. 
^orpvcoBr) koI oaa Brj <f>epet Bl ev^oaiav Kal 
')(^ci)pa<^ aperrjv a6p6ov<; tol/? Kap7rov<;, oiairep iv 
%vpia (f)aal /cal aXkoOi, ra? iXdaff. 

'AXXa Kal avrr) Bofcel Tt? elvat Biacpopd to rd 
fiev d(p^ €1^09 filcryov Kal /Jiid'^ 7Tpoa(l)vaea)<s 
dOpoa yiveaOai, KaOdirep eiri re rwv /SoTpvijpcjv 
Kal crra^vTjpcov el'prjTai firj Trepiexop^eva koivCo 
TLVL jLveadaL' rd Be firj ylveaOai. eVel KaO' 
eKaarov <ye Xafx^dvovrL rwv aTrepfidrajv rj rcov 
irepiexovroiv IBiav dp-^^^rjv e)(ei t?}? Trpoacpua-eax;, 
olov -i] re pd^ Kal rj poa Kai irdXiv o 7rvpo<; Kal ?/ 
KpiOrj. ■}]KL(Tra S' dv Bo^eiev rd rwv /irjXcov Kal 
rd rwv aTTLCOV, on crvp^-y^aveL re Kal rrepLeiXr^iTraL 
KaOaTTep vfievi, rivl Bep/jiariKrp rrepl ov ro ire pi - 

6 KapiTLOV' dXX' 6/jLco<; Kal rovrcov eKaarov IBlav 
dpxv^ e%efc Kal cpvaiv (pavepcorara Be rw 

^ (TToixrihSv conj. W.; (rxeSiiv Aid. 

2 kii Tivi conj. Sch.; iv tivi Aid. ^ cf. Plin. 15. 15. 

* auTTj conj. 8ch.; avrr] Aid. ' rh conj. W.; ry AM, 



Fiirtlier seeds differ in that in some cases they are 
massed together, in others they are separated and 
arranged in rows/ as those of the gourd and 
bottle-gourd, and of some trees, such as the citron. 
Again of those that are massed together some differ 
in being contained in a single ^ case, as those of 
pomegranate pear apple vine and fig ; others in 
being closely associated together, yet not contained 
in a single case, as, among annuals, those which are 
in an ear — unless one regards the ear as a case. In 
that case the grape-cluster and other clustering fruits 
will come under the description, as well as all those 
plants which on account of good feeding or excellence 
of soil bear their fruits massed together,^ as they 
say the olive does in Syria and elsewhere. 

But this"* too seems to be a point of difference, 
that^ some grow massed together from a single 
stalk and a single attachment, as has been said in 
the case of plants with clusters or ears whose seeds 
do not grow contained in one common case ; while 
others grow otherwise. For in these instances, if 
one takes each seed or case separately, it has its own 
special point of attachment, for instance each grape 
or pomegranate,*^ or again each grain of wheat or 
barley. This would seem to be least of all the case 
with the seeds of apples and ])ears, since ^ these 
touch one another ^ and are enclosed in a sort of 
skin-like membrane, outside which is the fruit-case.'' 
However each of these too has its own peculiar 
point of attachment and character ; this is most 

* 7} T6 . , . ^((a. : text perhaps defective ; ^ re pa| fiSrpvas 
Koi TTJs poas 6 TrvpT]v conj. Bod. 

■^ Srt conj. Sch. ; B-m 17; oiroi PMAld. 
8 c/. 8. 5. 2. » i.e. pulp. 



KeywpiaOai ra tt)? poa^' o yap irvprju ktcaoro^ 
TrpoaTTecpvKev, ou;^ oidirep tmv avKcov dBj]\a Bia 
Tj-jv vypoTJjTa. Kol yap tovtw e'X^ovat, Siacfiopav 
Kaiirep d/xcporepa irepLey^opeva aapKwSei tlv\ kov to) 
TOVTO TrepieiXrjcpoTL /jLera rcov dWcov ra fiev yap 
irepX EKacTTOV e;^et irvprjva to aapKa)S€<; rovro to 
vypov, at Se /c67%/3a/xtSe? wairep kolvov tv iraaaL, 
KaOdnep fcal to yiyaprov Kal ocra top avrov e^^i 
rpoTTOV. aXXd Td<; /lev ToiavTa<^ Sia(popd<; rax 
dv Ti? Xd^ot 7rXeiov<;' o)V hel rd<; KvpicoTdra^; Kai 
/idXiara t/}? <f>va€co<; /irj dyvoelv. 

XII. At Se Kajci T0U9 xl'Xou? Kal rd a^W^'^^ 
Kal rd^i 6Xa<^ [jiop(^d<; a^eSov cpavepal irdcnv, oiare 
/IT] SelaOai Xoyov 7rXi]v toctovtov y otl (7')(r)pa 
ovhev TTepiKdpmov €vdvypap/.LOv ovBe ywvLa<; e%e(. 
TO)v Ze 'xyXwv ol fiev elcrcv olvcoSei^;, wairep d/i- 
ireXov (TVKafiLVOV fivprov' ol 8' eXaco^et?, coairep 
€Xda<i hd(^vi]<; Kapva<^ dfivyBaXt]<; 7r€VKij<; TrtTuo? 
iXdT7]<;' ol he fieXLTcoSeL^;, olov gvkov ^o'iviko'^ 
SLoa/SaXdvov ol Se Spi/iel'^, olov opiydvov Ovfx^pg.'s 
KapSdfiov i^aTTuo?' ol Se iriKpol, Mairep dy\rLv6iov 
KevTavpiov. hiacpepovaL Se Kal ral<; ev(oBiaL<;, 
olov dvvrjaov Kehplho^' iviwv he vhapel<; dv ho^aiev, 
olov ol Twi^ KOKKVjXTfKewv' ol he 6^€L<i, iticnrep pocov 

' i.e. of the pulp. ^ tovto} conj. Scli.; toCto Aid. 

' Thv om. St. : i.e. the seeds are arranged in corapartment.' 
of the pulp. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xi. 6-xii. i 

obvious in the separation of the pomegranate seeds, 
for the stone is attached to eacli, and the connexion 
is not, as in figs, obscured by the moisture.^ For 
here ^ too there is a difference, although in botli 
cases the seeds are enclosed in a sort of flesh}- 
substance, as well as in the case which encloses this 
and the other parts of the fruit. For in the pome- 
granate the stones have this moist fleshy substance 
enclosing each ^ separate stone ; but in the case of 
fig-seeds, as well as in that of grape-stones and other 
plants which have the same arrangement, the same 
pulp is common to all.* However one might find 
more such differences, and one should not ignore the 
inost important of them, namely those which specially 
belong to the plant's natural character. 

Differences in taste. 

XII. The differences in taste, shape, and form as 
a whole are tolerably evident to all, so that they do 
not need explanation ; except that it should be 
stated that^ the case containing the fruit is never 
right-lined in shape and never has angles. ^ Of 
tastes some are like wine, as those of vine mul- 
berry and myrtle ; some are like olive-oil, as, besides 
olive itself, bay hazel almond fir Aleppo pine silver- 
fir ; some like honey, as fig date chestnut ; some are 
pungent, as marjoram savory cress mustard ; some 
are bitter, as wormwood centaury. Some also are 
remarkably fragrant, as anise and juniper'''; of 
some the smell would seem to be insipid,^ as in 
plums ; of others sharp, as in pomegranates and 

* i.e. the fruit is not divided into compartments. 

' it\r\v % ToaovTov conj. W.; 7r\r]u Toaovrov ^ UMAkl. 

8 Plin. 19. 186 ; 15. 109. ' cf. 1. 9. 4. » Lit. watery. 



Koi ivifov /jb7)\(ov. airdvrwv he 0LP(oBeL<; koX tol/? 
ev TOUTft) Tft) <yevei Oeriov oXXol he iv d\\oi<i 
eiSecTiP' vwep o)v aTrdvrwv uKpL^earepov iv TOL<i 
irepl %i'Xft)Z/ pr]T€OVy avrd<; re Ta? lBea<i hLapidjiov- 
fievov; OTToaai kol ra<i tt^o? dW'}]\ov<^ Bia(f>opa<; 
KoX Tt9 r) eKacTTOV <^vcn<; koX hvva[iL^. 

"E%6t he Koi r) T(x}v hevhpwv uvtmp v^/oott;?, 
coaTrep eXex^V' hidcpopa eihrj' rj p^ev ^ydp ecTTiv 
oirdihrjq, MGirep r/ rrj^ avKrj<; kol t;'}? p^TjKcoro^' y 
he TTiTTwS?;?, olov eXar?;? irevKri^; tmv Kwvocpopfov 
dW^] S' vSap)j<;, olov dpLireKov diriov ptfkea^, kul 
TMV \a')(^avo)h(bv he, olov ctlkvov koXokvptt)'^ Opiha- 
fCiV7j<;' al he [>']h7]\ hpipvTrjrd riva e^ovai, KaOdirep 
T) Tov Ovpou KoX OvpjSpa^' al he kol evcohlav, 
coairep al rov aeXivov dv/jdou fiapddov koI tcov 
ToiovTcov. o)? h aTrXw? elireZv diracrai Kara ryjv 
Ihiav <pvaLV e/cdarov hevhpou /cal o)? KaO^ 6\ov 
elirelv (fyvrov' irav yap e^ei fcpdalv rcva KaX pl^iv 
Ihlav, Tjirep oiKcia hfjXov on rvyxdvei tol<; vtto- 
Keifievoi'i KapiTol^' mv toZ? 7rXeLcrT0L<; avvepcfyalve- 
ral Ti9 op^oioT^-j^; ovk aKpi^y^ ovhe aa(f)i'j<i- aXX' 
iv TOL<; irepiKapTTLOi^' hio p.dXXov Karepyaalav 
Xap^^dvei Kal ireylriv KaOapdv kol elXt/cpivfi ?; rov 

1 rf. a P. 6. 6. 4. 

"^ T. is said to have written a treatise irfpl x'^Mwt'. 

* ottwStjs. ottos is used specially of the juice of the fij 

* /.irjKwt'os probably corrupt : it should be a tree. 



some kinds of apples. ^ But the smells even ol' 
those in this class must in all cases be called wine- 
like^ though they differ in different kinds, on which 
matter we must speak more precisely, when we come 
to speak of flavours,^ reckoning up the different 
kinds themselves, and stating what differences 
there are between them, and what is the natural 
character and property of each. 

Now the sap of the trees themselves assumes 
different kinds of tastes as was said ; sometimes it 
is milky,"'^ as that of the fig and poppy,"* some- 
times like pitch, as in silver-fir fir and the conifers ; 
sometimes it is insipid, as in vine pear and apple, 
as well as such pot-herbs as cucumber gourd 
lettuce ; while others'^ again have a certain pungency, 
such as the juice of thyme and savory; others have 
a fragrance, such as the juices of celery dill fennel 
and the like. To speak generally, all saps corre- 
spond to the sjiecial character of the several trees, 
one might almost add, to that of each plant. For 
every plant has a certain temperament and com- 
position of its own, which ^ plainly belongs in a 
special sense to the fruits of each. And in most of 
these is seen a sort of correspondence with the 
character of the plant as a whole, which is not 
however exact nor obvious ; it is chiefly ^ in the fruit- 
cases^ that it is seen, and that is why it is the 
character of the flavour which becomes more com- 
plete and matures into something separate and 

^ I have bracketed ^Stj : ? a dittography of at Se. 
« ^lirep mBas.H ; (Uep MAld. 

' aW eV . . . ixuWov MSS. (?) Ald.H ; yap for 5ih conj. W., 
omitting stop before it. 

® i.e. the pulp : so G. cf. 1. 11. 6. 




')(v\ov (^V(TL^' Sel yap wairep to fxev vXtjv vtto 
Xa^elv to Be elSo? koI fiop<^i]v. 

3 "l'^%ei he avTo, to. airep/iaTa kol at p^trco^'e? 
TTepl avTCL SLa(f)opav tmu ')(v\o)v. co? S' avrXw? 
elrrelv airavTa tcl fiopia twv hevhpwv kol (pvTMv, 
olov pi^a Kavko^ aKpe/acdv (fivWov Kap7r6<;, e-)(ei 
TLva OLKeioTrjTa 7rpo<; Trjv oXrjv (pvacv, el kol 
TTapaXkcLTTeL /caTa re ra? oafia<; koX tou? ;^l'Xou?, 
o)? ra fxev evoafia kol evcoSr] tcl 8' aoa/ia kol 
d)(v\a 'TravTe\(h<s elvaL twv tov avTOv popiwv. 

4 ^EvLoyv jap evoajxa to, civ6rj /idWov t) tcl 
(j)vWa, TOiv Be avd'TTa\LV to, (f)vX\a paXkov Kal 
OL KXcove^;, wairep twv (JTe<^avwp,aTLKO)V' twv he ol 
KapTToi' Twv 3' ovheTepov evLwv S* at pl^ar twv 
he Ti p.epo'^. 6fioiCL><; he Kal KaTo, tou? ')(^v\ov<;- to, 
jxev yap ^pcoTCL tcl h' d/SpcoTa TV'y)(^dveL Kal ev 

cf)v\'\OL<i Kal TrepLKapTTLOl^. chLCOTUTOV he TO eVt 

T7/9 (f)i\vpa<i' TavTr]<i yap tcl fiev <pvWa yXvKea 
Kal TToWd Tcov ^cocov ecrOUi, 6 he Kapiro<^ ovhevl 
/3y9ft)T09' eTvel TO ye avdiraXLv ovhev OavpLaaTov, 
wcrre tcl p.ev (fivWa /xr) eaOleaOaL toij<; he Kaprrov<; 
ov fiovov v(j) r)p.cov dWa Kai vtto tmv dWwv 
^(ocov. dWd Kal irepl tovtov Kal tmv ciWcov 
TMV TOiovTMV vaTcpov iTeLpaTeov Oewpelv Trt? 

XIII. '^vv he TocrovTOV eVrct) hrjXov, oti KaTci 
irdvTa TCL p^eprj TrXetof ? elal htacpopal TroWaxo)^- 

^ i.e. the pulp. ' i.e. the flavour. 

^ Sense : P]very tree has a characteristic juice of its own, 
which is however specially recognisable in its fruit ; in the 
tree as a whole its character is not alwaj's apparent. Hence 
the importance of the flavour (which is seen in the fruit- 
pulp), since it is this which determines the specific character, 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xii. 2-xiii. i 

distinct; in fact we must consider the one^ as 
' matter/ the other ^ as ' form ' or specific character."' 

Again the seeds themselves and the coats con- 
taining them have different flavours. And, to speak 
generally, all parts of trees and plants, as root stem 
branch leaf fruit, have a certain relationship to the 
character of the whole, even if* there is variation in 
scents and tastes, so that of the parts of the same 
plant some are fragrant and sweet to the taste, 
while others are entirely scentless and tasteless. 

For in some plants the flowers are more fragrant 
than the leaves, in others on the contrary it is 
rather the leaves and twigs which are fragrant, as in 
those used for garlands. In others again it is the 
fruits ; in others it is neither ^ of these parts, but, in 
some few cases, the root or some part of it. And 
so too with the flavours. Some leaves and some 
fruit-pulps are, and some are not good for food. 
^ Most peculiar is the case of the lime : the leaves 
of this are sweet, and many animals eat them, but 
the fruit no creature eats, (for, as to the contrary 
case, it would not be at all surprising that the leaves 
should not be eaten, while the fruits were eaten not 
only by us but by other animals). But concerning 
this and other such matters we must endeavour to 
consider the causes on some other occasion. 

Differences in flowers. 

XIII. For the present let so much be clear, that 
in all the parts of plants there are numerous differ- 

the pulp of fruit in general being, in Aristotelian language, 
the 'matter,' while the flavour is 'form.' cf. G.P. 6. 6. 6. 

* 61 KoX conj. Sch. ; ^ Se U ; ei Se MVAld. 

* ovhfTipov seems inaccurately used, as four parts have been 
mentioned. ^ ^f. 3, 10. 5 ; Plin 16. 65. 



CTTcl KOI TU)V avOfjiV TO, /i€V ecTTt "Xt'ooihrj, /caOdirep 

TO Tt)? a/jLTTeXoV Kai (TVKafliVOV kol tov klttov- 

TCL 5e (f)vX\.(oh] , KaOdirep dfjLvySaXrjf; /jLt]\ea<; 
cLTTLov KO/cKv/n]\€a<;. ical to, /xev yu-eye^o? €-)(ei, 
TO Se T/}? e\da(; (f)vX\.MSe<i ov ci/ieyede^;. o^oion; 
he KOI iv TOi^ eVeretoi? Kal TroiooSecn ra fxev 
(f)vW(oS7] ra Be ')(you>hri. irdvTwv Be ra fiev Si)(^poa 
TO. Se jiovo^^poa. ra fxev iwv hevBpwv rd ye 
TToWa fiovoxpoa Kal \evKav6?]' povov yap co? 
elirelv to t?}? poa^; <^olvlkovv Kal dpvySaXcov 
TLvwv virepvO pov aXXov Be ouBevo<; twv t)pepo)v 
0VT6 dvOwBe^ ovT€ Bi')(^povv, aX,X* el' Tivo^i TOiv 
dypiwv, olov TO Trj<^ e\dT7]^' KpoKivov yap to 
TavTi]<; av6o<i' Kal ocra Bi'i (^acnv ev tjj e^co Oa\- 
aTTj] poBwv e'^eiv t^u ^(^poav. 

^\Lv Be Tol<i e7veTeioL<s a^^Bov ra ye TrXeio) 
TOiavTa Kal Bl^poa Kal BiavOP]. Xeyco Be Bcavde^; 
OTL eWepov dv6o<^ ev tCo dvOei e^ec KaTa fieaov, 
Mcnrep to poBov kol to Kpivov Kal to 't'ov to fieXav. 
evia Be Kal pov6(f)vX\a (f)veTai Biaypacprjv €)(^ovTa 
povov Twv rrXeiovcov, wajrep to t?}? lacncovrj'^' ov 
yap Ke)(^Ci)piaTai TavTi]<; ev tm dvOeu to c^vWov 
eKacTTOV ovBe Brj tov Xeipiov to KdTCO p,epo<;, dXXa 
eK TMV ciKpcov diT0<^vaeL<^ yo)vi(t)BeL<s. a'^^eBov Be 
Kal TO T/}? eXda'^ tolovtov iaTCv. 

A[a(f)epei. Be Kal KaTa Trjv eK(^vaiv Kal Oeaiv 
TCL pev yap e^CL irepl avTOv tov Kapirov, olov dp,- 

^ i.e. petaloid. 

- ayplcov Aid.; alrlov U ; aPTiuiv MV ; vovrlwv conj. W. 

' i.e. corolla and stamens, etc. 

* i.e. are gamopetalous (or ganiosepalous). 



eiices shewn in a variety of ways. Tlius of flowers 
some are downy, as that of the vine mulberry and 
ivy, some are ' leafy,' ^ as in almond apple pear 
plum. Again some of these flowers are conspicuous, 
while that of the olive, though it is ' leafy,' is incon- 
spicuous. Again it is in annual and herbaceous 
plants alike that we find some leafy, some downy. 
All plants again have flowers either of two colours or 
of one ; most of the flowers of trees are of one colour 
and white, that of the pomegranate being almost the 
only one which is red, while that of some almonds is 
reddish. The flower of no other cultivated trees is 
gay nor of two colours, thougli it may be so with 
some uncultivated^ trees, as with the flower of silver- 
fir, for its flower is of saflron colour ; and so with 
the flowers of those trees by the ocean which have, 
they say, the colour of roses. 

However, among annuals, most are of this charac- 
ter — their flowers are two-coloured and twofold.^ I 
mean by ^ twofold ' that the plant has another 
flower inside the flower, in the middle, as with rose 
lily violet. Some flowers again consist of a single 
Meaf,' 4 having merely an indication of more, as that 
of bindweed.^ For in the flower of this the separate 
' leaves ' are not distinct ; nor is it so in the lower 
part of the narcissus,*^ but there are angular projec- 
tions '^ from the edges. And the flower of the olive 
is nearly of the same character. 

But there are also differences in the way of growth 
and the position of the flower ; some plants have it 

5 c/. G.P. 2. 18. 2 and 3 ; Plin. 21. 65. 
^ Xeiplou conj. Sell., i.e. narcissus, cf. 6. 6. 9 ; x^^P^^v MSS. 
^ i.e. something resembling separate 'leaves' (petals or 



TreXo? iXda' 779 koI dTroTTLTrTOvra hiaTeTpii^eva 
^aiverat, koI tovto ar]/u.€LOv XafijSdvouaiv ei 
Ka\a)<i dTr7]V07jK€V' idv yap (TvyKavOy 7) ^pe^^Oy, 
avvaTro/SdWei rov Kapirov koi ou rerpi^pievov 
yiyveTai' a')(ehov he koi to, TroWd roiv <dvOcov> 
ev fiearp to irepiKup-TTLov e)(^€i, Td')(^a he Kal eV 
avrov rov irepiKapiTLOV, KaOwrrep poa fieXea dino^ 
K0KKvp7]\ea puppivo<;, koI tmv ye (ppvyaviKMr 
pohwvia Kal rd TtoXXd rwv (TTe(f)ai'coTLKMV' Kdrco 
yap VTTO TO dvdo<; e^ei to- aireppiaTa' (^avepdn- 
TUTOV Be errl tov pohov Bid top oyKov. evia Be 
fcal eV avTwv tmv (TirepiidTwv, Mairep 6 aKUVO^ 
KUL o Kvrjico<s Kal rrdi'Ta ra aKavooBr]' KaO^ eKaa- 
Tov yap €')(^6L TO dvdo<;. 6poLco<; Be Kal tmv 
TTOicocow evLa, KaOd-Trep to dvOe/xov ev Be roi? 
Xaxcivijpol^; 6 re aLKVo<; Kal ?; koXokvvttj Kal y 
a-iKva' TrdvTa ydp iirl tcop Kapircov e^e* Kai 
TTpocrav^avo/jLevcov iinpevei to. dvdr) ttoXvv ^povov. 

"AXXa Be lBi(OTep(D<;, olov 6 /c^tto? Kal y crvKd- 
pivo^' ev auTOt? fiev ydp e';^ei Tol<i 6Xol<; irepi- 
Kap7TL0i<;, ov fJLTjV ovTe err'' aKpot^ ovt eVf 
TTepLeCkyc^oai Ka6^ eKacrrov, dXX^ iv rot? dvd 
peaov el firj dpa ov crvvByXa Bid to ')(V0MBe<i. 

"Ecrri Be Kal dyova twi' dvdcov evia, KaOdirep 
inl TMV aiKvo)v d eic tmv aKpMV (pveTat tov kXij- 

^ cf. 3. IG. 4. 2 Lacuna in text ; avQQiv I conj. 

' To-xo- Aid.; Tiva W. after Sch. conj. 

* Stt/os conj. Bod.; ^yvos Aid. H. 

' i.e. composites. 

' avepfxaruv conj. Dalec. from G ; aTO(xa.Tuv Aid. 

' 6.Kavos conj. W.; &Kapos UV. 

8 uKavudr} conj. W.; avdu>S7i Ald.H. cf. 1. 10. 6 ; 6. 4. 4. 



close above the fruit, as vine and olive ; in the iatteiv, 
when tlie flowers drop off, they are seen to have a 
hole through them,^ and this men take for a sign 
whether the tree has blossomed well ; for if the 
flower is burnt up or sodden, it sheds the fruit along 
with itself, and so there is no hole through it. The 
majority of flowers ^ have the fruit-case in the middle 
of them, or, it may be,^ the flower is on the top of 
the fruit-case, as in pomegranate apple pear* plum 
and myrtle, and among under-shrubs, in the rose 
and in many of the coronary plants. For these have 
their seeds below, beneath the flower, and this is 
most obvious in the rose because of the size of the 
seed-vessel. In some cases ^ again the flower is on 
top of the actual seeds,*^ as in pine-thistle ^ safflower 
and all thistle-like ^ plants ; for these have a flower 
attached to each seed. So too with some herba- 
ceous plants, as anikemon, and among pot-herbs, with 
cucumber^ gourd and bottle-gourd; all these have 
their flowers attached on top of the fruits,!*^ and the 
flowers persist for a long time while the fruits are 

In some other plants the attachment is peculiar, 
as in ivy and mulberry ; in these the flower is closely 
attached to the whole ^^ fruit-case ; it is not however 
set above it, nor in a seed-vessel that envelops each^'- 
separately, but it occurs in the middle part of the 
structure — except that in some cases it is not easily 
recognised because it is downy. 

13 Again some flowers are sterile, as in cucumbers 
those which grow at the ends of the shoot, and that 

® 8 T€ oIkvos conj. W. ; owep olkvos UM ; 6 wepaiicvos Aid. 
^° Kapirwy eonj. Sch. ; S/cpw*' Ald.H. 
" i.e. compound. ^^ o(;t' e'lrl I conj. for ovTf. 

" cf. Arist. Probl. 20. 3. 



/jtaro^;, Si o kuI d(f)aipoucnp avrd' K(d\v€l <^fap r7]i' 
rod aiKVOU ^Xaarrjcnv. cf^aal Be koi tt}? fxrjXewi 
T?}? Wr)SiKy)<i oaa [ikv e'^et tw;' avQoiv oicnrep 
yXaKarrjv tlvcl ire^vKvlav e/c fieaov ravr elvai 
^/ovLfxa, oaa he fir] 6')(eL ravr a'^/ova. el he koI eir' 
aWov Tivo^ Tavra crvfi^alveL roiv avOo(f)6po)i> 
Mare liyovop av6o<=; (pveiv elVe fce^f^copiafievop etre 
/j,i], aKeineov. eireX <^kvY] 76 evia Kai ufMireXov Ka\ 
p6a<; dhuvarel reXeoKapTrelv, dWa fiexpi tov 
av6ov<i 7] <yeP€aL<;. 

(TlveTaL he kol to ye tt}? p6a<; di>Oo<; ttoXv kui 
TTVKvov Kai oA,a)? o 07/C09 TrXaTu? coajrep 6 rwv 
pohwv KCLTCddev 5' €76/3060?- olo<; hiwro^i fiLKpo^ 
oicnrep €KTeTpafi/jLevo<; 6 kvtlvo<; e^^coi' ra %etX?> 

^^aal he TLve^ Kai rcov ofioyevcov ra fiev dvOelv 
rd 8' ov, KaOdirep twv ^olvlkwv tov fiev dppeva 
dvOelv TOV he d?f\.vv ovk dvOelv a\V pvdi) irpo- 
^aiveiv tov Kapirov. 

Ta fiev ovv tm yevet Tavrd TOiavrtjv rrjv hia- 

^ i.e. the pistil. 

2 i.e. as seen from above: koI oXav . . . l>6Su>u describes the 
corolla, KaTwdev . . . /xux«5rj the undeveloped ovary, including 
the adherent calyx. 

' poSwy conj. Bod. ; l)ooop Aid. 

* KOiTwdev . . . jjLvX'J^^V I conj. ; 5' (Tepoi Si' wv is ixtKphy 
wiXirfp iKTfTpafXfifyos k^tlvos ex^" ^a X^'^'J fivx^o^V UMVAld. 
(except that Aid. has iuo} for x^^^V ^i^'l eKreTpaixfxfvov : so 
also P, but e;fT€Tpoa^e'j'os). The sentence explains incidentally 
why the pomegranate flower was called kutivos {cf. 2. 6. 12 ; 
C.F. 1. 14. 4; 2. 9. 3 ; 2. 9. 9 ; Diosc. 1. 110 ; Plin. 23. llU 



is why men pluck them off, for they hinder tlie 
growth of the cucumber. And they say that in the 
citron those flowers wliich have a kind of distaff ^ 
growing in the middle are fruitful^ but those that 
have it not are sterile. And we must consider 
whether it occurs also in any other flowering plants 
that they produce sterile flowers, whether apart 
from the fertile flowers or not. For some kinds of 
vine and pomegranate certainly are unable to mature 
their fruit, and do not produce anything beyond the 

(The flower of the pomegranate is produced abun- 
dantly and is solid - : in general appearance it is a 
substantial structure with a flat top, like the flower 
of the rose ^ ; but/ as seen from below, the inferior 
part of the flower is different-looking, being like a 
little two-eared jar turned on one side and having 
its rim indented.) 

Some say that even of plants of the same kind ^ 
some specimens flower while others do not ; for 
instance that the ' male ' date-palm flowers but the 
' female ' does not, but exhibits its fruit without any 
antecedent flower. 

Such ^ is the difference which we find between 

and 111), i.e. because it resembled si kvtos (see LS. s.v.). T. 
chooses the particular form of jar called Siooros, because the 

indentations between the sepals suggest this : Fj. This is 

called iKTerpaixjihos, because the weight of the developing 
fruit causes it to take up at one stage a horizontal position, 
like a jar lying on its side ; x^''^^ refers to the jar (for the 
plural cf. the use of &vTvyis), yuvx«57j to the indentations in 
the calyx (a jar having ordinarily an unindented rim). 

* oixoyeviiov con]. Sch.; ofjLoioyevwv AXd. 

^ TavTct, TotavT-qy I conj. from G ; roiavra ttjv UM ; 
ToiavTTfv p. 



cpopav ex^i) Kaddirep oXw^ ocra fit] hvvazai reXeo- 
KapTTelv. r) Be rov avOov^ (puat,^; on TrXeuov; e^e/ 
8ia(f}opa<^ (j)av6p6v e'/c tmv irpoetpr^pievcov. 

XIV". ^La<f)6p€L Se ra BiuSpa /cal T0t9 roLovTOL<; 
Kara TrjV KapiroToiaav' ra puev ^ap eK rwv vecov 
^XacjTMV (f)€p€L ra S' ck tcou evwv ra S' i^ uficpo- 
repwv. €/c fiev tcov viwv avfcP] a/^TreXo?* e'/c Be tmu 
evcov iXcia poa firfXea djuvyBaXi] cittlo^ iivppivo^ 
Koi (T')(eBov rd roiavra iravra' ck Be rcov vecov 
edv cipa tl avpu^fj Kvfjaai /cal dvOrjaai (yiverai 
yap /cal ravr evLOL<;, wairep kol tco pLvppivw /cal 
fjidXiad^ CO? elTreiv irepl rd<; (BXaarrjaeL^ ra? fier 
^Ap/CTOvpov) ov Bvvarac reXeovv dXX^ i)iii<yevr] 
^Oeiperar e^ d/i(j)orepcov Be /cal tmv ei'cov /cal tmv 
vecov €L Ttve^- dpa /j,t]Xeai, rcov Bicpopcov r) et tl 
dXXo /cdpTri/jLOV ert Be 6 6Xvv6o<; i/CTrerrcov /cal 
(TV/ca (pepcov e/c rcov vecov. 

'IBicoTdTT) Be T) i/c rov cFTeXe')(pv<; €/c(f)vcri<;, 
odairep Tp)<i ev AlyvnTcp av/cajiivov ravrrjv jdp 
(paat (pepeLV eK rov crreXe^ov^' ol Be ravrrj re /cat 
eK TMV dKpepLovcov, coairep rvjv Kepcovlav avr^] yap 
Kal eK TovTcov (j)epei rrXyv ov ttoXvv KoXovcn Be 
Kepcovlav dcf)^ 7]<; ra avKa rd AlyvTma KaXov/xeva. 

^ ? i.e. that, like the 'female' date-palm, they have no 

2 TO/ouTO iravTa- eK Sf twv yecou iav &pa rt COnj. W. ; TOmCra- 
iravTa yap eK ru>v evcov iav Se &pa ti MSS. 

^ cf. 3. 5. 4. 

* bi(p6pcvv conj. Sch. from Gl ; Sia<p6pu)i' UAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xiii. 5-xiv. 2 

plants of the same kind ; and the like may be said ' 
in general of those which cannot mature their fruit. 
And it is plain from what has been said that flowers 
shew many differences of character. 

Differences tn fruits. 

XIV. Agam as to the production of fruit trees 
differ in the following respects. Some bear on their 
new shoots^ some on last year's wood, some on both. 
Fig and vine bear on their new shoots ; on last year's 
wood olive pomegranate apple almond pear myrtle 
and almost all such trees. And, if any of these does " 
happen to conceive and to produce flowers on its new 
shoots, (for this does occur in some cases, as with 
myrtle, and especially, one may say, in the growth 
which is made after the rising of Arcturus) ^ it can 
not bring them to perfection, but they perish half- 
formed. Some apples again of the twice-bearing ^ 
kinds and certain other fruit-trees bear both on last 
year's wood and on the new shoots ; and so does the 
olynlhos,^ which ripens its fruit as well as bearing figs 
on the new shoots. 

Most peculiar is the growth of fruit direct from 
the stem, as in the sycamore ; for this, they say, 
bears fruit on the stem. Others say that it bears 
both in this way and ^ also on the branches, like the 
carob ; for the latter bears on the branches too, 
though not abundantly : (the name carob is given to 
the tree which produces what are called ' Egyptian 

' 6\vvdos is not elsewhere used for a kind of fig : (ti 5e 
(TuKV Tovs oKvvQovs iKTTeTTovffti Koi (TVKa (pfpovffa eonj. Sch. 
somewhat drastically. 

• TcuTTj T6 Ka) Sk conj. W. J TauTTjs uiv 4k UMVAld. <•/. 
4. 2. 4. 



€(TTt he KoX TO, fiev cLKpoKapira to)i> hevhpwv tcai 
o\&)9 T(ov (f)VT(Jjv ra Be TrXayioKapTra ra 5' afKpo- 
T€yoa)9. TrXe/o) S' aKpoKapira tcov aX\(ov r) tmv 
SevSpcov, olov Twv re aiTijpcov ra (Tra)(^u(o87] kol 
TMV 0a/jLvcL>BMv epeLKT] Kol cnreLpaia kol dyvo'i Koi 
liXX' ciTTa Kal tmv \a^avci)8a)i/ ra K€<pa\6ppi,^a. 
e^ afi(f)OT€p(i)P Se koI t6)v BevBpcov evia koI tmv 
\a')(av(jL>h6)V, olov ^Xltov aSpd<f)a^v<i pd<^avo<i' 
eirel koI ekda irotel ttw? tovto, kul (f)aaiv orav 
uKpov eveyKT) crrj/jLeiov ev^opia<; elvai. aKpo- 
Kapiro^ he ttco? kol 6 (j)Oivi^' rrXi-jV tovto ye Kal 
uKpo^vWov KOL cLKpo^XaaTOV 6\(i)<^ yap ev tm 

tivQ) TTCLV TO ^COTIKOV. Ttt? fieV OVV KaTCL <Ta> 

P'eprj hia(^opa^ ireipaTeov €k tovtcov dewpelv. 

At he TOiavTat, t^9 6\r]<; ovaia<; ^aivovTar hijXov 
OTi TO, fiev rjfiepa to, 8' aypia' /cal to, fieu fcdpTiipu 
TO, 8' cLKapira' /cal deLcpvWa Kal (f)vXXo^o\a, 
KaOdirep eXe')(drj, tcl 8' oXw? dcpvXXa' Kal to. fxev 
dvOrjTLKa TCL 8' dvavOr)' Kal irpw'ijBXacrTrj he Kal 
irpoiLKap'TTa to, he o-yjn^XaaT)] Kal oy^iKapTra' 
coaavT(o<i he Kal oaa TrapaTrXyaia tovtoi<^. Kai 
TTU)^ ra ye TOiavTa ev TOL<i pcepeaLv i) ovk dvev tmv 
fiepuyv ecTTLV. dXX! €K€lv^] IhLWTdTrj Kal Tpoirov TLva 
/neytaTT] hLdaTaai<i, yirep Kal eVl tmv ^wwv, otl to, 
/lev evvhpa to, he 'xepaala- Kal yap tmv ^vtwv 

» Plin 16. 112. 

^ TOVTO conj. Sch. ; tovtov UAld. ; tovtov M. 

' riadd. W.; cf. 1. 13. 1. 



figs '). ^ Again some trees, and some plants in general, 
produce fruit at the top, others at the sides, others in 
both ways. But bearing fruit at the top is less 
common in trees than in other plants, as among 
grains in those which have an ear, among shrubby 
plants in heath privet chaste tree and certain others, 
and among pot-herbs in those witli a bulbous 
root. Among plants which bear both on the top 
and at the sides are certain trees and certain pot- 
herbs, as blite orach cabbage. I say trees, since 
the olive does this too in a way, and they say that, 
when it bears at the top, it is a sign of fruitfulness. 
The date-palm too bears at the top, in a sense, but 
this 2 tree also has its leaves and shoots at the top; 
indeed it is in the top that its whole activity is 
seen. Thus we must endeavour to study in the 

light of the instances mentioned the differences seen 
in the ^ various parts of the plant. 

General differences {affecting the whole plant). 
But there appear to be the following differences 
which affect the plant's whole being : some are culti- 
vated, some wild ; some fruitful, some barren ; some 
evergreen, some deciduous, as was said, while some 
again have no leaves at all ; some are flowering plants, 
some flowerless; some are early,some late in producing 
their shoots and fruits ; and there are other differences 
similar to these. Now it may be said that^ such 
differences are seen in the parts, or at least that 
particular parts are concerned in them. But the 
special, and in a way the most important distinction 
is one which may be seen in animals too, namely, 
that some are of the water, some of the land. For 

* Kal TTois TO 7€ Toiavra conj. Sch. ; koI ttuv rd y^ ravra U ; 
Koi rd. yt ToiavTo Aid. 



ecTTt TL TotovTOV yevo<; o ov hvvarai <f)veadai </jirj> 
ev vypcp' TO, Be ^verau /j.ev, ov^ o/ioia Se aWa 
'^(eipoi. 'jTcivroiv Be rcov hevBpwv o)? airXod^; elirelv 
KoX TMV (puTcbu eiSrj TrXeuo) Tvy')(^dvei Ka6^ eKacTTOv 

4 yevo<:' a'X^eBov jap ovBev iariv airXovv clXX oaa 
fiev rjfjLepa koX aypia Xeyerat ravrrjv cfKpave- 
aroLTrjv koX [leyiarrjv e^eL Bia(f)opdv, olov avKr) 
ipcveo^;, iXda kotlvo^, U7no<; d'yjpd<^' oaa 8' ev 
eKaTepw rovrwv rol^ KapiroU ts fcal (pvXXoL^; fcai 
raL<; dWai<i /iop(f)ac<; re koI roi? pboploi^. dWd 
Twv fiev dypicov dvcovvfia rd irXelaTa koI efiTreipoi 
oXiyoi' Twv Be 7]pepcov koI oivojiaapbeva rd irXeiw 
Kol 7] ataOyjcrif; KOLvorepa' Xeyw 8' olov djjLTTeXov 
avKi]<; p6a<^ [itfXea^ diTLOV Bdcpvi)'^ /xvppLVT}<i tmv 
dXXcov rj yap j^prjcn^ ovaa kolvtj avuOewpeLV 
TTOiel rd<i BLa(f)opd<;. 

5 "IBlop B^ Kal Tovr ecf)* eKaTepwv rd fiev ydp 
dypca Tft> dppevi Kal tw O^jXeL rj [xovol^ rj fidXiara 
Biaipovat, rd Be rjjiepa irXeioaiv lBeai<;. ecrri Be 
Twv fiev paov Xa/3e2v Kal BiapiO/iyaat rd eiBrj, 
Twv Be ')(aXeTT(OTepov Bid ttjv TToXv)(otav. 

'AX\a Brj ra? fiev tmv fiopiwv Bia(f)opd<i Kal tmv 
dXXwv ovaioiv eK tovtcov ireipareov Oecopecv. irepl 
Be TMV yeveaecov fierd ravra XeKreov tovto ydp 
ioairep e^e^ri<i rol<; elprffievoL^i earLV. 


of plants too there is a class which cannot grow 
except ^ in moisture, while others will indeed grow 
on dry land, but they lose their character and are 
inferior. Again of all trees, one might almost say, 
and of all plants there are several forms to each kind ; 
for hardly any kind contains but a single form. But 
the plants which are called respectively cultivated 
and wild shew this difference in the clearest and 
most emphatic way, for instance the cultivated and 
wild forms of fig olive and pear. In each of these 
pairs there are differences in fruit and leaves, and in 
their forms and parts generally. But most of the 
wild kinds have no names and few know about them, 
while most of the cultivated kinds have received 
names ^ and they are more commonly observed ; I 
mean such plants as vine fig pomegranate apple pear 
bay myrtle and so forth ; for, as many people make 
use of them, they are led also to study the differences. 

But there is this peculiarity as to the two classes 
respectively ; in the wild kinds men find only or 
chiefly the distinction of ' male ' and ' female,* while 
in the cultivated sorts they recognise a number of 
distinguishing features. In the former case it is 
easy to mark and count up the different forms, in the 
latter it is harder because the points of difference are 

However we have said enough for study of the 
differences between parts and between general 
characters. We must now speak of the methods of 
growth, for this subject comes naturally after what 
has been said. 

» ^,^ add. W. 

* iivoukaauiva ra irKeiw conj. Sch. ; wuouaffufyuv irAe/w Aid. 



I. At <yevecTei<^ tmv hevhpwv koI oXw? royv 
(fyVTMV rj avTOfiarai i) airo a7repfiaT0<i rj diro 
pi^'q<; rj airo TrapaarrdBo^^ rj diro aKpe/novo^; rj 
CLTTO K\a)vo<i rj ttTr' avrov rov crreXe^^oy? elaiv, 7) 
€Ti Tov ^v\ov KaraKonevTO^ et? /xiKpd' kol <ydp 
ovTa)<; evLa (pverac. tovtcov Be 1) [xev avr6^aT0<^ 
TTpcoTi] Ti9, al Be diro aiTepfiaTo^ koI pt^rjf; ^vac- 
KcoTaraL Bo^aiev dv (oanep yap avrofiarai kol 
avTai' Bl o kol rot? d<ypiOL<; virdp'^ovaLv al Be 
dXkai rep^t'?;? 17 Br] TTpoaLpecrew^. 

" Kiravra Be ^XaardveL Kard riva rcov rpoircov 
TOVTCdv, rd Be TroWd Kara irXeiov^' eXda fiev 
lydp 7rdvT(o<; (fyverai irXr^v diro rov kXcovo^' ov 
yap BvvaraL KaTa7rr]yvv/ievr], KaOdirep 77 avKi] 
T/)? KpdBt]'^ Kal 7] poa tt}? pd^Bov. Kairoi cfiaal 
ye Tive^ rjBr] kol 'X^dpaKO<; irayeiarj^i koI 7rp6<i rov 
KiTTOV avfx^LOiaai kol yeveaOat BevBpov dXXd 
airdvLov tl to toiovtov Odrepa Be rd iroXXd ri]^ 
(fivaeo)(;. avKr} Be tov<; fxev dXXov(; rporrov^i 

^ (ua (pv^rai conj, Sch. ; ava<pv(Tai Aid. 


Of Propagation, especially of Trees! 

Of the ivays in lohich trees and plants originate. Instances of 
degeneration from seed. 

I. The ways in which trees and plants in general 
originate are these : — spontaneous growth, growth 
from seed, from a root, from a piece torn off, from a 
branch or twig, from the trunk itself; or again from 
small pieces into which the wood is cut up (for some 
trees can be produced ^ even in this manner). Of 
these methods spontaneous growth comes first, one 
may say, but growth from seed or root would seem 
most natural ; indeed these methods too may be 
called spontaneous ; wherefore they are found even 
in wild kinds, while the remaining methods depend 
on human skill or at least on human choice. 

However all plants start in one or other of these 
ways, and most of them in more than one. Thus the 
olive is grown in all the ways mentioned, except 
from a twig ; for an olive-twig will not grow if it is 
set in the ground, as a fig or pomegranate will grow 
from their young shoots. Not but what some say 
that cases have been known in which, when a stake 
of olive-wood was planted to support ivy, it actually 
lived along with it and became a tree ; but such 
an instance is a rare exception, while the other 
methods of growth are in most cases the natural 
ones. The fig grows in all the ways mentioned, 



(f)veTaL 7rdvTa<;, airo oe tcop Trpe^vwv koX tmv 
^v\(i)v ov (pverar ixTJXea Be fcal a7Tio<^ koI (itto 
T03V ciKpe/jiovcov GTTaviw^. ov fxy]P dWa rd ye 
TToWd rj 7rdv0' &)? elirelv evZe-)(eG9aL Bokcl kuI 
diTo Tovrwv, idv XetOL kol veoi koI evav^el<i oicnv. 
dWa cfyvcnfccorepai tto)? eKelvar ro Be ivBeyoixevov 
&)? Bvvarov XrjTrreov. 

"OX&)9 yap oXiya ra dTTo twv av(o fidWov 
^Xaardvovra koX yevvco/ieva, KaOdirep d/nreXo^ 
diTO Tcov KXTj/jidrcov avTTj yap ovk dizo rrj^; 
Trpcopaf; aXV dTTO rov /cXij/iarof; (fyverac, koI el Byj 
Ti roLovTov erepov rj BevBpov tj (fypvyavcoBe^, Mcrirep 
BoKel TO re Tr/jyavov kol tj Iwvia kol to (tlctvix- 
^piov Koi 6 €p7rvXXo<; koI to eXevLov. KoipoTdT)] 
fjL€v ovv ecrTL irdcriv rj re diro tt}? 7rapaa7rdBo<; kol 
diTO (T7rep/xaT0<;. diravTa yap oaa e')(^ei a-nepiJiaTa 
KOL diro cr7re/?yu,aT0? yiveTai' diro Be irapaaTrdBo^i 
Kol TTjv Bd(f)vr]v (paalv, edv Tf? Ta epvrj irapeXoov 
(pvTevar}. Bel Be viroppi^ov elvat f^dXiard ye to 
Trapaa-TTCofievov rj vTroTrpefjUVOV. ov firjv dXXd Kai 
dvev TOVTov OeXei ^XaaTuveiv Kal poa kuI pirjXea 
eapivry iSXaaTavet Be Kal dfivyBaXr} (puTevopevt], 
KaTCL TTXeiaTOv^ Be rpoTrou? &)? elireiv 77 eXda 
^XaaTdver Kal yap diro tov (TTeX€^ov<; Kal diro 
Tov Trpefivov KaTaKoiTTop^evov Kal diro t?}? pt^^/? 
[/cat diro tov ^vXov^ Kal diro pd^Bov Kal ')(^dpaK0<i 
coairep elprjTaL. tmv S' dXXoyv 6 fjLvppivo<;- Kal 
yap ovTO? diro tcou ^vXwv Kal tcop Trpe/xvcov 

^ rd ye iroWa Trdud' conj. Sch.; f) before vduB' ins. St.; to 
Tf woWa Trdud' Aid. 

2 fLa\>^e~is conj. H ; av^fis UMVAld. 
^ OVK I conj.; ovS' MSS. 



except from root-stock and cleft wood ; apple and 
pear grow also from branches, but rarely. However 
it appears that most, if not practically all,^ trees may 
grow from branches, if these are smooth young and 
vigorous.2 But the other methods, one may say, are 
more natural, and we must reckon what may 
occasionally occur as a mere possibility. 

In fact there are quite few plants which grow and 
are brought into being more easily from the upper 
parts, as the vine is grown from branches ; for this, 
though it cannot^ be grown from the ^lead,'* yet 
can be grown from the branch, as can all similar 
trees and under-shrubs, for instance, as it appears, 
rue gilliflower bergamot-mint tufted thyme cala- 
mint. So the commonest ways of growth with all 
j)lants are from a piece torn off or from seed ; for all 
plants that have seeds grow also from seed. And 
they say that the bay too grows ^ from a piece 
torn off, if one takes off the young shoots and plants 
them ; but it is necessary that the piece torn off 
should have part of the root or stock ^ attached to it. 
However the pomegranate and ' spring apple ' "^ will 
grow even without this, and a slip of almond ^ grows 
if it is planted. The olive grows, one may say, in 
more ways than any other plant ; it grows from a 
piece of the trunk or of the stock,^ from the root, 
from a twig, and from a stake, as has been said.^^ Of 
other plants the myrtle also can be propagated in 
several ways ; for this too grows from pieces of wood 

* irpwpas, cf. Col. 3. 10. 1, caput vitis VOCat irpupav. Sell, 
restores the word, G.F. 3. 14. 7. 

* cf. C.P. 1. 3. 2. 6 ig a 'heel' (Lsit. perna). 

7 cf. G.P. 2. 11. 6 ; Athen. 3. 23. « cf. Geop. 10. 3. 9. 

* Kol iirh rov ^v\ou om. Julius Pontedeva on Varro 1. 39. 3 : 
a gloss on anh toC wpf/xpov KaraK. ^^ 2. 1. 2. 



(f)V€rai. Bel Be koI tovtov kol t?}? e\da<i ra ^vXn 
Biaipeiu /x?; iXaTTO) aTriOa/iiaioyv Koi rov (l)\oiop 
fir] Trepiat-pelv. 

Ta /lev ovv BevBpa ^Xaardvei kol jiveraL Kara 
TOi)? elpTifievov^ rpoirov^' al <yap €/i(f)VTelaL Kal 
ol evo(j)Oa\/iia/iol KaOdirep /xt^et? Tii^e? elaiv 
Tf Kar aXXov rpoTrov y€ve(Tei<;, irepl wv varepov 

IT. Tcov Be (ppvyavwBcov Kai ttolcoBmv ra fiev 
irXelara (itto cnrep/iaTO'i rj pi^r]^ ra Be Kai 
d/i(f)orepa)'=;' evia Be Kal diro rwv /SXaarcov, wcnrep 
eiprjraL. poBwvia Be fcal Kpivcovla KaraKoirevroiv 
ro)v KavXcop, Mcrirep Kal 7) dypu>arL<;. (fyveraL Be 
rf Kptvcovla Kal y poBwvia Kal oXov rov KavXov 
re6evro<;. IBicordrr) Be rj diro BaKpvov Kal yap 
ovrco BoKel ro Kpivov (f)vea6ai, orav ^rjpavOfj ro 
dwoppvev. (^aal Be Kal eirl rov liTiTOcjeXivov' 
Kal yap rovro d(pLy](Ti BdKpvov. (f)veraL Be ris 
Kal KdXa/io<;, edv Ti9 Biare/ii'cov to.? r}XaKdra<i 
7r\ayLa<; riOfj Kal KaraKpvyjrrj Koirpw Kal yfj. 
IBl(o<; Be diTO pt^"^? [tw] <f)V6crdaL Kal ra Ke<pa- 

To(7afTa;^w9 Be ov(Tt]<i ri]<; Bvvdfiew^ ra fiev 
TToXXa rcop BevBpoiv, wairep eXexOy irporepov, ev 
TrXeioai rpoiroi^; (fyverar evia Be diro a7rep/iaro<; 

' ffi(puTf7ai conj. R. Const.; f/jL(pv\eai (with erasures) U; 
f/j.(i>vk(lai V; iix(pv\f7ai Aid. 
■' 2. 1. 3; cf. G.P. 1. 4. 4 and 6. 
^ i.e. bulbil, cf. 6. 6. 8 ; 9. 1. 4 ; C. P. 1. 4. 6 ; Plin. 21. 24. 

* eVlconj. W.; a-nh P^Ald. 

* 8e' TJj Koi Aid,; tjj om. W. after Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 11. i. 4-11. 2 

and also from pieces of the stock. It is necessary 
however with this, as with the olive, to cut up the 
wood into pieces not less than a span long and not to 
strip off the bark. 

Trees then grow and come into being in the above- 
mentioned ways ; for as to methods of grafting ^ and 
inoculation, these are, as it were, combinations of 
different kinds of trees ; or at all events these are 
methods of growth of a quite different class and 
must be treated of at a later stage. 

II. Of under-shrubs and herbaceous plants the 
greater part grow from seed or a root, and some in 
both ways ; some of them also grow from cuttings, 
as has been said,^ while roses and lihes grow from 
pieces of the stems, as also does dog's-tooth grass. 
Lilies and roses also grow when the whole stem is 
set. Most peculiar is the method of growth from an 
exudation ^ ; for it appears that the lily grows in 
this way too, when the exudation that has been 
produced has dried up. They say the same of"* 
alexanders, for this too produces an exudation. 
There is a certain ^ reed also which grows if one cuts 
it in lengths from joint to joint and sets them ^ 
sideways, burying it in dung and soil. Again they 
say that plants which have a bulbous root are 
peculiar in their way of growing^ from the root. 

The capacity for growth being shewn in so many 
ways, most trees, as was said before,^ originate in 
several ways ; but some come^ only from seed, as silver- 

6 c/. 1. 4. 4 ; Plin. 17. 145 ; Col. 4. 32. 2 ; ndii conj. Sch. ; 
?; Aid.; ?flT?. 

' i.e. by offset bulbs. Text probably defective; cf. G.P. 
1. 4. 1. ry U; Th UMV. » 2. 1. 1. 

^ (pvfTai I conj.; (pTiaiv inriv or (paaiv icTTiv MSS.; us <paaiv 
iffTiv Aid. ; irapaylverai conj. W. 



(f)U€TaL /lovov, olov iXdrr} irevKr) TTiTU? 6\(o<; irav 

TO KWVO^OpOV 6TL ^6 KOl <holl>L^, TtXtJV el CipU €V 

^aj3v\6)VL KOL aiTO Tcov pd^hcov [w?] (^a<Ti rive^ 
fioXeveLV. KVirdpiTTO'^ he irapa [lev toI<; aXXoi? 
d-TTO cnreppaTO'^, ev K.p7]rr) Se koI d-no rov areXe- 
^ou9, olop eirl t/}? opeLa<; ev Tdppa' irapa rovTOi<^ 
ydp icTTLV r) KOupc^o/xei'T] KV7rdpLTT0<;' ainif he diro 
rri<; TOfir]'i ^Xaardvei Trdvra rpoTTOv refjLi'Ofievrj 
teal aTTo jrj(; Kal aTTO rov fieaov Kot diro tov dvco- 
repco' ^Xacndvei he iviaxov fcal diro tmv pt^MV 

G7TaViCjd<s he. 

Wepl he hpuo<; dfi(f)ia^rjrov(TiV' ol /xev yap diro 
(T7repfiaT6<i (^acn jiovov, ol he kol diro pi^7]<; 
'y\iaxp(*)'i' ol he koI dii avjov tov (TTe\e)(ov<^ 
K07revT0<;. diro irapaairdho^ he Koi pt^'tj'i ovhev 
(pveTai TCOV /mr} irapajSXacTTavovTcov. 

'AirdvTcov he ocroiv irXelov^ al yevecrei';, t) diro 
irapaairdho^; kol ctc [xdXXov rj diro iTapa(f)vdho<i 
Ta^tcTTT? Kol €vav^i]<;, edv dirb pt^^? ?; iTapa<^vd<^ 
77. KoX TCL fiev outcl><; rj oXw? diro (^UTeuTijpLcov 
7re(f)UTev/uLeva irdvTa hoKel tou? Kapirov'^ i^o/xoLOvv. 
oaa 3' aTTO TOV /capirov tcov hvva/jLevcov kol ovtco^ 
^XacTTaveLV, diravd' co? elirelv ^et/^o), tcl he kol 
6Xa)<; e^idTaTaL tov yevov^, olov a/^TreXo? pLrjXea 
(TVKri poid aiTLo^' eK re yap t>}9 Keyx^papLiha ovhev 
ylveTai yevo^ 6Xco<; i-jfiepov, dXX^ 77 epLveo<; i) 
dypia <TVKrj, hiacfiepovaa iroXXdKi<; koi ttj '^poia' 
Kal yap eK /leXalvrjf; XevKrj Kal eK XevKri<^ /leXatva 

^ jxoKiveLV conj. Sch.; /xccXveiv MSS.; fiocrxfvfiv conj. R. 
Const, (r/. C.P. 1. 2 1). But cf. Hesych. s.v. /xoAfveiv. 
2 Plin. 16. 141. ' eVi conj. W.j rh UMVAld. 



fir fir Aleppo pine, and in general all those that bear 
cones : also the date-palm, except that in Babylon it 
may be that, as some say, they take cuttings ^ from 
it. The cypress in most regions grows from seed, 
but in Crete ^ from the trunk also, for instance in ^ 
the hill country about Tarra ; for there grows the 
cypress which they clip, and when cut it shoots in 
every possible way, from the part which has been cut, 
from the ground, from the middle, and from the 
upper parts ; and occasionally, but rarely, it shoots 
from the roots also. 

About the oak accounts differ ; some say it only 
grows from seed, some from the root also, but not 
vigorously, others again that it grows from the trunk 
itself, w^hen this is cut. But no tree grows from a 
piece torn off or from a root except those which 
make side-growths. 

However in all the trees which have several 
methods of originating the quickest method and that 
which promotes the most vigorous growth is from a 
piece torn off, or still better from a sucker, if this is 
taken from the root. And, while all the trees which 
are propagated thus or by some kind of slip ^ seem to 
be alike in their fruits to the original tree, those raised 
from the fruit, where this method of growing is also 
possible, are nearly all inferior, while some quite lose 
the character of their kind, as vine apple fig pome- 
granate pear. As for the fig,^ no cultivated kind is 
raised from its seed, but either the ordinary wild fig 
or some wild kind is the result, and this often 
differs in colour from the parent ; a black fig gives a 

* (pvTfVT-qpiov : a general term including Trapa(pvds and 

" c/. a p. 1. 9. 



'yiverar €K re t/}? ufnriXov t?}? y€vraLa<; a<yevvri<i' 
fcal TToWuKif; erepov yevo^- ore Be oXto^ ovBev 
i]fiepov aX\! aypcov evlore kol tolovtov coare fir) 
iKirerreiv tov Kapirdv al 5' (wcrre /jLijSe ahpvveiv 
aWa fiexpi' tov avOrjaai jxovov a^LKveladai. 

^vovrai Be koI €k tcop t% eXda^ irvprjvwv 
aypte\aLo<;, kol eK roiv rr]<; p6a<i kokkcov tmv 
yXvKecov dyevvel<;, kol i/c rwv diTvpvvcov aKXrjpal, 
TToXXa/ct? Be kol o^etai. top avrov Be rpoirov 
KOL €K Twv d'TTiwv KCLi eic TMv firjXecoi/' €K fi€v ydp 
TMV uTTLcov fJboyOiipa 7] d')(^pd<;, eV Be rcov puyfXewv 
')(^eLp(ov T€ Tw yevei kol ck yXvK€ia<; o^eta, koI €k 
(TTpovOiOV l\.vB(t)VLO^. 'xelpwv Be koI rj d/xvyBaXtj 
KOL Tft> %i^^9> Kal Tw a/cXypa e/c [MiXaKri^- Bl o 
Kol av^rjOetaav eyKevrpH^eiv KeXeuovaiv, el Be fir] 
TO /loa^evpa fieracjiVTeueiv 7roXXdKL<^. 

y^eipwv Be koX rj Bpv'i- diro yovv rr}? ev Ylvppa 
iToXXol ^vT€vcravTe<; ov/c eBvvavO^ ofioiav iroielv. 
Bd^vr)v Be Kal fivpplvrjv BLa<^epeiv irore (f)aaLV, co? 
eirl TO TToXv 5' e^iaTacrOat, kol ovBe to ypcojia 
Biaaco^eiv, aXV e^ epvOpov Kapirov yiveadai 
fieXaLvav, wcnrep Kal rrjv ev 'AvrdvBpo)' TroXXaVt? 
Be Kal rrjp Kvirdprnov €k OrfXeia^; dppeva. 
fidXicTTa Be tovtwv 6 (^o2vi^ BoKel Biafieveiv 
wairep elirelv TeXeLO)<; tmu diro a7repfiaT0<;, Kal 
TvevK^I rj K(t)vo(f)6po<; Kal TrtVu? rj (^OetpoTTOLo'^. 
ravra fiev ovv ev TOi? rjfiep(ouevoL<;. ev Be tol<s 

^ (pvovrai con]. W. ; ^ureuovTai Ald.H. ; (pvtrai Vo.cod.Cas. 

' 7Air>c6'a)J' COnj. St.; 7AaLiK/a)»' UMVAld. 

» rf. Athen. 3. 20 and 23. ^ rj. C.P. 1. 9. 1. 

» In Lesbos : cf. 3. 9. 5 « cf. G.P. 1. 9. 2. 



wliite, and conversely. Again the seed of an excel- 
lent vine produces a degenerate result, which is 
often of quite a different kind ; and at times this is 
not a cultivated kind at all, but a wild one of such a 
character that it does not ripen its fruit ; with others 
again the result is that the seedlings do not even 
mature fruit, but only get as far as flowering. 

Again the stones of the olive give ^ a \yild olive, 
and the seeds of a sweet pomegranate" give a 
degenerate kind, while the stoneless kind gives a 
hard sort and often an acid fruit. So also is it with 
seedlings of pears and apples ; pears give a poor sort 
of wild pears, apples produce an inferior kind which is 
acid instead of sweet ; quince produces wild quince.^ 
Almond again raised from seed is inferior in taste and 
in being hard instead of soft ; and this is why men ^ 
bid us graft on to the almond, even when it is fully 
grown, or, failing that, frequently plant the offsets. 

The oak also deteriorates from seed ; at least 
many persons having raised trees from acorns of the 
oak at Pyrrha^ could not produce one like the 
parent tree. On the other hand they say that bay 
and myrtle sometimes improve by seeding, though 
usually they degenerate and do not even keep their 
colour, but red fruit gives black — as happened with 
uie tree in Antandros ; and frequently seed of a 
* female ' cypress produces a ' male ' tree. The date- 
palm seems to be about the most constant of these 
trees, when raised from seed, and also the * cone- 
bearing pine ' ^ (stone-pine) and the ' lice-bearing 
pine.''' So much for degeneration in cultivated trees; 
among wild kinds it is plain that more in proportion 

■^ Plin. 16. 49. The ' lice ' are the seeds which were eaten, 
c/. Hdt. 4. 109, (pdeipoTpayeova-t ; Theocr. 5. 49. 



aypioL^ hifkov on ivXeico Kara Xoyov oo? ia')(ypo' 
repoi<;' eVel Odrepov ye koX citottov, el 8r) %et/3&) 
Kol iv eKeivoL<i kol oA,w? eV roL<i utto a7rep/iaro<; 
fiovov el fit] TL rf) depaireia Svpavrac fiera- 
\ Aia(f)€pov(n Be kol tottol tottcov koI di^p depo^' 
iiHaxov yap €/c(f)epeiv r; x^P^ SoKel ra ofiota, 
KaOdirep /cat eV ^lXlttttol';' uvdrraXLV oXiya kol 
oXiyaxov Xapb^dveiv fxeTa^oXi]v, ware e/c airip- 
yuaT09 dyp'iov iroielv i^jdepov q e'/c ;(;etyooz^09 aTrXco? 
^eXrtov TOVTO yap eirl tt)^ poa^ iibvov aKriKoap.ev 
iv AlyvTTTM fcal iv K.LXtKLa av/jL/SaLveiv iv 
AlyvTTTO) fjiev yap ttjv o^ecav Kal airapelaav fcal 
(pvTevOetaav yXvKelav yiveadai ttco? r) olvcoSi]- 
irepl 8e X6Xov<; tt}? K.LXi/CLa<i irepl TTora/jLov ruv 
Yllvapov, ov rj fJiaxv tt/QO? ^apelov iyevero, iraaaL 
yivovrai dirvpTjvoL. 

8 E^yXoyov he Kal el t^? tov irap i)pLOiv (jyolvLKa 
(pvTCvoi iv Ba/3vX(x)vi, Kdp7rip.6v re ylveaOai, Kal 
i^OfioLovadai T0t9 iKel. tov avrov Be rpoirov Kal 
€L T£9 erepa irpocrdXXtfXov e;\;et Kapirov totto)- 
KpeiTTcov yap ovro^ rr)? ipyaala^; Kal r?}? Oepa- 
Treta?. arj/xeiov 3' on /xeracpepofieva raKeWev 
oLKapira ra Be Kal oXw? d/SXaari] yiverat. 

9 Mera/^aWet Be Kal rfj Tpocpf] Kal Bid tt)p 

^ i.e. that they should improve from seed. 

^ Whereas wild trees are produced only from seed. 

' i.e. improve a degenerate seedling. 

* aTT\u>s : 1 om, Sch. » cf. C.F. 1. 9. 2. 



degenerate from seed, since the parent trees are 
iiitronger. For the contrary^ would be very strange, 
seeing that degenerate forms are found even in 
cultivated trees,^ and among these only in those 
which are raised from seed. (As a general rule these 
are degenerate, though men may in some cases effect 
a change ^ by cultivation). 

Effects of situation y climate, tendance. 

Again differences in situation and climate affect the 
result. In some places, as at Philippi, the soil seems 
to produce plants which resemble their parent ; on 
the other hand a few kinds in some few places seem 
to undergo a change, so that wild seed gives a 
cultivated form, or a poor form one actually better.* 
We have heard that this occurs, but only with the 
pomegranate, in Egypt ^ and Cilicia ; in Egypt a tree 
of the acid kind both from seeds and from cuttings 
produces one whose fruit has a sort of sweet taste,'' 
while about Soli in Cilicia near the river Pinaros 
(where the battle with Darius was fought) all thosr 
{)omegranates raised from seed are witliout stones. 

If anyone were to plant our palm at Babylon, it is 
reasonable to expect that it would become fruitful 
and like the palms of that country. And so would it 
be with any other country which has fruits that are 
congenial to that particular locality ; for the locality ^ 
is more important than cultivation and tendance. 
A proof of this is the fact that things transplanted 
thence become unfruitful, and in some cases refuse 
to grow altogether. 

There are also modifications due to feeding ^ and 

s Or ' wine-like.' Cited by Apollon. Hist. Mir. 43. 

■^ ovToi conj. W. ; avrhs Aid. 

" Tp Tpo<p^ conj. W.; TT}S Tpo<t>jii UMVAld. 



aWt^v i-TTi^eXeiav, oh fcal to dypiov i^tj/j^epovrai 
KOi avTOiv Se tcou ijfiepcov evia dTraypiovrai, olov 
poa Kol d/jLvySaXrj. 7]Sr] Se rive<i kol ck Kpidoyv 
dva^viai <pacn irvpov'i koI eK irvpwv Kpi9a<^ Kal 

10 eVt Tov avTov 7rvd/jLeuo<; afi(})co. TavTa fiev ovv 
ft)<? /jLvOcoBearepa Bel Be-^^eaOai. fiera^dWeL 8' 
ovv TO, /lera^dWovra tov Tpoirov tovtov avTO- 
/xaTO)?- i^aWayfj Be ')(<jopa<;, Mairep ev KlyvirTW 
Kal YLiXiKLa Trepl twv pocov eLTro/Ltev, ovBe Bid 
jjLiav OepaTreiav. 

'D.aavTco<^ Be kol ottov Ta /cdpinfia dKapira 
yiveTai, KaOdirep to nepaiov to e^ AIjvtttov kul 
6 (f)OLVL^ ev T^ '^XkdBi Kal el Byj t^? KOfiiaeLe tyjv 
ev Kp7]Tr) \eyo/jLevr)v a'iyeipov. evioc Be <f)aac Kal 
TTjv orjv edv eh dXeeivov eXOrj a<p6Bpa tottov 
aKaprrov yivecrOar <f)vaeL yap -^jrv^pov. evXoyov 
Be dfKpoTepa avfx^aiveLv KaTa ra? evavTidiaei^, 
eiTrep yw-'^/S' oXco? evLa ^veaOai OeXec jieTa^dX- 
XovTa Tov<; tottov;. Kal KaTa /jlcv ra? ')((t)pa<; 
al TOLavTai fi6Ta/3oXaL. 

11 Kara Be ti-jv (pvTelav Ta diro tcov aTrep/iidTcov 
<f)VTev6fjieva, KaOdirep eXe')(6r]- TravTolau yap al 
e^aXXayal Kal tovtwv. ttj depaTrela Be /xeTa- 
^dXXei poa kol d/ivyBaXi]' poa p.ev Koirpov veiav 
Xa^ovcra Kal vBaTO<; irXrjOo'i pvTOV' dfivyBaXrj Be 
OTav irdjTaXov tl<^ evOfj, Kal to BdKpvov d(f)aipr} 
TO iirippeov TrXeioi y^povov Kal Tip dXXrjv diroBtBa) 

* eyia airaypiovrai olov conj. W. ; Kuia Ka.\ avop^ re ^6a UV; 
4. Ka\ anopfi ra ^6a M ; 4. Ka\ avoppel to. ^6a Aid, 

* i.e. cultivation has nothing to do with it. 

3 2. 2. 7. * cf. 3. 3. 4. » Plin. 17. 242. 

' i.e. improve, cf. 2. 2. 6 ad fin. 



attention of other kinds, which cause the wild to 
become cultivated, or again cause some cultivated 
kinds to go wild,^ such as pomegranate and almond. 
Some say that wheat has been known to be produced 
from barley, and barley from wheat, or again both 
growing on the same stool ; but these accounts should 
be taken as fabulous. Anyhow those things which do 
change in this manner do so spontaneously,^ and the 
alteration is due to a change of position (as we said ^ 
happens with pomegranates in Egypt and Cilicia), 
and not to any particular method of cultivation. 

So too is it when fruit-bearing trees become un- 
fruitful, for instance the persio/i when moved from 
Egypt, the date-palm when planted in Hellas, or the 
tree which is called 'poplar' in Crete,^ if anyone 
should transplant it. ^ Some again say that the 
sorb becomes unfruitful if it comes into a very warm 
position, since it is by nature cold-loving. It is 
reasonable to suppose that both results follow because 
the natural circumstances are reversed, seeing that 
some things entirely refuse to grow when their place 
is changed. Such are the modifications due to 


As to those due to method of culture, the changes 
which occur in things grown from seed are as was 
said ; (for with things so grown also the changes are 
of all kinds). Under cultivation the pomegranate 
and the almond change character,^ the poinegranate 
if it receives pig-manure ^ and a great deal of river 
water, the almond if one inserts a peg and ^ removes for 
some time the gum which exudes and gives the other 

7 cf. C.P. 2. 14. 2; 3. 9. 3; Plin. 17. 259; Col. 5. 10. 15 
and 16. 

8 cj\ 2. 7. 6 ; C.P. 1. 17. 10; 2. 14. 1 ; Plin. 17. 252. 


12 Oepairelav. oiXTavTa)^; Se BrjXov on kol oaa 
€^7]/xepovTat Tojv u'ypiwv rj aTraypiouTat rcor 
iffjiepoiV' TO, jiev yap depaTreia ra S' dOepairevcrca 
jxera^aWei' ttXtju ec rt? Xiyot /xtjSe /xera/SoXr/Z' 
aXk' eTTiBoaLV et? to ^eXriov elvai tcaX 'yelpov ov 
yap olov re rov kotlvov •noie'lv ekdav ovBe rrjv 
d'^^pdBa TTOLeli' cittcov ouSe top epiveov (TvkPjv. o 
yap iirl rov kotlvov (jyacrl avfi/Saiveiv, cocrr edv 
irepvKoirel^ Tr)V OaXiav 6\co<; /xeTacpvTevOfj (j>6p€iv 
^av\La<;, p.6TaKLvr](TL<i t£9 yiverat ov /aeydXi]. 
ravra fiev ovv oiroTepco'^ Set Xa^elv ovOev av 

III. ^aal 8' ovv avTOfidrijv tlvcl yiveadat tmv 
TOLOvTcou fiera^oXijv, ore puev tmv Kapiroiv ore 5t 
Koi oXct)? avTMV rcov BevSpcov, a kol ar]fx€la vopi- 
^ovaiv ol fidvTet,<;' olov poav o^elav yXvKsiav 
e^eveyKelv kclI yXvfcelav o^elav Kal TrdXiv uTrXux; 
avrd TO, SevSpa /lera^dXXeiv, wcne ef 6^eia<: 
yXvKelav ycveaOai Kal eK yXv/cela^i o^elav ')(^e2pov 
he TO 619 yXv/celav /jLera^dXXeiv. Kal e^ epiveov 
(TVKrjV Kal eK crvKr)'^ epiveov yelpov he to eK 
cFVKr\<i. Kal i^ eXda<; kotlvov Kal eK kotlvov 
eXdav r^Kiara Be rovro. irdXiv Be (tvktjv €k 

' irepiKOirf\s conj. W. ; vepiaKOTrre?! \J ; irepiKSnTris Aid. 

* (pavXlas conj. Salin.; (pavKovs U ; 6d\os Aid. cf. Plin. 
16. 244. These olives produced little oil, biit were valued 
for perfumery : see C.P. 6. 8. 3 and 5 ; de odor., 15. 

» oi, add. Salm.; om. MSS. (?) Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. ii. ii-iii. i 

attention required. In like manner plainly some wild 
things become cultivated and some cultivated things 
become wild ; for the one kind of change is due to 
cultivation, the other to neglect : — however it might 
be said that this is not a change but a natural 
development towards a better or an inferior form ; 
(for that it is not possible to make a wild olive pear 
or fig into a cultivated olive pear or fig). As to that 
indeed which is said to occur in the case of the wild 
olive, that if the tree is transplanted with its top- 
growth entirely cut off,^ it produces ^ coarse olives,' ^ 
this is no ^ very great change. However it can make 
no difference which way * one takes this. 

Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees, and of certain 

III. ^Apart from these changes it is said that in such 
plants there is a spontaneous kind of change, some- 
times of the fruit, sometimes of the tree itself as a 
whole, and soothsayers call such changes portents. For 
instance, an acid pomegranate, it is said, may produce 
sweet fruit, and conversely ; and again, in general, 
the tree itself sometimes undergoes a change, so that 
it becomes sweet ^ instead of acid, or the reverse 
happens. And the change to sweet is considered a 
worse portent. Again a wild fig may turn into a 
cultivated one, or the contrary change take place ; 
and the latter is a worse portent. So again a culti- 
vated olive may turn into a wild one, or conversely, 
but the latter change is rare. So again a white fig 

* i.e. whether nature or man is said to cause the admitted 
change. * Plin. 17. 242. 

•* i.e. all the fruit is now acid instead of sweet, or the 
reverse. Sch. brackets i^ h^ilas . . . o^^lav. 


XevKrj^i fjueXatvav koX €k fiekaivri^ \evK7]v. 6/jLol(o<; 
Be TOVTo Kol iirl a/jLTriXov. 

Kat ravra fiev co? repara kol irapa (pvaiv viro- 
Xa/bL^dvovaiv oaa he avvrjOrj ro)v tolovtwv ovSe 
6avfid^ov(TLv oXw^' olov to ttjv Kairveiov a/jLireXov 
KaXovixevrjv koI ifc ixeXavo<i ^orpvo^; XevKov Koi 
€K XevKOV /iieXava (pepeiv ovSe yap ol fidvTeL<; rd 
Toiavra Kpivovaiv iirel ovSe €K€Lva, nap' oh 
7r6(f)VK€V t) %<w/0<x /nera^aXXeiv, oiairep eXe;^^?; 
Trepl Tt)^ poa^ ev Alyinrro)' dXXd to iuTavOa 
OavpacTTov, Sid to p^'iav povov rj Svo, kol TauTa<; 
ev T(p TravTL ')(^p6v(i> (JTravia^;. ov p}]v dXX' etirep 
avpjBaivei, pbdXXov ev rot? KapTrol^i yiveaOai ti]v 
TrapaXXay-qv rj ev 6Xol(; Toh BevSpoi<;. 

'Evrel Kal ToiavTTj ti<; aTa^ca ylveTai irepX tov<; 
KapTTOVf;- olov rjhr] iroTe avKrj to. avKa ecpvaev i/c 
Tov oTTLaOev TMV OpLcov Kal poa he Kal dp,ireXo<^ 
Ik Toiv (TTeXe)(wv , kol dp,7reXo<; dvev (f)vXXcov Kap- 
TTov r)veyKev. eXda he ra p,ev cpvXXa dire^aXe tov 
he Kapirov e^ijveyKev o Kal SeTTaXw to5 Heiai- 
(XTpaTov yeveaOai XeyeTat' avp^aivei he Kal hid 
')(eipo)va<i TOVTO kol hi dXXa<i alTua^ evia tmv 
hoKovvTcov elvac irapd Xoyov ovk ovtcov he- olov 
iXda ttot diroKavOelaa TeXew^ dvel3XdaT7]aev 
oXrj, Kal avTt) Kal rj OaXia. ev he Tjj Boicorta 
KaTa^pcodevTcov tcov epvwv vn uTTeXe^cov irdXiv 

1 fVl conj. Sch.; e'l Ald.H. 

2 cf. G.P. 5. 3. 1 and 2 ; Arist. de gen. an. 4. 4 ; Hes^ch. 
s.v. Ka-rrvias; Schol, ad Ar. Vesp. 151. ' 2. 2. 7. 

* eiKhs has perhaps dropped out. Sch. 
6 0piu,y conj. R. Const., cf. G.P. 5. 1. 7 and 8 ; 5. 2. 2; 
ifitvfwv PjAld. cf. also Athen. 3. 11. 



may change into a black one, and conversely ; and 
similar changes occur in^ the vine. 

Now these changes they interpret as miraculous 
and contrary to nature ; but they do not even feel 
any surprise at the ordinary changes, for instance, 
when the ' smoky ' vine,^ as it is called, produces 
alike white grapes instead of black or black grapes 
instead of white. Of such changes the soothsayers 
take no account, any more than they do of those 
instances in which the soil produces a natural change, 
as was said ^ of the pomegranate in Egypt. But it is 
surprising when such a change occurs in our own 
countr}^, because there are only one or two instances 
and these separated by wide intervals of time. How- 
ever, if such changes occur, it is natural ^ that the 
variation should be rather in the fruit than in the tree 
as a whole. In fact the following irregularity also 
occurs in fruits ; a fig-tree has been known to produce 
its figs from behind the leaves,^ pomegranate and 
vines from the stem, while the vine has been known 
to bear fruit without leaves. The olive again has 
been known to lose its leaves and yet produce its 
fruit ; this is said to have happened to Thettalos, 
son of Pisistratus. This may be due to inclement 
weather ; and some changes, which seem to be 
abnormal, but are not really so, are due to other 
accidental causes ; ^ for instance, there was an olive 
that, after being completely burnt down, sprang up 
again entire, the tree and all its branches. And in 
Boeotia an olive whose young shoots "^ had been eaten 
off by locusts grew again : in this case however ^ the 

« c/. Hdt. 8. 55 ; Plin. 17. 241. 
7 epvu)v conj. Sch. ; ipyuv PoAld. ; /cAaSwi/ mU. 
* i.e. the portent was not so great as in the other case 
quoted, as the tree itself had not been destroyed. 



av€^\dar7]ae' ra S' olov aireirecrev. rjKLGja 8' 
icrco? TO, roiavra aroira Sia to (f)av€pa<; e')(€iv ra^ 
aiTLa^, aXXa jjLoXkov ro jjL7] ck tmv olfceicov tottcov 
(fyepcLV TOL'9 KapTTov'^ rj fiii otVetof?" Kai /laXiara h' 
el T?}? oX?/? <pvcr€(o<i 'yiverav /j.eTa/3o\7], KaOdirep 
eKex^V' irepl fjuev ovv ra BepBpa Toiavrai 

Tiv€<i elai /jL€Ta/3o\aL. 

IV. T(x)v Be dWo)v TO T€ ataujui/Bpiop eh fiiv- 
dav Bo/cel fieTa^dWeiv, iav /mt) KarexyTai rf] 
depaireia, hC o kol /i€Ta(pVT€vovai, 7roWdKi<;, Kal 
6 7rvpo<; et? alpav. ravra fiev ovv ev roL<; BevSpoi<; 
at'T0yLtaTft)9, etwep yiverat. ra 8' iv T0t9 eVeTetof? 
Bia 7rapa(TKevf]<;' olov 77 TL<f)r) kol 77 ^eta jiera- 
jSaWovoriv et? irvpov iav TrricrOelaaL cnreipoyvjai, 
Kal tout' ovk evOv<; dWa tco Tplrw erei. crx^Bov 
Be 7rapa7r\i]aiov tovto <ye rfo rd aTrep/nara Kara 
Ta? ^ftj/9a.? fiera^dWeiv fxera^dWei <ydp Kal 
ravra KaO^ eKdari^v ;^co/)a^' Kal a^cBov iv ru) Ictm 
XpovM Kal rj ri(^r). pLera^dWovcri Be Kal oi 
dypLoc TTvpol Kal at KpiOal OepaTrevo/jLCvat Kal 
i^7]/jL€pov/xevaL Kara rov Xaov ^povov. 

Kal ravra fiev eoiKe ^co/^a? re p-era^oXfi Kai 
Oepaireia jivea-Oar Kal evia dpL(^orepoL<;, rd Be rjj 
Oepaireia fiovov olov tt/jo? to rd ocrTrpia p.?] jive- 
aOat drepdp^ova ^pl^avra KeXevovaiv iv vurpco 

^ olKelovs' Kal I conj. ; olKdovrai UM V; olKtius Ald.H. ; eoiKoras 
conj. W. 2 ^i ing^ Sch. ^ 2. 3. 1. 

* cf.6. 7. 2; Plin. 19. 176. 
' i.e. to prevent the change which cultivated soil induces. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. iii. 3-iv. 2 

shoots had, so to speak, only been shed. But after 
all such phenomena are perhaps far from strange, 
since the cause in each case is obvious ; rather is it 
strange that trees should bear fruit not at the places 
where it naturally forms, or else fruit which does not 
belong to the character^ of the tree. And most 
surprising of all is it when,^ as has been said/ 
there is a change in the entire character of the 
tree. Such are the changes which occur in trees, 

Oj apontantous and other changes in other plants. 

IV. * Of other plants it appears that bergamot-mint 
turns into cultivated mint, unless it is fixed by special 
attention; and this is why men frequently transplant ^ 
it ; ^ so too wheat turns into darnel. Now in trees 
such changes, if they occur, are spontaneous, but in 
annual plants they are deliberately brought about : 
for instance, one-seeded wheat and rice- wheat change '' 
into wheat, if bruised before they are sown ; and 
this does not happen at once, but in the third year. 
This change resembles that produced in the seeds by 
difference of soil ^ ; for these grains vary according 
to the soil, and the change takes about the same 
time as that which occurs in one-seeded wheat. 
Again wild wheats and barleys also with tendance 
and cultivation change in a like period. 

These changes appear to be due to change of soil 
and cultivation, and in some cases the change is due 
to both, in others to cultivation alone ; for instance, 
in order that pulses may not become uncookable,® 

' But see reff. under aXpa in Index. 
' cf, G.P. 5. 6. 12 ; Plin. 18. 93. 
8 xt^pai/ conj. St. ; &pav Ald.H. 

* arepdfxova conj. W.; aTepajuva UAld. cf. 8. 8. 6 and 7 ; 
a P. 4. 7. 2 ; 4. 12. 1 and 8 ; Geop. 2. 35. 2 ; 2. 41. 



vvKra Trj vcrrepaia cnrelpeiv ev ^rjpa- (jyaKov'^ ware 
dSpoij^i lylveadat (fyvrevovcriv iv ^oXlrrp' toi/? 
epel3ii>6ov<s he, wcrre p,eyd\ov<;, avrol^ rot? Ke\v- 
<f>6crL /Bpe^auTa (JTrelpeLV. /xera^dWovai Be koI 
Kara ra<^ o)pa<; rod airopou 7rpo<; KOV(f)uTi]Ta Kal 
aXvniav olov edv rt? tol'9 6p6/3ov<; iapivov<i 
(TTTeipr] TpiadXvTTOL jLVOvrai, Kal ov^ co? ol fiero- 
TTcopLVol /Sapel*;. 

8 Vlverat Be Kal iv to?? \axdvoi<; /jLera^oXyj 
Bid Tt-jV OepaTTeiav olov to aeXivov, idv arrapev 
KaTairarridfj Kal KvXivBpwOfj, dvac^veaOai ^aaiv 
ovXov. fiera^dXXeL Be Kal ttjv ')((opav e^aXXdr- 
Tovra, KaOdirep Kai jdXXa. Kal rd pev roLavra 
KOLvd irdvrcov iarlv. el Be Kard riva TrrjpwaLv i) 
dcpalpeaiv p,epov<^ BevBpov dyovov yiverai, KaOd- 
rrep rd ^aya, tovto aKeiTTeov ovBev yovv (pavepov 
Kard <ye TrjV BiacpeaLV et? to irXeico Kal eXdrro) 
(fiepeiv coarrep KaKovpevov, a\V r) aTroXXvraL to 
oA,oi^ rj Btapevov Kap7ro(f)ope2. to Be ytjpa^; kolvt] 
TL'^ (pdopd irdcfLv. 

4 "ATOTrot' S' dv Bo^eie p^dXXov el ev roL<; ^d)oi<i 
at roiavrai fiera^oXal <f>vaiKal Kal 7rXei0u<;- Kal 
yap Kara Ta? w/oa? evia Bokcl pera^dXXeiv, coa- 
irep o lepa^ Kal eTroyJr Kal dXXa tmv op.oiwv 
opvecov. Kal Kara Ta? tmv tottcov dXXoid)aeLs\ 
cocTTrep 6 vBpo<i et? e-)(^iv ^r^paivop^evoiv tmv Xc^d- 

^ vvKTa I conj. ; wktI MSS. 

^ fv ^oKircp conj. Milas. on G'eop. 3. 27 ; tixBoXov UM\' 
Aid. cf. G.P. 5 6. 11 ; Col. 2. 10. 15 ; Plin. 18. 198. 
3 cj. a P. 5. 6. 11; Geop. 2. 3. 6. 
* aKviriay conj. Sch.; 5«' aAvnias M ; 5*' a\vniay Aid. 



men bid one moisten the seed in nitre for a night ^ 
and sow it in dry ground the next day. To make 
lentils vigorous they plant the seeds in dung 2 ; to 
make chick-peas large they bid one moisten the 
seed while still in the pods/ before sowing. Also 
the time of sowing makes differences which conduce 
to digestibility and harmlessness ^ : thus, if one sows 
vetches ^ in spring, they become quite harmless and 
are not indigestible like those sown in autumn. 

Again in pot-herbs change is produced by culti- 
vation ; for instance, they say that,*^ if celery seed 
is trodden and rolled in after sowing, it comes up 
curly ; it also varies from change of soil, like other 
things. Such variations are common to all ; we must 
now consider whether a tree, like animals, becomes 
unproductive from mutilation or removal of a part. 
At all events it does not appear that division '' is an 
injury, as it were, which affects the amount of fruit 
I)roduced ; either the whole tree perishes, or else, 
if it survives,^ it bears fruit. Old age however is a 
cause which in all plants puts an end to life ^ 

It would seem more surprising if^^ the following 
changes occurred in animals naturally and frequently ; 
some animals do indeed seem to change according to 
the seasons, for instance, the hawk the hoopoe and 
other similar birds. So also changes in the nature 
of the ground produce changes in animals, for instance, 
the water-snake changes into a viper, if the marshes 

5 c/. Plin. 18. 139; Col. 2. 10. 34. 
« c/. a P. 5. 6. 7 ; Geop. 12. 23. 2. 
' 76 conj. Sch.; re Aid. 
* ^lafx^vov conj. Sch.; Sia/nivovra Aid. 
^ Something seems to have been lost at the end of § 3. 
'*' fl ins. Sch.; roiavrai may however mean 'the above- 
mentioned,' and refer to something which has been lost. 



Bcov, ^avepcorara Se koi Kara ra? <y€i>€a€L<i evia, 
Kal /i€Ta/3aXk€i Bta ttXclovcov ^cocov olov ifc 
KafiTTT)^ jiferaL ')(pvaaWh eZr' e/c ravT'r]<; '^vy^ij- 
Kal iir aXkcov S' earl rovro TrXecovcov, ovSev taw^ 
aroTTOV, ovS* o/xoiov ro ^rjrov/ievov. dX)C eKelvn 
avfi/Saivec irepl tcl BepSpa Kal oXco? iraaav Trjv 
vX-y-jV, wcrirep eXe)(6ri Kal rrpoTepov, Mare avrofid- 
rrjv fiera/BXaaTdueiv fieTa^oXi)<^ rivo^ yLvo/jievrj'; 
€K TOiV ovpavLcov TOiavrr]^. ra fiev ovv irepl 

Ta<; 'yevearei'^ Kal pera^oXa^ ck tovtwv Oeo)p^]T6ov. 
V. 'EttgI Se Kol at epyaa'iai Kal al OepaTrelai 
fieydXa avp.^dXXovTaL, Kal en irpojepov al 
<pVT6Lai Kal TTOLovcn u€<ydXa<i Sia(j)opd<;, XeKreov 


Kal irpoiTov irepl tmv (pureiMV. al /lev ovv 
(opaL TTporepov eipijvrai KaO' a? Set. ra he (f)vrd 
Xap^dveiv KcXevovaiv co? KdXXiara Kal i^ 6poia<=; 
<yri^ et? rjv /LieXXet? (pureueiv, y ')(^eipovo<;' rov<; Se 
yvpov^ iTpoopvrreiv co? TrXelcrrov '^povov Kal 
^a9vrepov<^ alel Kal rol<^ iTTLTToXaLoppL^orepoi^. 

* i.e. in the instance given the development of an insect 
exhibits, not one, but a series of changes from one creature 
to another. 

^ Whereas the metamorphoses mentioned above are inde- 
pendent of climatic conditions. 
' 5e coiij. W. ; re Aid. 

* Kiwiara conj. W., cf. G.P. 3. 24. 1; Tax'<^Ta MVAld. ; 

TO X^O"''" U. 



dry up. Most obvious are certain changes in regard 
to the way in which animals are produced, and such 
changes run through a series of creatures ^ ; thus a 
caterpillar changes into a chrj^salis, and this in turn 
into the perfect insect ; and the like occurs in a 
number of other cases. But there is hardly anything 
abnormal in this, nor is the change in plants, which 
is the subject of our enquiry, analogous to it. That 
kind of change occurs in trees and in all woodland 
plants generally, as was said before, and its effect is 
that, when a change of the required character occurs 
in the climatic conditions, a spontaneous change in 
the way of growth ensues.^ These instances must 
suffice for investigation of the ways in which plants 
are produced or modified. 

Of methods of propagation, ivith notes on cultivation. 

V. Since however methods of cultivation and ten- 
dance largely contribute, and, before these, methods 
of planting, and cause great differences, of these too 
we must speak. 

And first of methods of planting : as to the seasons, 
we have already stated at what seasons one should 
plant. Further ^ we are told that the plants chosen 
should be the best possible,* and should be taken 
from soil resembling that in which you are going to 
plant them, or else inferior ^ ; also the holes should 
be dug 6 as long as possible beforehand, and should 
always be deeper than the original holes, even for 
those whose roots do not run very deep. 

* i.e. the shift should be into better soil, if possible, cf. 
C.P. 3. 5.2. 

* yvpovs irpoopvTreiu conj. R. Const.; ttvoovs irooaopvTTeiv 
UMVAld. c/. G.P. 3. 4. 1. 



Aeyoucri Be Tive<; co? ovSefiia KaTcorepoi huKvelrai 

rpiCOl' rj/lLTTohiCOV Bl O KOI iTTiTLflMCn TOt? €V 

/jL€l^ovl ^ddeu (fivrevovacv ovk ioL/caat Se opOco^ 
Xiyeiv iirl ttoWcov aXX' iav t) ^(oiiiJLaTo^ einXd^- 
rjTai ^aO€0<; rj kol %w/oa? ToiavTrj(; rj kol tottov, 
TToWo) fiUKpoTepav coOel to rfj (pvaec ^aOvppi^ov. 
TrevKTjv Be t^? €<I>7) fM€Ta(f)VT€vcov fiefxo-)(\.eviJLevriv 
fjL€L^co rrjv pi^av exeiv OKTUTrrj-^^^up KaiTrep ov^ oX?;? 
e^aLpedeiari<; aXX' diroppajeKir^f;. 

Ta Be (j)VTevT7]pia iav /ueu ivBexv^at viroppL^a, 
el Be [ir), Bel /idWov diro twv kcito) t] twv dv(o 
Xa/i^dveiv, ttXtjv d/jLTreXov /cat rd fiev e)(0VTa 
pil^a<i opOd ifi^dXXeiv, rd Be /xij e-)(0VTa viro^dX- 
Xeiv rov (puTevrtjplov oaov airidafxriv rj fxi/cpo) 
irXetov. evLoi Be KeXevovcn koX tmv vTroppl^cov 
vTTO^aXXeiv, TiOevai Be kol t7]v Oeaiv 6/j,oi(o<; rivirep 
el'xev iirl rcov BevBpayv rd Trpoa^oppa kol rd TTyoo? 
eft) Kal rd 7r/?09 fiearj/x^pLav. oaa Be ivBex^raL 
rcov <f)VTCOv Kal irpofioa^^^eveiv rd fiev eV avTwv 
Twv BevBpwv, olov e\da<; dirlov /jLr)X€a<; avKrj<;' rd 
B* d(f)aipovvTa<;, olov afMireXov ravTTjv jdp ov-^ 
olov re eV auT?;? fioa')(eveiv. 

'Eai/ Be fit] vTToppL^a rd ^vrd fiTjBe VTroirpefiva 

^ a\\' iav . . . ToiovTov. iav f) fxlv ffw/xaros M ; SO V, but ^ ; 
^om. PAld.; x'^Motos H > K^vo^ixaros iov awp.aTos and (vhi6Zov 
for ^ Koi tSttou conj. W. x^P°-^ refers to exposure, etc., 
T^TTou (so. ToiovToxj) to cjuality of soil : so G. 

'' Plin. 16. 129 ; Xen. Oec, 19. 3. » c/. G.P. 3. 6. 



Some say that no root goes down further than a 
foot and a half, and accordingly they blame those who 
plant deeper. However there are many instances 
in which it appears that what they say does not 
hold good ; a plant which is naturally deep-rooting 
pushes much deeper if it finds either a deep mass 
of soil or a position which favours such growth or 
again the kind of ground which favours it.^ In fact,^ 
a man once said that when he was transplanting a 
fir which he had uprooted with levers, he found that 
it had a root more than eight cubits long, though 
the whole of it had not been removed, but it was 
broken off. 

The slips for planting should be taken, if possible, 
with roots attached, or, failing that, from the lower ^ 
rather than from the higher parts of the tree, except 
in the case of the vine ; those that have roots should 
be set upright,* while in the case of those which 
have none about ^ a handsbreadth or rather more ot 
the slip should be buried. Some say that part even 
of those which have roots should be buried, and that 
the position ^ should be the same as that of the tree 
from which the slip was taken, facing north or east 
or south, as the case may be. With those plants 
with which it is possible, shoots from the boughs 
should also, they say, be planted, some being set on 
the trees themselves,''' as with olive pear apple and 
fig, but in other cases, as in that of the vine, they 
must be set separately, for that the vine cannot be 
grafted on itself. 

If the slips cannot be taken with root or stock 

* c/. G.P. 3. 6. 4; Xen. Oec. 19. 9. 

* oaov conj. Sch.; olov PgAld. 

« c/. G.P. 3. 5. 2. ' i.e. grafted. 



Xa/x^dvew, KaOdirep Tt]<i iXua<i, aj^icravTd re to 
^vXov KaTwdev kol \i6ov i/n^aXovra ^vreveiv 
6fxoiOi<; Be KoX tP)<; i\da<; kol avKr)<; kol twv dX- 
Xcov. (pvreveraL Se ?; av/crj kol idv rt? Kpd8i]i> 
ira^^elav diro^vva^ G(pvpa irair], d^pi' ov av 
dTToXLTTTj fiLKpop vTTep Tr]<^ 7^9, cix' avTrj^ dfl/XOP 
/SaXoov dvoiOev eirL')((jL>ar)' /cat ylveaOuL 8/] (f)acn 
KOL KaXXico ravra ra (f)VTd, f^^XP^ ^^ ^^ V 

WapairXi'iaia koX tcov dfMTreXwv, orav diro 
70V TrarrdXov' irpoohoiroLel <ydp 6 TrdrTaXo^ 
€K€Lvw rep KXy/xan Sid rrjv daOeveiav <pv- 
revovauv ovrco kol poav kclI dXXa twv BevBpcov. 
i) avKrj Be, idv iv aKiXXrj cf)VT€v07j, Odrrov irapa- 
yiveraL Kal rjTTOu vtto (JkwXi^kwv KaTeaOUraL. 
6X(o<; Be irdv iv crKiXXy (^vrevopievov ev^Xaare^ 
KOL OuTTOv av^dverat. oaa Be ifc rod aTeXe^pv^ 
Kal BiaKOTTTOfieva (fivreverai., /cdro) rpeirovja rrjv 
TO/jiTjv Bel (pvreveiv, BiaKoineiv Be /jlt) eXdrro) 
aTriOa/jiiaLcov, wairep eXexO)], koI tov <f)Xotbv 
IT poaelvau' (^verac S' e'/c TOiv toiovtcov epvr]' ySXa- 
aravovTcov 5' del it poaxeovvveiv , d'^pi' ov dv yerr)- 
rat dpriov avT7] fxev ovv Trj<; iXda^ IBla kol tov 
fMvppLvov, at B^ dXXac KOLvoTepai irdaLv. 

"ApLCTTOv Be Kal pi^cocraaOaL Kal (f)VT€La<; /xdXi- 
ara tt}? TV^ovGrj^; ?} avKrj. (f)VT6vetv Be p6a<i /nev 

^ 7} before rrjs om. W. ' re rh conj. W. ; t6 tc MVP. 

' Ka\ rris f\a(as U ; iKaas MVP ; so W. 

* Plin. 17, 123. 5 cf. G.P. 3. 12. 1. 

« cf. 7. 13. 4 ; G.P. 5. 6. 10 (where another bulb, axlvos, is 
mentioned as being put to the same use) ; A then. 3. 13 ; 
Plin. 17. 87. 



attached, as with the olive,^ they say that one must ~ 
split the wood at the lower end and plant with a 
stone on top ; and the fig and other trees must 
be treated in like manner with the olive.^ The fig ■* 
is also propagated by sharpening a stout shoot and 
driving it in with a hammer, till only a small piece of 
it is left above ground, and then piling sand above so 
as to earth it up ; and they say that the plants thus 
raised grow finer up to a certain age. 

Similar is the method used with vineSj when they 
are propagated by the ' peg ' ^ method ; for the peg 
makes a passage for that sort of shoot on account of 
its weakness ; and in the same manner men plant the 
pomegranate and other trees. The fig progresses 
more quickly and is less eaten by grubs, if the cutting 
is set in a squill-bulb ^ ; in fact anything so planted is 
vigorous and grows faster. All those trees which are 
propagated by pieces cut from the stem should be 
planted with the cut part downwards,^ and the 
pieces cut off should not be less than a handsbreadth in 
length, as was said,^ and the bark should be left on. 
From such pieces new shoots grow, and as they grow, 
one should keep on heaping uj) earth about them, 
till the tree becomes strong.^ This kind of propa- 
gation is peculiar to the olive and myrtle, while the 
others are more or less common to all trees. 

The fig is better than any other tree at striking 
roots, and will, more than any other tree, grow by 
any method of propagation. ^^ We are told that, 

7 cf. Geop. 9. 11. 8. 

* 2. 5. 3, where however the method of propagation is 

* &pTiov Aid.; apriTeXii conj. W. {quoad satis corrohoreturG ; 
donee robur planta capiat Plin. ] 7. 124) ; &pTiT€uy U ; &pTi 
rimv MV; «/>Ti t(wv P,. i« cf. G.P. 3. 7. 


fcal fivppLPOvf; kul Bd<f)va<; 7rvKva<; KeXevouai, /xt] 
irkeov hiear(jL)aa<^ t) evvea 7r6Sa<;, in\\£a<; he fiLfcpo) 
/laKporepov, a'Triov<^ he Koi 6<y')(i'a^' eVt fxaWov, 
a/jLvySa\d<i Be kol avKa<; ttoWw irXeov, a>aavTW^ 
Be KOL rr)v eXdav. iroielaOai Be koX iTpo<^ rov 
TOTTov rd<; air o <tt da ei^' iv yap tol'^ opeivol^ eXdr- 
TOi/? rj iv roL<i TreBeLVOL^;. 

Meyiarov Be co? elirelv to tyjv Trpoa^opov 
eKd/jT(i) 'X^copav dTvoBiBovar Tore yap evOevel 
/xdXiaTa. co? 5' a7rXw9 eiTrelv iXda p,ev Ka\ avKrj 
Kul dfiTrekw rrjv ireBeLvqv (paatv oiKeiOTaT'rjv elvai, 
Tot9 Be dKpoBpvoi<; ra^ v7r(opeLa<;. ')(pri Be Kal iv 
tiUTOt? TOi? 6p,oyevecn p,r) dyvoeiv Td<; olKeia^. iv 
TrXelarr] Be 009 elirelv Btacjiopa ra tmv d/iTreXcov 
iarlv' oca ydp iajL 7^9 etBrj, roaavrd rivi'^ (paai 
Kal d/jLTreXcov eivai. ^vrevofieva fiev ovv KaTo, 
^vaiv dyad a yiveaOai irapd (pvaiv Be CLKapira. 
ravra jnev ovv wairep kolvcl irdvrwv. 

VI. Tmv Be (f)oivLKa)v t^t09 rj (pVTeia irapd 
rdXXa fcal 7) jierd ravra Oepairela. (purevovcri 
ydp 7rA.6tOL'9 et9 ravTO riOevre^ Bug Kdrco Kal Bvo 
dvcoOev eTTiBovvref;, TTpavel<=; Be Travra^. ti-jv ydp 
eK(f)vat.v ovK iK tcov vtttIwv Kal kolXwv iroielTai, 
KaOdirep TLve<^ (j>aaLV, aXX' ck tcov dvco, Bl' o Kal 
iv TTj iiTL^ev^ei twv iTTLTiOepevcov ov Bel irepLKa- 
XvTTTeiv Ta9 dpxd<i oOev rj eKc^vai'^' (pavepal B' 

1 i\day conj. Bod. {cf. Plin. 17. 88) ; ^oiiiy UAld.H. 
' (\<iTTovi conj. Sch. ; eKarroy Aid. 
3 i.e. apples pears plums, etc. 



in planting the pomegranate myrtle or bay, one 
should set two trees close together, not further 
than nine feet apart, apples a little further, pears and 
wild pears still further, almonds and figs further still, 
and in like manner the olive.^ Again the distance 
apart must be regulated by the nature of the ground, 
being less ^ In hilly parts than in low ground. 

Most important of all, one may say, is it to assign 
to each the suitable soil ; for then is the tree most 
vigorous. Speaking generally, they say that low 
ground is most suitable for the olive fig and vine, 
and the lower slopes of hills for fruit trees.^ Nor 
should one fail to note what soil suits each variety 
even of those closely related. There is the greatest 
difference, one may say, between the different kinds of 
vine : for they say that there are as many kinds of vine 
as there are of soil. If they are planted as their 
nature requires, they turn out well, if otherwise, they 
are unfruitful. And these remarks apply almost 
equally to all trees. 

Of the propagation of the date-palm ; of palms in general. 

VI. * The method of propagating date-palms is 
peculiar and exceptional, as also is their subsequent 
cultivation. They plant several seeds together, 
putting two below and two above, which are fastened 
on ; but all face downwards.^ For germination starts 
not, as some say, from the ' reverse ' or hollow side,^ 
but from the part ^ wliich is uppermost ; wherefore 
in joining on the seeds which are placed above one 
must not cover up the points from which the growth 

* Plin, 13. 32. 

■* i.e. with the grooved side downwards. 

• it. the grooved side. ' i.e. the round side. 


Gicrt TOt? ifiTrelpoL^;. 8ia rovro 3' et? to ai)To 
7r\€Lov<; TiOiaaiv on airo rov €vo<; aa6€vri<; t) 
(f)vi€ia. rovro)V Se ai re pi^ai tt/jo? aXki'fK,a<i 
(TvixirXeKovTai kol evOv<; at TrpcoraL /SXacrr^a-eL^;, 
Mcrre eu ylveaOaL to areXexo^. 

'H fjL€V ovv diro TO)v KapiTOiv <f)VT6La TOiavry 
Tt9* rj 3' a(/)' avTov, orav cKpeXwai, to avw ev 
wirep 6 iyKe(f)a\o<i' cK^aLpovcn he oaov Sltttj-^v 
Gr')(icravre<; he rovro Kurco rideacrt, ro vypov (^iXel 
he 'X^copau dX/jbcohrj' ht o Kal ottou /xt] roiavT)j 
rvy)(^di'€i TrepLTrdrrovdiv dXa<^ oi yewpyoL' rovro 
he hel TToielv [ii] rrepl avrd<i rd<; pt^cr? aXV uTToOer 
diroarrjcravra TrepLirdrreLv oaov rjfiieKrov' on ht 
roiavrrjv ^>]reL ')((i}pav KdKelvo iroiovvrau atj/Jielov 
Tvavra'xpv yap oirov irXrjOo^ (f)Ot,VLKcov d\/jLcoh€L<; a'l 
')(^ct)par Kol yap ev ^a(3v\o)vi (fiaaiv, oirov oi 
(f)OLViKe<; 7r6(l)VKa<Tt, Kal ev Ai/Surj he /cal ev Alyvirrfo 
Kal ^OLViKY} Kal rr]<; %vpia<^ he rrj<; Koi\r)<^, ev fj y 
01 ifKelcyroL rvy^dvovcnv, ev rpcarl /jl6voi<; roiroi's 
a\/jAfjheaiv elvai rov'^ hvvaiievov<^ Orjcravpi^eaOar 
rov^ h' ev roL<i dWoL<; ov hiajieveLV dWd aijTrecrOai, 
')(\(opov<; 8' yhec'; elvac Kal KaravaXiaKeiv ovrco. 

(piXel he Kal iihpeiav a(^6hpa ro hevhpov rrepl 
he Koirpov hiap^^ia^rirovaLV ol /xev yap ov <f)aai 
')(aipeiv dXX! ivavncorarov elvai, ol he Kai 
')(^prj(70ai Kal eirihocnv rroWrjv rroielv. helv h' 
vhpevecv ev fidXa Kara r^? Koirpov, Kaddirep ol ev 

^ i.e. ' cabbage.' 

"^ TovTo . . . vypSv : I have inserted Se, otherwise retaining 
the reading of Aid.; tovtov kcltw ndeaai S* twypov conj .W. 
cj. Plin. 13. 36. rl vyp6v, viz. the cut end. 

^ a\iuiw5T} conj. W.; d/x/jLuS-q PjAld.H. 



is to come ; and tliese can be recognised by experts. 
And the reason why they set several together is that 
a plant that grows from one only is weak. The roots 
which grow from these seeds become entangled 
together and so do the first shoots from the very 
start, so that they combine to make a single stem, 

Such is the method of growing from the fruits. 
But propagation is also possible from the tree itself, 
by taking off the top, which contains the 'head.'^ 
They take off about two cubits' length, and, splitting 
it, set the moist end.^ It likes a soil which contains 
salt ^ ; wherefore, where such soil is not available, 
the growers sprinkle salt about it ; and this must not 
be done about the actual roots : one must keep the 
salt some way off and sprinkle about a gallon. To 
shew that it seeks such a soil they offer the folloAving 
proof; wherever date-palms grow abundantly, the 
soil is salt,^ both in Babylon, they say, where the tree 
is indigenous, in Libya in Egypt and in Phoenicia ; 
while in Coele-Syria, where are ^ most palms, only in 
three districts, they say, where the soil is salt, are 
dates produced which can be stored ; those that grow 
in other districts do not keep, but rot, though when 
fresh they are sweet and men use ^ them at that 

'' Tlie tree is likewise very fond of irrigation ; as 
to dung there is a difference of opinion : some say 
that the date-palm does not like it, but that it is most 
injurious, others that it gladly accepts ^ it and makes 
good growth thereby, but plenty of water should be 

* a.\/j.c!)S€ts conj. W. ; a/x/^wSeis Ald.H. 

= iy^y' oi conj. W.; h' "Ivdoi U; V "l^^oi MVAld. 
' KaTauaKiffKetv Aid.; KarapaXiaKeadai conj. W. 
7 Plin. 13. 28. 

* Koi xp^f^a* conj. Sch.; Kcxp^o-flai Aid.; ? Kexapvc^^^- 



*V6S(i). Tovro ixev ovv eTTLCTKeTneov' Tcra)? yap ol 
fiev ovTQ)^ ol S' eVetVft)? Oepairevovaiv, koX /xera 
fiev rod vBaTO<^ oi^eXifJiov rj /coTTyoo? avev Be tovtov 
^Xa^epd. orav he eviavaio'^ 'yevrjrai, jxera- 
(pvrevovai koX tmv oXmv avfiTrapa^dWovcn, koI 
iraXiv orav 8l€t^<;' %at/o^^ 7^P <^^oBpa rij /lera- 

MeTa(j)VT€vovaL Be ol pev aWot rod rjpo<;' ol Be 
ev Vta^uXwvi irepl ro acrrpov, ore koX 6Xco<; ol ye 
TToXXol (j)urevovaLV, &>? koI rrapayivopevov kol 
av^avopevov Odrrov. veov pev ovro^ ov)(^ dirrov- 
rai, ttXtjv dvaBovai rrjv Koprjv, ottco^; 6pOo(f)vrj t' y 
KOL al pd^BoL pt) diraprwvrai. pera Be ravra 
TrepLrepvovaiv, b-irorav dBpo<; ijByj yevrjrat Kal 
ird^o'^ €XV' drroXeiirova-L Be oaov cnnOaprjV rwv 
pdjSBwv. (^iepei Be eo)? pev civ y vec^ dirvprjvovrov 
Kapirov, pera Be rovro TrvptjvcoBr]. 

"AXXoL Be riV6<i Xeyovaiv &>? ol ye Kara "Zvplav 
ovBepiav TTpoa-dyovacv epyaalav aXX^ rj Bia- 
KaOaipovai Kal e7n^pe')(pv(7Lv, eTrc^rjretv Be pdXXov 
rb vapariaLov vBcop rj to ck rov Aio?* elvat Be 
TToXv roiovrov ev rw avXoiVL ev <p Kal ra (poivL- 
K6(f)vra rvyxdvet, rov avXcova Be rovrov Xeyeiv 
rovfy Xvpov<; ore BtareiveL Blcl t/}? ^Apa^La<; pe^pt 
T?}? epu6pa(; 9a\d<j(7ri<^ Kal rroXXoij<^ (jidaKeiv 
iXyjXvOevaL' rovrov Be ev ray KoiXordro) 7re(f)u- 
KevaL rov<; (^0LVLKa<;. ravra pev ovv rd^' dpcpo- 
repw<; av etr)' Kara yap ra^; ■^(^dypa^;, wairep Kal 

1 cj. 7. 5. 1. ^ Plin. 13. 37. 

' avynTapafiaKKovcTi conj. Sch. from G ; avfivapa\afi$dvov<r, 
UAld. ♦ cf. Plin. 13. 38. 



given, after manuring, as the Rhodians use. This 
then is matter for enquiry ; it may be that there arc- 
two distinct methods of cultivation, and that dung, 
if accompanied ])y watering,^ is beneficial, though 
without it it is harmful. 2 When the tree is a year 
old, tliey transplant it and give plenty ^ of salt, and 
this treatment is repeated when it is two years old. 
for it delights greatly in being transplanted. 

^ Most transplant in the spring, but the people of 
Babylon about the rising of the dog-star, and this is 
the time when most people propagate it, since it 
then germinates and grows more quickly. As long 
as it is young, they do not touch it, except that theji 
tie up the foliage, so that it may grow straight ^ and 
the slender branches may not hang down.*^ At a 
later stage they prune it, when it is more vigorous 
and has become a stout tree, leaving the slender 
branches only about a handsbreadth long. So long 
as it is young, it produces its fruit without a stone, 
but later on the fruit has a stone. 

However some say that the people of Syria use no 
cultivation, except cutting out wood and watering, also 
that the date-palm requires spring water rather than 
water from the skies ; and that such water is abundant 
in the valley in which are the palm-groves. And 
they add that the Syrians say that this valley '' 
extends through Arabia to the Red Sea,^ and that 
many profess to have visited it,^ and that it is in the 
lowest part of it that the date-palms grow. Now 
both accounts may be true, for it is not strange that 

^ 6pdo<pvr) t' ^ conj. W. ; opdocpvrjrai PjAld. 

' avapTwvTai conj, R. Const.; airopdcivTai PaMAld. 

7 c/. Diod. 3. 41. 

' i.e. the Arabian Gulf. 

* i\T]\vd4vai Aid. ; SieXrjXvdiyai CODJ. W. 


avra to, BevBpa, Siacfyepeiv fcal Ta<; ep'yaala^ ovk 

TevT] Be Tcou (^olvlkcov icrrl irXeiw Trpayrov jxev 
Kot oidirep ev peyiarr) hia(^opa to pev Kap-rripiov 
TO he cLKapTTOv, i^ a)v ol irepl lia/3v\(t)va Td<; t€ 
K\iva^ Kol TOiWa aKevrj iroiovvTai. CTreiTa TOiv 
Kaprrip^wv ol p,h' appev€<^ at Be dtjXeiar Biac^epovcn 
Be dW/]\cov, Kud' a 6 pev dpprjv uvOo^ TrpcoTov 
(jyepet eVl t?}? aTrdOrj^;, rj Be 0/jXeia Kapirov ev6h 
pLLKpov. avruiv Be tmv KapirMV Biacpopal TrXeLOV^;' 
ol p.ev jdp dTrvprjvot ol Be piaXatcoTT u pt-jvoi' ra? 
')(^poia<i ol pbev XevKol ol Be p,eXav€<; ol Be ^avdoi 
TO 3' oXov OVK eXaTTO) ')(^p(£>p,aTd (^aaiv elvai twv 
(TVKcov ovB^ dirXa)^ tu yevr]- Biacpepeiv Be kol KaTO, 
TCL pLe'^/Wrj KOL KaTCL TO. a')(^)]iiara' kol yap a(f)ai- 
poeiBel'^ ev[ov<; dtaavel pirjka kol to, p,eyeOr] ttjXi- 
K0VT0v<; di<; TeTTapa<^ ei? tov irrjynjv eh'ai, [eirTa 
ical et'TToSoL'?]* dXXov<; Be puKpov^ rfXiKov^ ipe- 
iScvdov^;. KOL TOL<; ')(^vXoX<; Be iroXv Bia(f)epovTa<;. 

K^puTiaTOV Be Kol tmp XevKcov Kal tmp pLeXdvcov 
TO j^acnXiKov KaXovpevov yevo^ ev eKarepw Kal 
peyeOei Kal dpeTj}' airdvia B' elvai TavTaXeyovar 
a)(eBov yap ev p,6vfp tm V>aycpov KrJTTcp tov 
rraXaiov irepl Vta^vXoiva. ev K.v7rpa) Be lBiov tl 
yevo^ (f^oivLKCDV iaTlv o ov Trerraivei, tov Kapirov, 
dXX^ oj/xo? wv r}Bv<; cr^oBpa Kal yXvKv<; ecTTL' Tyv 
Be yXvKVT7]Ta IBlav e^ei. evtoi 8' ov p,6vov Bua- 

» Plin. 13. 39. 

2 vpwTov conj. Sch.; irpuTos UMVAld. 

' nrixvv conj. R. Const, from Plin. 13. 45. and O, cf. Diod. 
2. 53 ; crdxvy UMVAld. 

* eiTTo Ka\ eviroSovs VMV : the words perhaps conceal a 



in different soils the methods of cultivation should 
differ, like the trees themselves. 

^ There are several kinds of palm. To begin with, 
to take first the most important difference ; — some 
are fruitful and some not ; and it is from this latter 
kind that the people of Babylon make their beds 
and other furniture. Again of the fruitful trees 
some are 'male,' others 'female'; and these differ 
from one another in that the ' male ' first ^ bears a 
flower on the spathe, while the ' female ' at once 
bears a small fruit. Again there are various differences 
in the fruits themselves ; some have no stones, others 
soft stones ; as to colour, some are white, some black, 
some yellow ; and in general they say that there is 
not less variety of colour and even of kind than in 
figs ; also that they differ in size and shape, some being 
round like apples and of such a size that four of them 
make up a cubit ^ in length, ... * while others are 
small,^ no bigger than chick-peas ; and that there is 
also much difference in flavour. 

The best kind alike in size and in quality, whether 
of the white or black variety, is that which in either 
form is called ' the royal palm ' ; but this, they say, 
is rare ; it grows hardly anywhere except in the 
park of the ancient Bagoas,^ near Babylon. In 
Cyprus '' there is a peculiar kind of palm which does 
not ripen its fruit, though, when it is unripe, it is 
very sweet and luscious, and this lusciousness is of a 
peculiar kind. Some palms again ® differ not merely 

gloss on TT^x'"'* ^-Q- f^s tr'qx^s Suo TrcJSej (Salm.) ; cm. G ; ivlore 
Ka\ iirl i:6ba conj. W. * Plin. 13. 42. 

" Baydov : BarToy MSS. corr. by R. Const, from Plin. 13. 
41. rov iraKalov apparently distinguishes this Bagoas from 
some more recent wearer of the name. 

■> Plin. 13. 33. « Plin. 13. 28. 



(pepovaL rot<; Kapiroi'; dWa kol avTW tm BevSpo) 
Kara re to /x7]ko<; kol ttjv aW'y]v fiopcfi^jv ov yap 
/xeydXoi /cal [xaKpol dWd ^pa')(ei<;, eVt he Kapiri- 
fxaorepoi ran' ciWcov kov Kap7ro(f)opovvTe<; €vOv<^ 
TpteT€L<s' TToXXol Se KOL ouroL TTepl Kvirpov. elal 
Se KOL TTepl l^vplav kol irepl AtyvTrTOv ^oivLKe^ 
o'l (f)€povaL r€Tpa€T€L<; kol iTevraere2<^ dvSpofi7]Kei<i 

"F^Tepov 6' eTL yevo<i ev J^inrpw, o koX to (f)vX\ov 
TrXaTurepov e%6i /cal top /capirop /xeu^co ttoWw 
Koi lBi6/jL0p(f)0V' fxeyeOei fiev ij\lko(; poa tw (txi]- 
fxaTL he IT po iir)Kri<^ , ov/c €V)(^u\o<; Be Mcrirep dXkoL 
dXX' ofiOLO'i Tat? f)6at<;, wcrre fir) KUTahexecrOai 
dWct BLa/iaarjaapevovf; CK^dWeiv. yevrj fiev ovv, 
wairep etprjTaL, iroWd. OycravpL^eaOat Be p,6vov<; 
hvvacrdai (paai tmv ev Xvpca tou? eV tm avXcovi, 
Tou? 8' ev AlytiTTTO) kol KuTrpo) koi irapd rot? 
aXXoi^ ')(\copov<i dvakiaKeaOai. 

'EcTTt Be 6 (polvL^ (JL><; fxev aTrXw? elirelv fiovo- 
(7TeA.6%69 Koi p.ovo^ve<^' ov fjL7]v dWd ylvovTai 
Tive<i KOL BtcfiveU, Mairep ev AlyvTTTcp, KaOdirep 
BiKpoav exovT€<i' to B' avdanj/Jia tou areXexov'i 
dcf)* ov t) o-X}(7i'^ i^clI irevrdTTTj^v 7rpo9 dX\r)Xa Be 
TTW? lad^ovTU. ^aal Be koX tov<; ev Kp7]T)j 
irXelov^ elvai tou? Bi<pveL<;, eviov<; Be koX rpK^vel^;- 
ev Be Trj Aairaia tlvcl koI 7revTafce(f)aXov' ovk 
dXoyov yovv ev rat? evTpo(j)coT€paL<; y^ciipaL^ irXeiui 
yiveaOai to, Toiavra koi to oXov Be to. eiBrj irXeico 
Koi Td<^ Bia^opd^. 

» ifxoios conj. Bod.; bfjLolws UMVAld. ^ cf. §5. 

* Plin. 13. 38 ; cf. 4. 2. 7, where the name {KovKi6<popov) of 
this tree is given. 



in their fruits but in the character of the tree itself 
as to stature and general shape ; for instead of being 
large and tall they are low growing ; but these are 
more fruitful than the others^ and they begin to bear 
as soon as they are three years old ; this kind too is 
common in Cyprus. Again in Syria and Egypt 
there are palms which bear when they are four or 
five years old, at which age they are the height of 
a man. 

There is yet another kind in Cyprus, which has 
broader leaves and a much larger fruit of peculiar 
shape ; in size it is as large as a pomegranate, in 
shape it is long ; it is not however juicy like others, 
but like ^ a pomegranate, so that men do not 
swallow it, but chew it and then spit it out. Thus, 
as has been said, there are many kinds. The only 
dates that will keep, they say, are those which grow 
in the Valley ^ of Syria, while those that grow in 
Egypt Cyprus and elsewhere are used when fresh. 

The palm, speaking generally, has a single and 
simple stem ; however there are some with two 
stems, as in Egypt,^ which make a fork, as it were ; 
the length of the stem up to the point where it 
divides is as much as five cubits, and tho two 
branches of the fork are about equal in length. They 
say that the palms in Crete more often than not 
have this double stem, and tliat some of them have 
three stems ; and that in Lapaia one with five heads 
has been known. It is after all not surprising^ 
that in more fertile soils such instances should be 
commoner, and in general that more kinds and more 
variation should be found under such conditions. 

* ovK &\oyov yovv conj. W. {ovk &\oyoy 5* Sch.) ; ov KaXws 
yovy Ald.MU (marked doubtful). 



10 "A Wo Se TL yei'O^ iarlv 6 (paai yuveaOai 
irXelarov irepX t7]i> AWioirLav, o KaXoucn icoiKa^' 
ovTOL 8e da/jLi'(oS€L<;, ov')^l ev to crreXe^o? €)(^ovt€<; 
dWa irXeio) koI evLore avvrjpTtjfMiva f^^XP^ tlvo<; 
669 €U, Ta? Be pd^hov<; ov fjLaKpd<; fxev aXX' oaov 
irTj^valaf; , dXXd Xe/a?, iirl he tmv ciKpcov rrjv 
Kojir^v. e^pvai he koX to (fivWov TrXarv kol coa- 
irep ix BvoLu avyK€L/J.€POV eXa^^aTOiv. KaXol Be 
Kol rfj oy^ei (f)aLVOVTaL' rov Be Kapirov koI tm (TXV- 
fxari KOL Tw /jieyedei kol too X^^V Bid(f)opov exovar 
(TrpoyyvXcorepov yap kol /xeL^o) kol evaroficoTepov 
rjTTOV Be yXvKvv. ireiTaivovcn Be ev rpicrlv erecriv 
cocrr del Kapirov ex^^v, eiriKaraXapl^dvovTO^ 
rov veov tov evov iroiovcn Be Kal ciprov; e^ avruiv 
irepl fiev ovv tovtcov eTrLa/ceirreov. 

11 Ot Be ^ayLtatppi0€t9 KaXov/ievoL rcov (poivLKCov 
erepov tl yevo<; earlv coaTrep o/jLCovvfiov kul yap 
e^acpedevTOf; rod iyxecpdXov ^oicTL Kal Koirevre^i 
diro ro)v pitoyv 7rapa,SXaardvovcn. Biacj^epovaL 
Be Kal TM Kap7T(p Kal roL<; (f)vXXoL<;' irXarv yap 
Kal fxaXaKOv exovcrc rb (f)iiXXov, Bl o Kal irXe- 
Kovatv e^ avrou rd<; re a-TTvpiBa^ Kal rov<; 
(popfiovf;' TToXXol Be Kal ev rfj Kprjrrj ylvovrai Kal 
en fidXXov ev %LKeXia. ravra juev ovv eirl 
irXelov el'p-qrat tt}? viroOeaeo)^. 

» Plin. 13. 47. 

* K6ii(as conj. Salm. c/. 1. 10. 5, and the probable readint 
in Plin. I.e. 

' (Ti/i'TjpTTj^eVa yUf'xp* Ti^bi 6JS iv con j . W. j ffvvr]pTr]iu(ias fj-fi 



1 There is another kind which is said to be 
abundant in Ethiopia, called the doum-palm ^ ; this 
is a shrubby tree, not having a single stem but 
several, which sometimes are joined together up to 
a certain point"; and the leaf-stalks are not long,^ 
only the length of a cubit, but they are plain,^ and 
the leafage is borne only at the tip. The leaf is 
broad and, as it were, made up of at least ^ two 
leaflets. This tree is fair to look upon, and its fruit 
in shape size and flavour differs from the date, 
being rounder larger and pleasanter to the taste, 
though not so luscious. It ripens in three years, so 
that there is always fruit on the tree, as the new 
fruit overtakes that of last year. And they make 
bread out of it. These reports then call for 

^ The dwarf-palm, as it is called, is a distinct kind, 
having nothing but its name ^ in common with other 
palms. For if the head is removed, it survives, 
and, if it is cut down, it shoots again from the 
roots. It differs too in the fruit and leaves ; for 
the leaf is broad and flexible, and so they weave 
their baskets and mats out of it. It is common in 
Crete and still more so in Sicily.^ However in 

these matters we have said more than our purpose 

fls %v U ; awripT-nixiva fx^XP*^ tiv6s elfft Aid.; avvrjpTrj/JLivas filf 
IJ.(XP^ TJvbs elei' MV. 

•* /xev ins. W. after Sch. (omitted above). 

^ i.e. without leaflets, except at the tip. 

« 4\axi<TToiv Bas. ; eAax^ffrwv U. cf. Arist. Elh. N". 5. 3. 3, 
e'v i\axl<TTOis Sualy. 

7 Plin. 13. 39. " For 6fxd>vv(j.ov cf. 9. 10. 1 n. 

• A dwarf palm is now abundant at Selinunte : cf. Verg. 
Aen. 3. 705, palmosa Sdinua. 



12 'Ej/ Se Tal<^ T(ov aXKwv ^vreiai^ avdiraXiv 
TiOevraL ra (pvreurrjpLa, KaOdnep rcbu KXojfidrcoi^. 
01 fiev ovv ovOev 8ia(f)€p€iv (pacrlv ijKiara Se eVt 
TMP cifiirekwv' eviOL he poav haavveaOai fcal 
aKid^ew /jidWov top Kapnov en Be t^ttov diro- 
^dXkeiv Tou? KVTLVOv;. avixjSaLveiv he tovto (f)aaL 
Koi eirX T7]<; avKyj^' ov yap aTTO^dWeiv avdirakLv 
(^vrevOeXaav, €tl B* ev^arwrepav yiveaQai' ovk 
uTTo/BdWeiv 8e ovS* edv Tf? diroKXdcrri ^voiJLevri<; 
evdv<; TO oLKpov. 

At fiev ovv (f)UT€Lac koi <yevea€L<; 01/ rpoirov 
exovcTv (T'X^eSov o)? tvttw irepCka^elv e'Lprjvrac. 

VII. Tlepl Be T^9 €pya(TLa<; KaX t?}? depaireia^ 
TCL /lev ean kolvcl rd Be IBia Ka6* eKaarov. kolvcl 
fiev rj T€ (TKairdvrj koI t) vBpeia kol 77 KOTrpwai^;, 
ere Be 77 BiaKdOapai,<; koi d(^aipeaL<; tcov aucov. 
Bia^epovai Be rw /xaWov koi ■^ttov. rd fiev 
<f)iXvBpa Kol ^ikoKOTT pa rd S' ou% 6/jLolco<;, olov y 
KVirdpLTTO^, "tjnep ov ^CkoKoirpov ovBe <^i\vBpov, 
dW.a KOL diroWvaOaL ^aaiv edv <ye veav ovaav 
i(f)vBpev(oai, ttoWm. poa Be kol d/j,7r€\o<; (plXvBpa. 
(TVKrj Be ev^Xaarorepa jxev vBpevo/jLevr] rov Be 
Kapirov iO'')(^6L %€t/96) irXrjv rrj<; AaKcoviK7]<i' avTrj Be 

^ avdiraXiv conj. Sch.; ravdvaXiv Aid. cf. C.P. 2. 9. 4 ; 
Oeop. 10. 45; Plin. 17. 84. " oZv ins. H. 

' Saavvfffdat : see LS. reff. 8. v. Saavs. 

* cf. G. P. 2. 9. 3. 

^ €v0ara)T€pav {i.e. 'more manageable'). The reference is 
to a method of keeping the tree dwarf (Bod.). Plin. I.e. has 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. vi. 12-vii. i 

Further notes on the projmgation of trees. 

To return to the other trees : — in propagating them 
they set the cuttings upside down/ as with vine-shoots. 
Some however"^ say that that makes no difference, 
and least of all in propagating the vine ; while others 
contend that tlie pomegranate thus propagated has 
a bushier growth 3 and shades the fruit better, and 
also that it is then ^ less apt to shed the flower. This 
also occurs, they say, with the fig ; when it is set 
upside down, it does not shed its fruit, and it makes 
a more accessible ^ tree ; and it does not shed its fruit, 
even if one breaks off the top ^ as it begins to grow. 

Thus we have given a general sketch of what 
we find about methods of propagation, and of the 
ways in which these trees are reproduced. 

Of the cultivation 0/ trees, 
VII. '' As to cultivation and tendance some require- 
ments apply equally to all trees, some are peculiar to 
one. Tliose which apply equally to all are spade- 
work watering and manuring, and moreover pruning 
and removal of dead wood. But different trees differ 
in the degree. Some love moisture and manure, 
some not so much, as the cypress,^ which ^ is fond 
neither of manure nor of water, but actually dies, 
they say, if it is overwatered when young. But the 
pomegranate and vine are water-loving. The fig 
grows more vigorously if it is watered, but then its 
fruit is inferior, except in the case of the Laconian 
variety, which is water-loving. 1*^ 

scansilem (so also G), which seems to be a rendering of eujSar. 
ivBaroTfpav U. 

' rh 6.Kpov conj. R. Const, after G ; rhv napirhv UMVP«Ald. 

' Plin. 17. 246. » Plin. 17. 247. 

9 Tfintp conj. W. from G ; Zairep Aid. i« c/. C.F. 3. 6. 6. 



AiaKaOalpeaOai 5e irdvra ^tirel' ^eXjiw yap 
ra)v avcov cK^aipov [Jbevwv coairep oKKoTpiwv, a Kat 
Ta9 av^rjcT€L<; Kol Ta<; Tpo(f)a<; epbTTohi^ei. hi o 
Koi . . . OTav fi <yepdvhpvov oXo)? kotttovgiv ?; yap 
^\d(TTT]aL<; via jiverai, tov SevSpov. rrXela-Trj^ he 
hLaKaOdpa€a)<; (j^yjaiv ^ AvhpoTiwv helaOat fivpptvov 
Kal iXdav oaw yap av eXuTTw KaTa\i7ryj<^, apLeiVOv 
^Xaarrjcrei Kal tov Kapirov oiacL irXeioi' ttXtjv 
d/jLTTeXov hrjXov orr Taviy yap dvayKaiorepov 
Kal 7r/)09 /3Xd(TTijcnv Kal tt/jo? evKapiriav. airXMs 
he Kal ravTTjv Kal ti^v aXXt]v Oepairelav tt/jo? ri]v 
Ihiav (f)uai,v eKdarco iroirjreov. 

AelcrOat hi (firjcriv ^AvhpoTLCOv Kal Kowpov 
hpipLVTdT7](; Kal 7rXeLaTrj<i vhpeia<;, wairep Kal Tf;? 
hiaKaOdpaeco^, eXdav Kal /xvppivov Kal poav ov 
yap ex^iv fi'^rpav ovhe voarj/xa Kara 77}? ovhiv 
dXX^ iirethdv iraXaLOV y to hivhpov, aTTorifiveiv 
helv Tou? dKpe/ii6va<; eircLTa to aTiXe'^o<; Oepa- 
ireveiv coairepav e^ dp')(r}^ (j^VTevOiv ovtco he 
<f>a(Ti, TroXvxpovLcoTepa Kal la')(yp6TaTa p.vppivov 
elvau Kal iXdav. Tavra piev ovv errLcrKe^an' 

av Tt9, el Kal /jlt] irdvTa dXXa nepl ye t?;? 

'H he Konpo^ 0VT€ iraaiv 6p^OLoo<; ovO' rj avTrj 
Trdaiv appLoTTer tcl puev yap hpi/jb€La<i hecTai, to, 
5' rjTTOV TCL he jravTeXo)^ Kov(^rj<;, hpipiVTdTii he 
t) TOV dvOpcoTTOV Kaddirep Kal XapT6hpa<; 
dpicTTrjv fiev Tai>Tr)v elvai (f)r](Ti, hevTipav he ttjv 
veiav, TpiTTjv he alyo^, TCTdpTrjv he 7rpo/3dTov, 

* Plin. 17. 248. ' Name of tree missing. Sch. 

» cf. C.P. 3. 10. 4. * TouTp conj. W.; touttjj Aid. 



1 All trees require pruning ; for they are improved 
by removal of the dead wood, which is, as it were, a 
foreign body, and prevents growth and nourishment. 
Wherefore when the (tree) 2 becomes old, they cut 
off all its boughs : for then the tree breaks afresh. 
Androtion ^ says that the myrtle and olive need more 
pruning than any other trees; for the smaller you 
leave them, the better they will grow, and they will 
bear better fruit. But the vine of course needs 
pruning even more ; for it is in the case of this tree * 
more necessary for promoting both growth and 
fruitfulness. However, speaking generally, botli 
this and other kinds of tendance must be suited to 
the particular natural character in each case. 

Androtion further says that the olive the myrtle 
and the pomegranate require the most pungent 
manure and the heaviest watering, as well as the 
most thorough pruning, for that then they do not 
get 'softwood' ^ nor any disease underground; but 
when the tree is old, he adds, one should cut off' the 
boughs, and then attend to the stem as though it 
were a tree just planted. Thus ^ treated they say 
that the myrtle and olive are longer lived and 
very robust. These statements might be a subject 

for further enquiry, or, if not all of them, at least what 
is stated of the 'softwood.' 

Manure does not suit all alike, nor is the same 
manure equally good for all. Some need it pungent, 
some less so, some need it quite light. The most 
pungent is human dung: thus Chartodras'^ says 
that this is the best, pig-manure being second to it, 
goat-manure third, fourth that of sheep, fifth that of 

' i.e. effete sap-wood. ® ovrw conj. W.; ol Aid. 

' Name perhaps corrupt. 



TrefiTTTrjv Be ^o6<;, €Kry]v Be tyjv Xo(f)Oup(ov. r; Be 
crvp/jiaTLTL^ aXX.?; kul aWa)<;' rj fiev yap aaOeve- 
arepa TavTt]<; rj Be Kpelrrcov. 

Tr]v Be (JKaTrdvrjv iraaiv oIovtul avjKpepetv, 
wairep koX rrjv ocrKokaiv tol^ eXdrToaiv evrpa- 
^earepayapyLvea-daL. rpecpeiv BeBo/cel /cat 6 kovl- 
opro^ evia koI ddWeiv iroLelv, olov top ^orpvv, BC 
o Kol vTTOKOvlovcn TToWaKL^;' ol Be Kol ra? avKa^; 
viroaKaiTrovaiv evOa tovtov Bel. Meyapol Be 
KOL TO 1)9 (TLKVOV^ KoX Ta? Ko\oKvvTa<;, oTav ol 
errjalaL iTvevawcn, aKaWovTe^ KOVLoprovcn Kal 
ovTco y\vKUTepov<; Kal diraXwrepov^ rroiovaiv 
ovx vBpevovre<;. tovto /mev ovv 6/jio\oyov/xevov. 
Trjv B' dpLTreXov ou (paal Tive<i Belv [r;] viroKovieLv 
ovB' oXw? dineadai irepKa^ovro^ rov ^orpvo^, 
aXX eiirep orav dirofieXavOfj. ol Be to oX-oi^ fitjBe 
Tore ttXtjv oaov virorlXai rrjv ^OTdvrjv virep fjuev 
ovv Tovrcov d/jL^La/3r)Tovaiv. 

'Edv Be TL fzr} <^epr} Kapirov aXX* els fiXdarrjaiv 
TpeTr'}]rai, ^^(ii^ovaL rov crTeXe^^ou? to Kara yrjv 
Kal \i6ov evTiOeaaLV ottw? dv payy, Kal ^aai 
(pepeiv. 6fiOLa)<; Be Kal edv ris rwv pi^Mv nvas 
irepire/irj, Si' o Kal tcop d/nTreXcov orav rpaywcn 
TOVTO iroLovGL Ta? eTmroXrjf;. iwv Be crvKwv 
7r/?o9 Tw TrepiTefJLveLV Kal Tec^pav TrepLirdTTovai 
Kal KaTaa^d^ovai tcl aTeXe^T] Kal <^aai (pepeiv 
fidXXov. d/jLvyBaXfj Be Kal irdTTaXov iyKoyfravTC's 

' Lit. ' bushy tails,' i.e. horses asses mules. 

» cf. C.P. 3. 16. 3. = 5er ins. H ; so apparently G read. 

* hi'iv v-KOKovUiv ohV oAwj conj. W. (so Sch., but keeping 
[^] after h^'iv) ; hi'iv ^ viroKivnlv ou$' o\ws UMV; Seiy ^ vttoko- 
riflf f) '6\a,s Aid. 6 Plin. 17. 253 and 254. 



oxen, and sixth that of beasts of burden.^ Litter 
manure is of different kinds and is applied in various 
ways : some kinds are weaker, some stronger. 

Spade-work is held to be beneficial to all trees, 
and also hoeing for the smaller ones, as they then 
become more vigorous. Even dust ^ is thought to 
fertilise some things and make them flourish, for 
instance the grape ; wherefore they often put dust to 
the roots of the vine. Some also dig in dust about 
the figs in places where it is deficient/* In Megara, 
when the etesian winds are past, they cover the 
cucumber and gourd plants with dust by raking, and 
so make the fruits sweeter and tenderer by not 
watering. On this point there is general agreement. 
But some say that dust should not be put to the vine,* 
and that it should not be meddled with at all when 
the grape is turning, or, if at all, only when it has 
turned black. Some again say that even then nothing 
should be done except to pluck up the weeds. So 
on this point there is a difference of opinion. 

^ If a tree does not bear fruit but inclines to a 
leafy growth, they split that part of the stem which 
is underground and insert a stone corresponding ^ to 
the crack thus made, and then, they say, it will bear. 
The same result follows, if one cuts off some of the 
roots, and accordingly they thus treat the surface 
roots of the vine when it runs to leaf. In the case 
of figs, in addition to root-pruning,*^ they also sprinkle 
ashes about the tree, and make gashes in the stems, 
and then, they say, it bears better. ^ Into the almond 
tree they drive an iron peg, and, having thus made 

' oTTcos tiv ^ayri Aid.: SO G ; ? Snov; oirojs aredyrj conj. W, 
c/. Geop. 5. 35. ' ' Plin. I.e. 
» c/. 2. 2. 11 ; C.P. 1. 17. 10; 2. U. 1 ; Plin. 7. 253. 



(Tihripovv orav rerpavcocriv aXkov avrefi^aWovai 
Spvivov KOI T7J <yf) KpyTTTovaiv o kol KoKovai 
Tive^ KoXd^€LV ft)? v^pL^ov ro BhSpov. 

Tavrov Be tovto koX cttI t?^? uttlov Kal iir* 
dXXwv rive<; ttolovctiv. ev ^ApKahia he koX 
€v6vv€iv KoKovcTL TYjV oav TToXv jdp TO SevBpov 
TOVTO Trap* avTOi<; iaTi. Kai (paacv, oTav irdOr) 
TOVTO, Ta? piev pLt] (pepovcra'; (pepeiv ra? Be fir] 
TreTTOUcra? eKireTTeiv AraXw?. dfjLvyBaXrjv Be Kal 
CK 7riKpd<; jLyveaOaL yXvKelav, edv ti<; irepiopv^a^ 
TO crreXe^o? Kal TLTpdi'a<; baov re TTaXaicrTiacoi' 
TO TravTa^oOev diroppeov BdKpvov eirl TavTo ea 
KaTappelv. tovto fiev ovv dv elrj tt/jo? re to cj)epeiv 
d/.ia Kal 7r/)o? to evKapirelv. 

VIII. 'ATToySaXXei Be irpo tov Treyjrai top Kap- 
TTOV d/jLvyBaXrj pirfKea poa dirio'; Kal jidXiaTa By 
TrdvTcov crvKr] Kal (polvt^, tt/jo? a Kal Ta? ^o7]0eLa<; 
^i]Tovat' oOev Kal 6 epivacrpLO^;' eK yap twv 
CKel Kpep-avvvpievwv epLvoiV -y^rjve'^ eKBvofievot KaTe- 
aOiovai Kal maivovai Ta? Kopv(pd<i. Biacfyepovai 
Be Kal at 'X^wpai tt/jo? Ta? diro/SoXas' irepl yap 
^iTaXiav ov (paaiv diro^dXXeiv, Bl o ovB* epi- 

' The operation being performed at the hcase of the tree. 
cf. §7. ^ iKTTtTTdv conj. R. Const.; ^la-nimiv UMAld. 
3 Plin. 17. 252. 

• rh iravTaxoOev conj. W. ; TravraxoOef rh MSS. ; SO ap- 
parently G. c/. C.P. 2. 14. 4. 

^ TTfii/ai conj. Sch.; irtnypai Aid. 

* e/ifi KpiixavvvfjLfiVujv epivcou I conj. ; eKf7 Kpe/xavvvufvuv Aid. : 
(TTiKpf/xaufywy 4piywv conj. W. : but the present partic. is used 
a P. 2. 9. 5, 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. vii. 6-vin. i 

a hole, insert in its place a peg of oak-wood and 
bury it^ in the earth, and some call this ' punishing ' 
the tree, since its luxuriance is thus chastened. 

Some do the same with the pear and with other 
trees. In Arcadia they have a similar process which is 
called 'correcting' the sorb (for that tree is com- 
mon in that country). And they say that under 
this treatment those trees that Avould not bear do 
so, and those that Avould not ripen their fruit now 
ripen 2 tliem well. ^ It is also said that the almond 
becomes sweet, instead of bitter, if one digs round 
the stem and, having bored a hole about a palms- 
breadth, allows the gum which exudes from all 
sides * to flow down into it and collect. The object 
of this would be alike to make the tree bear and to 
improve the fruit. 

Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit : caprification. 

VIII. Trees which are apt to shed their fruit before 
ripening^ it are almond apple pomegranate pear 
and, above all, fig and date-palm ; and men try to 
find the suitable remedies for this. This is the 
reason for the process called ' caprification ' ; gall- 
insects come out of the wild figs which are hanging 
there,*' eat the tops of the cultivated figs and so 
make them swell.''' The shedding of the fruit differs 
according to the soil : in Italy ^ they say that it 
does not occur, and so they do not use caprification,^ 

' TTiaivovffi MVAld. ; hieipovai conj.W. ^ Treira(vov<Ti, 'ripen,' 
which is the word used in the parallel pass. C. P. 2. 9. 6, the 
object of the process being to cause the figs to dry. 

8 Plin. 15. 81. 'Italy' means South Italy. </. 4. 5. 5 and 
6 ; 5. 8. 1. 

* ipivd^ovaiv conj. Bod.; ipivovcriv Ald.H. 


vd^ovaiv' ovh^ €v rol^ Kara^opeiotf; kol XeTrro- 
>yeiOL<^, olov inl ^oKvkw t^? MeyapLSo<;- ov8e rr}<^ 
Kopti'Oia<; ev tlctl roiroi^i. Oiaavrco^ he kol rj 
TMv TTvevfidrcov KaTdcrra(JL<;' ^opeiOL<; <yap pLoXkov 
rj voTLOL'; diTO^dWovaif kclv 'y^v')(^p6T€pa koI 
ifXeiw <yevt]Tat pdXkov en 8' avrcov rcov SepSpcov 
7] <j)vaL<;' TO, Trpcola yap diro^dWei, ra 8' oyjna 
ovK €K(3dWei, KaOdirep r) AaKcovcKT) kol at dWai. 
Si o KOL OVK epivd^ovai ravra^;. Tavra pev 

ovv ev T€ TOL^ TorroLf; kol toI<^ yevecri kol rrj 
Karaardaei rod depo<; €)(^eL Ta9 SLa(f)opd<;. 

Ot Se '\\rrjve<^ cKSvoprat puev €k tov epiveov, 
KaOdirep etprfrar jivovraL 8' eV rcov K6y)(papLi8u)v. 
<Tr]p.elov he Xeyovaw, otl eireihav eKhvcoaiv ov/c 
eveiai Keyy^papihe^. CKhvovraL Be ol ttoWoI 
iyKaTa\t7r6vT6'i rj iroha rj inepov. yevo<; he n 
Kol erepov ecrrt rwv yjrrjvcbv, o Kokovai Kevrplva^' 
ovTOL 5' dpyol KaOdirep Kr)(j)7]ve<;' koI tov<; elahvo- 
p,evov<; TO)v erepwv Kreivovatv avrol he evairo- 
6vr)aKov(TLv. eTTaivovai he pLdXiara rwv epivwv 
ra pueXava ra eK rcov Trerpoohcov ')(o}pLcov' TroXXa? 
yap e;^6i ravra Keyxpapiha^. yiyvdiaKerai he 
TO epLvaapLevov tw epvOpov elvai Kal ttolklKov Kal 
la)(ypov' TO 8* dvepLvaarov XevKov Kal daOepe^' 
TTpocn-iOeaai he rot? heopiei'Oi^ orav vcrj. ottov 
he 7rX€i(7T0<; KOVcopT6<;, ivravOa TrXelara Kal 

I cf. 8. 2. 11. 

' ipuxp'^T^fja Kol iT\(iw conj. Sch.; rexvoTtpa koI ttAc/cdv MV 
Aid. ; rexPOTcpa koI irKdw U. 

' Trpcofa conj. Sch. from G ; npara Ald.H. 
* Plin. 17. 255 and 256. 



nor is it practised in places which face north nor in 
those with hglit soils, as at Phalykos ^ in the 
Megarid, nor in certain parts of the district of 
Corinth. Also conditions as to wind make a differ- 
ence ; the fruit is shed more with northerly than 
with southerly winds, and this also happens more 
if the winds are cold and frequent.^ Moreover the 
character of the tree itself makes a difference ; for 
some kinds, such as the Laconian and otlier such 
kinds, shed their early ^ figs but not tlie later 
ones. Wherefore ca})rification is not practised with 
these. Such are the changes to which tlie fig 

is subject in respect of locality kind and climatic 

* Now the gall-insects come, as has been said, out 
of the wild fig, and they are engendered from the 
seeds. The proof given of this is that, when they 
come out, there are no seeds left in the fruit ; and 
most of them in coming out leave a leg or a wing 
behind. There is another kind of gall-insect which is 
called kentiines) these insects are sluggish, like drones, 
they kill those of the other kind who are entering 
the figs, and they themselves die in the fruit. The 
black kind of wild fig which grows in rocky places 
is most commended for caprification, as these figs 
contain numerous seeds.^ A fig which has been 
subject to caprification is known by being red and 
parti-coloured and stout, while one which has not 
been so treated is pale and sickly. The treatment 
is applied to the trees which need it, after rain. 
The wild figs are most plentiful and most potent 

' i.e. and so should produce more gall-insects: in G.P. 
2. 9. 6 it is implied that the insect is produced by putrefac- 
tion of the seeds of the wild tig. 


layvpoTaja ra ipiva ylverai. (paal Be ipivd^eiv 
Kol TO TToXiov, oiTorav avTw KapiTO'^ fi 7ro\v9, Ka\ 
rov<; tt}? TrreA-enr? ic(opvKOV<;' i^-^lveTai yap koI ev 
TOVTOi<; Orjplhi arra. kvItts'^ orav ev Tal<i avKal<; 
yivcovraL KaTeaOlovai roy<; yjrfjva';. aKO'i he tovtov 
(paalv eli'at toi)? /capKLVov^ irpoaTrepovav irpo^; 
yap TovTOV<; Tpeneadai tou? Kvlira^;. aXka 

yap S)] ral'^ fiev avfcac^; avrai- (BorjOeiai. 

Tots" Se (jjoLvi^iv al airo tmv appevwv 7rpo<i tous" 
OrfKei'^' ovTOL yap elaiv ol eirifieveiv 7rocovPTe<; 
Kol 6K7reTT€i.v, KaXovcrL TLve<i eK t?)? ofiOLori-jTO'^ 
oXvvOd^etv. yiverai he rovSe rov rpoiTOv. orav 
dvGfi TO appev, diroTeiJivovcn ttjv a-TrdOr^v e(f)' 
^9 TO dvOo<; evOv^ Mcnrep ex^t, tov tg 'xyovv fcal 
TO dv9o<=; KaX tov KOviopTOV KaTacreiovat KaTa 
TOV KapTTov Ti)<i OifKela'^' kuv tovto TrdOp, SiaTrjpel 
Kal ovfc uTTO^dWei. (patveTai S' dpcpclv avro tov 
dppevo<i TOi? 6)]Xeai jSorjOeia ylveaOar OrjXv yap 
KaXovaL TO Kap7ro(j)6pov' aXV ?; piev olov pu^L<=i' 
r) Be Kar dXXov TpoTTov. 

^ ottSt' Uv . . . troXvs conj. W. from G, cum copiose fructi- 
Jicat ; oTTorav alyiirvpos fj ttoXvs MSS. U adds kuI before 

- KwpvKovi I conj. In 3. 14. 1. the elm is said to bear 
KuDVKideT which contain gnat-like creatures ; these growths 
are called KcvpvKu^rj riva Ko1\a 3. 15. 4 ; and in 3. 7. 3. the 



where there is most dust. And they say that 
hulwort also, when it fruits freely,^ and the * gall- 
bags ' 2 of the elm are used for caprification. For 
certain little creatures are engendered in these also. 
When the knips is found in figs, it eats the gall-insects. 
It is to prevent this, it is said, that they nail up 
the crabs ; for the knips then turns its attention to 
these. Such are the ways of assisting the fig- 


With dates it is helpful to bring the male to the 
female ; for it is the male which causes the fruit to 
persist and ripen, and this process some call, by 
analogy, 'the use of the wild fruit.' ^ The process 
is thus performed : when the male palm is in flower, 
they at once cut off the spathe on which the flower 
is, just as it is, and shake the bloom with the flower 
and the dust over the fruit of the female, and, if this 
is done to it, it retains the fruit and does not shed 
it. In the case both of the fig and of the date it 
appears that the ' male ' renders aid to tlie ' female,' 
— for the fruit-bearing tree is called 'female' — 
but while in the latter case there is a union of the 
two sexes, in the former the result is brought about 
somewhat differently. 

same thing is referred to as rh OuKaKojdss tovto, where tovto 
= *the well-known'; cf. also 9. 1. 2, where Sch. restores 
Kwpvicovs ; cf. Pall. 4. 10. 28. Kviraipous (?) U ; Kvirtpovs MV; 
Kvirepiv AM. ; KVTjdpovs conj. W. 

^ 'o\vvda.(eiy, from uKvudoi, a kind of wild fig, as fpiudCeiv, 
from ipivSs, the wild fig used for caprification. cf. C.F. 
3. 18. 1. 



I. 'Evret ^e irepl tCov yfiipwv hevhpwv eipijrai, 
\eKjeov 6fioL(ji)<; kuI irepl tmv dyplcou, €l rt ri 
ravTov KOi t'repop e)(ovcn rol^ i)[iepoL^ el 6^ o\(o<i 
iSiov T7]<i ^vaeco^. 

Afc /lev ovv yeveaei^; airXal riva avTcop elar 
irdvra yap rj diro cnrepjiaTO'^ rj dnro pL^rj^j (Pverai. 
rovTO S' ov^ <^? ovfc epS€')(ujii€VOV koX ciXXox;, dW' 
i(Ta)<; Sia to /jL)/ TTeipdaOaL fiy]Bepa /nijhe (fivreveiv 
eK(f)voLTO 8' dv el Xufi/Sdvoieu tottoi;? e7nTt]SeLov<; 
KOi Oepaiveiav tijv dp/xuTTOvaav oicnrep kol vvv 
TCI aXacoBr] kol (f)L\vBpa, Xeyco S' olov irXdTavov 
LTeav XevKTjv alyeipov irTeXeav diravTa yap 
TavTa Kol TCL ToiavTa (f}vr€v6peva /SXaaTdvec kol 
TaxicfTa KOL /cdXXcaTa utto tmv Trapaairdhcov, 
odGTe Kal fi€ydXa<i ovaa<i ^]hT] kol laoSevSpov; dv 
T^? fieTaOfi Bia/xeveiv (pVTeveTac Be ra TroXXd 
avTOiv Kal KaTairrjyvv/jieva, KaOdirep y XevKi] Kal 
7/ al'yeipo<;. 

TovTcov fiev ovv irpo'^ Tjj aireppaTLKfj Kal Trj 
diTO TUiv pi^MV Kal avT'i) yeveaU eaTr tmv Be 

* iK<pvoiTo cony W.; ivicpvoiTo VMV Aid. 


Of Wild Trees. 
Of the ways in which ivild trees originate. 

I. Now that we have spoken of cultivated trees, 
we must in like manner speak of wild ones, noting 
in what respects they agree with or differ from 
cultivated trees, and whether in any respects their 
character is altogether peculiar to themselves. 

Now the ways in which they come into being are 
fairly simple ; they all grow either from seed or from 
a root. But the reason of this is not that they 
could not possibly grow in any other way, but merely 
jierhaps that no one even tries to plant them other- 
wise ; whereas they might grow ^ from slips, if they 
were provided with a suitable position and received 
the fitting kind of tendance, as may be said even 
now of the trees of woodland and marsh, such as 
plane willow abele black poplar and elm ; all these 
and other similar trees grow very quickly and well 
when they are planted from pieces torn off, so that - 
they survive, even if at the time of shifting they are 
already tall and as big as trees. Most of these are 
simply planted by being set firmly, for instance, the 
abele and the black poplar. 

Such is the way in which these originate as well 
as from seed or from roots ; the others grow only 

' wffT6 Koi fity. coiij. Sch.j Kol were Ka\ fity. UM ; Ka\ Hare 
^ey. PA Id. 



aWayv ifcelvar ttXtjv oaa fiovov aTro (T7repuaTo<=; 
(pveTai, KaOciTrep eXdrrj TrevKi] ttitl'?. ocra 8e ex^i 
(Tirepfia kol Kapirov, kuv utto pi^t)^ yivrjrai, Kai 
ciTTo Tovrwv iirel kov ra SoKovura UKapira elvai 
yevvdp (paaiv, olov iTTekeav Ireav. a7]/j,€L0V Be 
Xeyoucrtv ov /xoi'ov ore (fiverai ttoWcl twv pi^cov 
ciTniprrifieva KaO^ ov<; av 17 tottov^, dWa Koi rd 
avp,(3aivovra 6€u>povj/T€<;, olov iv ^ei^ew t?}? 
'AyOATaSta?, &)? i^eppdyi-j to avvaO poLcrOev vScop ev 
TO) TreSto) (j)pa)(6evT0)v tcop Bepedpoiv ottov fiev 
iyyyi; rjcTav LTeai Tre^VKvlai rod /caraTrodevTo^; 
TOTTOv, TO) var6p(p erei fierd ttjv dva^rjpavcnv 
ivrauOa avdi^ dva<^vvai (paaiv Ireav ottov Be 
TTTeXeaL av9i<; TrreXea?, KaOdrrep koI ottov TTevfcai 
Kul eXarac TrevKa^ kol eXdra^, wanep fjn/iov/jievcoi' 

'AXXd Tr)v Ireav raxv irpoKara^dXXetv rrpo 
rov T6Xetft)9 dBpvvau Kal TTeyjrat, rov Kapnrov 
Bl Kal rov 7T0t,r]ry]v ov Kaic(o<i irpoaayopeveiv 
avri]v oiXeaiKapTTov. 

T7}9 Be irreXea^ KdKelvo a-rfiielov iiTToXafi^d- 
vovaiv orav yap aTro rojv TTvevfidrcov et? roini 
exofievov^i r ottov; 6 KapTTO^ direvexPfl, ^veaOai 
^aai. TTapaTrXjjaLov Be eoiKev elvai ro avfi^alvov 
o KOL eVl rcov (ppvyaviKcov Kal ttokoBcov nvuiv 
iartv ovK i^ovrcov yap (nrepfxa ^avepov, dXXd 

1 c/. 5. 4. 6. 

' ' Katavothra' (now called * the devil's holes,' see Lawsoa, 
cited below) ; cj. Paus. 8. 14 ; Catull. 68. 109 ; Plat, de itra 
numinis vindicta, 557 c : Plin. 31. 36 ; Frazer, Pau^anias and 
other Greek Sketches, pp. 315 foil. ; Lawson, Modem Greek 
Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion^ p. 85. 



in these two ways — while some of them, such as 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine grow only from seed. 
All those that have seed and fruit, even if they grow 
from a root, will grow from seed too ; for they say 
that even those which, like elm and willow, appear 
to have no fruit reproduce themselves. For proof 
they give the fact that many such trees come up at a 
distance from the roots of the original tree, what- 
ever the position may be ; and further, they have 
observed a thing which occasionally happens ; for in- 
stance, when at Pheneos ^ in Arcadia the water which 
had collected in the plain since the underground 
channels 2 were blocked burst forth, where there 
were willows growing near the inundated region, the 
next year after it had dried up they say that willows 
grew again ; and where there had been elms, elms ^ 
grew, even as, where there had been firs and silver- 
firs, these trees reappeared — as if the former trees 
followed the example ^ of the latter. 

But the willow is said to shed its fruit early, before 
it is completely matured and ripened; and so the 
poet^ not unfittingly calls it "the willow which loses 
its fruit." 

That the elm also reproduces itself the following 
is taken to be a proof: when the fruit is carried by 
the winds to neighbouring spots, they say that young 
trees grow from it. Something similar to this 
appears to be what happens in the case of certain 
under-shrubs and herbaceous plants ; though they 
have no visible seed, but some of them only a sort of 

' TTTeXf'as aZdis -nreXias conj. St.; TrreXeas clvtI ireAsaj U ; 
irreXeoj ovtI nreXtas MV; TrreAeas aZdis irreXias Pj -nreXfa 
aZdii TTTeAeas Aid. 

■* i.e. by growing from seed, as conifers normall}' do. 

» Homer, Od. 10. 510; cf. Plin. 16. 110. 



r6)V /lev OLOV yvovv tmv S' av6o<;, MGirep to Ou/jor, 
6fjict)<; CLTTO TOVTCOV fSXaardvouaiv. tVet ry ye 
TrXaraj/o? e%et (pavepco^; koX cltto tovtcov (pverai. 
Tovro 6' i^ aXXcov re SijXov KaKeivo fieyicTTov 
arifielov uxpd^j yap ■IjBt] irore TrecpVKvca nXdravo'^ 
ev rpliToSL ')(a\K(p. 

4 Tavra^ re Brj Ta<; yeveaeL^; vTroXrjTrriov elpai 
TMV dypioiv Kol en ra? avrofJidrov^y a? KaX oi 
(^vaLoXoyoi Xiyovaiv ^Ava^ay6pa<i pev top depa 
irdvTwv (jyacrKcov e-^eiv aireppara koX ravra 
avyKaracpepopeva rw vBart yevvav rd (fivrd' 
At.oyevr)<; Se arjiropevov tov v8aTo<; kol p,L^iv 
Tivd Xap^dvovTO<; tt/oo? ryjv yrjv KX€LSrjpo<; S^ 
avvea-rdvai pev €K tmv avrwv tol<; ^coof?, oao) 
he doXepcoTepcov Kalylrvxporepcov roaovrov aTrexeiv 
TOV ^(oa elvai. \Xeyovai Be TLve^ kol dXXoi irepl 
T/}? yeveaewiJ] 

5 'Aw' avTT] p,ev dirripTi^pLevri 7rco<; ecrTi T'^s 
aLa07](7€(i)<;. aXXac Be opoXoyovfxevai kol epcpa- 
i^et?, olov OTav e^oBo^ yevrjTac iroTapov irapeK^dv- 
TO? TO pelOpov rj Koi 6X(i3<i eTepoidi Troiriaapevov, 
KaOdirep c Ne(TO<; ev ttj ^A^B)]pltlBi '7ToXXdKL<; 
peTa^aivei, KaX dpa t?) peTa/Sdaei ToaavTrjv 
vXijv avyyevva tol<; tottol';, wcrre tS> TpuTco eTei 
avv7]pe(peLP. Kol irdXiv otup eiropLJSpiai kutu- 
aywai irXeiai yjiovov koX yap ev TavTai<; ^XaaTi]- 
<ret9 ylvovTat (pvTcov. eoLKe Be 7) puev tmv iroTapoiv 
€(j)oBo^ eirdyeiv aireppaTa kuI Kap7rov<;, kuI tol/v 
ox^Tov^ (pacri, rd tmv ttoicoBcov 77 3' eiropLJSpia 

1 c/. G.P.I. 5. 2. 

"^ 8c. of Apollonia, the 'Ionian ' philosopher. 

» cj. a. P. 1. 10. 3 ; 3. 23. 1 ; Arist. Mtteor. 2. 9. 



down, and others only a flower, such as thyme, young 
plants nevertheless grow from these. As for the 
plane, it obviously has seeds, and seedHngs grow 
from them. This is evident in various ways, and 
here is a very strong proof — a plane-tree has before 
now been seen which came up in a brass pot. 

Such we must suppose are the ways in which wild 
trees originate, apart from the spontaneous ways 
of which natural philosophers tell. ^ Anaxagoras 
says that the air contains the seeds of all things, 
and that thc^se, carried down by the rain, produce 
the plants ; while Diogenes ^ says that this happens 
when water decomposes and mixes in some sort with 
earth. ^ Kleidemos maintains that plants are made 
of the same elements as animals, but that they fall 
short of being animals in proportion as their com- 
jiosition is less pure and as they are colder. * And 
there are other philosophers also who speak of 
spontaneous generation. 

But this kind of generation is somehow beyond 
the ken of our senses. There are other admitted 
and observable kinds, as when a river in flood gets 
over its banks or has altogether changed its course, 
even as the Nesos in the district of Abdera often 
alters its course, and in so doing causes such a 
growth of forest in that region that by the thiid 
year it casts a thick shade. The same result ensues 
when heavy rains prevail for a long time ; during 
these too many plants shoot up. Now, as the 
flooding of a river, it would appear, conveys seeds 
and fruits of trees, and, as they say, irrigation channels 
convey the ^ seeds of herbaceous plants, so heavy 

^ Xeyovai . . . yeveadcos apparently a gloss (W.). 
* Tct conj. W. ; T-qv MAld. 



TOVTO TTOiel ravTO' (TvyKara^epei yap ttoXXcl 
Tcov (TTTepfJidTwv, Kol a/xa (rrj-slrli/ riva t?}? 7/}? Kal 
Tov vSaTo<;' iirel kol r) tjLL^i<; avry tt)? AlyvTrria^; 
6 yrj^; Bok€L ripa yevvav vXrjv. ivLa')(ov he, av fiovov 
vwepydacovTai kol Kivijacocnv, eu^u? dva/SXaaTave!- 
ra ol/C€ia t?}? x^P^^> wairep ev Kpyjrjj KvirdpLTTOi. 
yiverat Se irapaTrXijaLov rt, tovtw kol iv roi? 
ekdrrocnv' dfia yap KLVovjievq^ dva^Xaardvei 
TToa Ti? iv €KdaTOL^. ev Be Tot9 7)/jii^p6xoi<; edv 
v7rov€da7]<; (palveadai (paai rpi^oXov. avTai /xev 
ovv ev rfj fjLeja^dXfj r?}? y^cap'^^ elatv, elre koI 
evvTrapxovTcov anepfidroyv etre Kal auT?}? 7rft)9 
Biari6e/ievr]<;' oirep Tcro)? ovk dronov eyKara- 
KXeio/iievcov d/iarcov vypwv eviaxov Be Kal vBdrcov 
eTTLyivofievcdv IBicorepov dvarelXai vXrjf; irXrjOo'^^ 
loairep ev J^upyvrj TTLTrcoBovi tivo<; yevo/xevov Kal 
7ra%eo9- ovrax; yap dve/3XdaTt](Tev rj irXrjaiov vXij 
irpoTepov OVK ovcra. (paal Be Kal to ye al\<pLov 
OVK bv Trporepov eK TOiavrrj^ tlvo<; alrla<; (pavi]- 
vai. rpoTTOi fiev ovv tolovtol rcov roiovTcov 


II. Tidvja Be KdpiTLjxa rj dKapira, Kal deicpvXXa 
rj (pvXXo^oXa, Kal dvOovvra rj dvavOrj' KOival 

^ ri S* . . . Tamh conj. W. ; tj S' iir. toCt' av inolfi ravrS 
UMV (5' a5 marked doubtful in U) ; ^ S' iw. tovt' avrh inoid 
Aid. 2 piin_ 16, 142. 

^ i.e. and is released by working the ground. 
* c/. a P. 1. 5. 1; Plin. 16. 143, who gives the date 
A.u.c. 130; cf. 19. 41. 



rain acts in the same way ^ ; for it brings down 
many of the seeds with it, and at the same time 
causes a sort of decomposition of the earth and of 
the water. In fact, the mere mixture of earth with 
water in Egypt seems to produce a kind of vegeta- 
tion. And in some places, if the ground is merely 
lightly worked and stirred, the plants native to the 
district immediately spring up ; ^ for instance, the 
cypress in Crete. And something similar to this 
occurs even in smaller plants ; as soon as the earth 
is stirred, wherever it may be, a sort of vegetation 
comes up. And in partly saturated soil, if you 
break up the ground, they say that caltrop appears. 
Now these ways of origination are due to the change 
which takes place in the soil, whether there were 
seeds in it already, or whether the soil itself some- 
how produces the result. And the latter explanation 
is perhaps not strange, seeing that the moist ele- 
ment is also locked up in the soil.^ Again, in some 
places they say that after rain a more singular 
abundance of vegetation has been known to spring 
up ; for instance, at Cyrene, after a heavy pitchy 
shower had fallen : for it was under these circum 
stances that there sprang up the wood * which is 
near the town, though till then it did not exist 
They say also that silphium ^ has been known to 
appear from some such cause, where there was none 
before. ^ Such are the ways in which these kinds 

of generation come about. 

Of the differences between wild and cultivated trees. 

II. All trees are either fruit-bearing or without 
fruit, either evergreen or deciduous, either flowering 
' c/. 6. 3. • Toiovroi MSS. ; Toaovroi conj. W. 



tydp TLve<; hiaipeaeL^ eirl Travrcov elaXv oyLtotw? 
rjixepwv T€ KOL dypLwv. tSia Se 7r/309 ra ij/xepa 
TMV dyplcop oy^LKapiria re fcal tcr^i)? Kal ttoXv- 
Kapirla tu) Trpo^aiveLV TreTTaiveL re <yap 6^\rLai- 
repuv Kal to 6\ov dvOeZ kol ^Xaajdvei co? eVt to 
rrav koX lax^ipoiepa rj} (Pvaer Kal irpoc^aiveL 
fiev irXelco Kapirov iKTrirreL 8' rjTTOv, el prj koa 
irdvTa dWd ye rd opoyevP], olov i\da<; Kal diriov 
k6tlvo<^ Kal dxpd<i. diravTa yap ovto)?, irXrjv 
€L TV (jirdvLOv, wairep eirl to)v Kpaveiwv Kal roiv 
oucov ravra yap Si] (pacn ireiraLrepa Kal rjEvrepa 
ra dypia rcov rjpbepcop elvar Kal el Sr] ri dWo yur; 
TrpoaSe^f^eraL yecopylav rj hevhpov rj Kal tl ru)i> 
iXaTTovcou, olov to aL\(f)iov Kal r) Kdirirapci Kal 
roiv ■)(eh poiT o)v 6 Oeppo<i, a Kal pdXLar dv Tt9 
2 dypia T7)v (jyvaiv etiroL. rb yap prj irpoaSe^opepov 
ypepcoaiv, coairep ev Tol<i ^cooi^, tovto dypiov tPj 
(pvaei. KaiTot, ^t]alv ''Ittttcov dirav Kal ypepoi> 
Kal dypiov elvai, Kal depaiTevop.evov fiev I'jpepov 
p,r) Oepairevopevov Be dypiov, rfj jiev 6pOa)<i Xeywv 
rfi he ovK opOo)';. e^apeXovpevov yap dirav 
')(eipov yiverrai Kal divaypiovrai, Oepairevopevov 
Be ovx^ drrav fieXriov, iocnrep etprjrai. o Bt] 
')((i)pi(TTeov Kal rd pev dypia rd K vjixepa XeKreov, 

^ el fi}] . . . ouoyevri conj. W. ; el fi^ koI rrivra rh. &\\a Ka) 
ra 6ixoioyei>^ UAJVAld.H. 

"^ cf. a P. 3. 1. 4. » cf. 1. 3. 5n. 

* i.e. the terms 'cultivated' and 'wild' do uot denote 
distinct ' kiiuls.' 



or flowerless ; for certain distinctions apply to all trees 
alike, whether cultivated or wild. To wild trees, as 
compared with cultivated ones, belong the special 
properties of fruiting late, of greater vigour, of 
abundance of fruit, produced if not matured ; for they 
ripen their fruit later, and in general their time of 
flowering and making growth is later ; also they are 
more vigorous in growth, and so, though they produce 
more fruit, tliey ripen it less ; if ^ this is not universally 
true, at least it holds good of the wild olive and pear 
as compared with the cultivated forms of these trees. 
This is generally true with few exceptions, as in the 
cornelian cherry and sorb ; for the wild forms of these, 
they say, ripen their fruit better, and it is sweeter 
than in the cultivated forms. ^ And the rule also does 
not hold good of anything which does not admit of 
cultivation, whether it be a tree or one of the smaller 
plants, as silphium caper and, among leguminous 
plants, the lupin ; these one might say are specially 
wild in their character. For, as with animals which 
do not submit to domestication, so a plant which does 
not submit to cultivation may be called wild in its 
essential character. However Hippon ^ declares that 
of every plant there exists both a cultivated and a 
wild form, and that 'cultivated' simply means* that 
the plant has received attention, while ' wild ' means 
that it has not ; but though he is partly right, he is 
partly wrong. It is true that any plant deteriorates 
by neglect and so becomes wild ; but it is not true 
that every plant may be improved by attention,^ as 
has been said. Wherefore** we must make our 
distinction and call some things wild, others culti- 

' l.t. and so become ' cultivated.' 
" % Vq MSS.; hih conj. Sch. from G. 



wairep tcov ^cocov ra avvavO poiTTevofieva koX to, 
hexofieva TcOaaelav. 

3 AWa TOVTO fiev ovSei' ia(i)<; hiaf^epet Trore/oct)? 
prjTeov. airav he to e^aypiovfjievov rol^ re 
KapiToh X^lpov jLverac koI avro /SpaxvTepov 
KoX (j)vWoi<; Koi K\o}al kol (f)\oLa> KaX rrj oXrj 
fiop(f)fj' KOi yap irvKVorepa KaX ovXoTcpa kol 
afcXrjpoTepa Kal ravra koI oXtj rj (f)vai<f yiverai, 
&)? eV rovTOL<; fidXtara tt}? Siacpopd'; tmv rj/xepcov 
Kal TOiV aypLcov yLVOjuevrj^i. St' o Kal oaa rdv 
rjfiepov/jievcov roiavra rvyxdveL, ravra dypid 
(paatv elvai, KaOdirep rrjv irevKrjv Kal rrjv Kuird- 
pirrov, rj 6Xa)<; t) rr)v dppeva, Kal rrjv Kapvav he 
Kal rrjv hioa^dXavov, 

4 "Ert re rw ^iXo^^vxpa Kal opeiva fiaXXov elvar 
Kal yap rouro Xa/i0dv€rac 7rpo9 r))v dypLortjra 
ro)v hevhpwv Kal oXco^ rcJov (pvrayp, etr ovv Ka6* 
avro Xafx(3av6/jLevov elre Kara avfx^e/StjKOf;. 

'O fiev ovv ro)v dyplwv d<popLap,6<i eW oi/to)? 
rj Kal aXXft)? XrjTrrea, ovhev dp To-o)? hieveyKOL 
Trpo? rd vvv eKelvo he dXiiOh, w? 76 rw rvirw 
Kal aTrXco? elrrelv, on fiaXXov opeivd rd dypca kol 
evOevel rd rrXelw Kal jxaXXov ev rovroa rot? 
roTTOL^, edv fMij rL<i Xaji^avr) rd (^iXvhpa kol 
TrapaTTordfiLa Kal dXacohrj. ravra ydp Kal rd 
6 roiavra rvyxdvei ireheiva pidXXov. ov jjirjv dXX 
ev ye rol^ jieyaXoL^; opecriv, olov Ilapvi]aa) re 
Kal K.vXXTi]vr) Kal 'OXvjjLtto) rw UiepiKfp re Kal 
Tft) M-valo) Kal €i TTOV TOLOvrov erepov, diravra 

» ridaaday conj.W., cf. Plat. FoL 2G4 ; T^edaiuv UMAId. 


vated — the latter class corresponding to those animals 
which live with man and can be tamed.^ 

But perhaps it does not matter which way this 
should l3e put. Any tree which runs wild deteriorates 
in its fruits, and itself becomes dwarfed in leaves 
branches bark and appearance generally ; for under 
cultivation these parts, as well as the whole 
growth of the tree^ become closer, more compact ^ 
and harder ; which indicates that the difference 
between cultivated and wild is chiefly shown in these 
respects. And so those trees which show these 
characteristics under cultivation they say are really 
wild, for instance fir cypress, or at least the * male ' 
kind, hazel and chestnut. 

Moreover these wild forms are distinguished by 
having greater liking for cold and for hilly country : 
for that too is regarded as a means of recognising 
wild trees and wild plants generally, whether it is so 
regarded in itself or as being only incidentally a 
distinguishing mark. 

So the definition of wild kinds, whether it should 
be thus made or otherwise, perhaps makes no 
difference for our present purpose. But it is certainly 
true, speaking ^ broadly and generally, that the wild 
trees are more to be found in hilly country, and that 
the greater part of them flourish more in such regions, 
with the exception of those which love water or grow 
by river sides or in woods ; these and such-like trees 
are rather trees of the plain. However on great 
mountains, such as Parnassus Cyllene the Pierian and 
the Mysian Olympus, and such regions anywhere 

- ovXorepa conj. W. from G, spissiora ; opdSrepa MSS. cj. 
a. P. 6. 11. 8. 

' CCS 7e conj. Sch. ; ware UM ; «j cV Ald.H. 



<f>U6TaL Bia Ti-jV iToXveihlav tmv tottcov exovai 
yap Koi \L/jLV(oS€i<; kol evvypov^ Kal ^t'ipov<; Kal 
y€(oSeL<; koi TrerpcoSei? kol roifi ava pecrov Xa- 
/jbcji'a^ KOL axeSov oaai Siacpopal t?}? yP]<;' en Be 
TOL'9 /lev KOiXov; koX evhieivoix; rov^ 8e peredypov; 
Kal 7rpoa7]vepov<;' coare hvvaaOai iravrola Kal ra 
ev TOt? TreStoi? (pepeiv. 

OvSev 3' aroTTov ouS' el evia pr) ovrco 7rdp<^opa 
rcov npoiv, aXX^ l8i(orepa<; tlvo^ vXr}<; rj TracrT;? rj t% 
7rX6L(TT7](;, olov ev rfj]Tr] ra ^ISaia' KundpLTTO'^ 
yap CKer Kal ra irepl KcXiKiav Kal ^vpiav, h 
ot? Kehpo<^' evLa^pv he r/}? ^vpia^ TeppLv9o<;. ai 
yap hia^opal t^? x^P^'^ "^V^ IhLory-jTa iroLovaiv. 
riXV etpijraL to lSloi' oo? enl ttciv. 

III. "Ihia he rd TOtuSe rcov opeivMV, a ev rol<; 
7rehi0i<^ ov (^veraL, [irepl rrjv ^laKeSoviav] eXdri] 
7revK7] TTLTv; dypia (piXvpa ^uyua (f)7]yo<i irv^o^ 
dvSpdxXr} plXo<; dpKevOo<; reppLvOo'; €piv€o<i 
(fjiXiiKT] d(j)dpKri Kapva Sioal3dXavo<i Trplvo^i. rd 
Be Kal ev rot? TreStot? pvpuKr] irreXea XevKrj irea 
a'iyeipo'i Kpaveia OrfXvKpavela KXrjOpa Bpv<; XaKd- 
pr) dxpd<; prjXea oarpva KijXaarpov peXia ira- 
Xiovpo'i 6^vdKavdo<^ <<7(^evBapvo^,> rjv ev pev tw 

^ iv . . . 'l5a?o conj, W. (after Sch., who conj. ra iu) ; to 
61' KpT}Tri TT) 'iSa^a UAld. 

' i.e. it is not meant that a tree which is ' special ' to 
Mount Ida {e.g.) occurs only there. 

^ Ttfpl rrjv MaK.l a <;ioss ; »«/)/ re tV Ma/c. MPgAld. ; re om. P. 



else, all kinds grow, because of the diversity of* 
positions afforded them. For such mountains offer 
positions which are marshy, wet, dry, deep-soiled or 
rocky ; they have also their meadow land here and 
there, and in fact almost every variety of soil ; again 
they present positions which lie low and are shel- 
tered, as well as others which are lofty and exposed 
to wind ; so that they can bear all sorts, even those 
which belong to the plains. 

Yet it is not strange that there should be some 
mountains which do not thus bear all things, but 
have a more special kind of vegetation to a grea*. 
extent if not entirely ; for instance the range of Ida 
in Crete ^ ; for there the cypress grows ; or the hills 
of Cilicia and Syria, on which the Syrian cedar 
grows, or certain parts of Syria, where the terebinth 
grows. For it is the differences of soil which give 
a special character to the vegetation. ^ (However 
the word ^special' is used here in a somewhat 
extended sense.) 

Of mountain trees : of the differences found in wild trees. 

III. The following trees are peculiar to mountain 
country and do not grow in the plains ; ^ let us 
take Macedonia as an example. Silver-fir fir ' wild 
pine' lime zi/gia Valonia oak box andrachne yew 
Phoenician cedar terebinth wild fig alaternus hybrid 
arbutus hazel chestnut kermes-oak. The following 
grow also in the plain : tamarisk elm abele willow 
black poplar cornelian cherry cornel alder oak lakare 
(bird-cherry) wild pear apple hop-hornbeam holly 
manna-ash Christ's thorn cotoneaster maple,^ which 

* a<pivZaiivos add. Palm, in view of what follows ; o^vaKapra 
atiai-Qos UPAld.Bas.j ^KavOos Pj. 



6p€i 7r€(j)VKu7av ^vyiav KoKovaiv, iv he tw irehiw 
yXeii'ov. ol 3' aWw? Siaipovai Kal erepov ttol- 
ovaiv €iho<^ a<^evhd[ivov koX ^vyLa<;. 

2 " Kiravra Be oaa kolvcl twv opSiv koX rcov 
irehiwv, fiei^co fiev Kal KaWioy rfj oyfrec ra iv roU 
7re8tot9 yiverai, KpeuTrco he rfj xpeta rrj re ra)i' 
^vXcov Kol rfj T(ov KapiTOiv TO, opeivd' irXrjv 
cij^pdho^ KOL aTTLOV KOL /jLr}\€a<;' avrat S* iv TOts~ 
TreSiOLf; KpeirTovi ou /lovov to?? Kapnolf; dWa Kal 
Tot? ^vXoi<;' iv yap toi<; opeai puKpal Kal o^coSet^ 
Kal dKav6d)Sei<; yivovrar irdvTa he Kal iv rot? 
opeaiv, OTav iinXd/ScovTai rayv oiKeicov roirayv, Kal 
KaXXiO) (fyverai Kal evOevel pLoXXov co? he aTrXw? 
elirelv ra iv rot^ ofiaXeai rcov opwv Kal fidXtara, 
Tcov he dXXcov rd iv TOi<; Kdrco Kal ko'lXol<;' rd h' 
iirl ra)v aKpcov ')(eipi(TTa, irXrjv et ri rfj <f)va€i 

3 (f)iX6yjrvxpov' ex^c he Kal ravr av riva hiacpopdv 
iv TOi? dvofjLOioc<; tcov tottcov, virep oiv vcrrepov 
XcKTeov vvv he hiatpereov eKaarov Kara rd<; hia- 
^opd^ Td<; elpr]fieva<;. 

AelcfyvXXa fiev ovv iari rcov dypicov a Kal 
rrporepov iXe^Or}, eXdrrj irevKrf Trtri;? dypia ttv^o^ 
dvhpd^Xv plXo<; dpKev6o<s reppLvdo<^ (JuXvktj 
dcpdpKT] hdc^vT) ^eXXohpv^ KtjXaarpov o^vdKavdo^ 
7rpLVo<; /xvpiKT)' rd he dXXa iravra (j)vXXo ^oXel' 
rrXrjV et n Trepirrov iviaxov, KaOdirep eXe^Orj rrepl 
T7J<; iv rfi Yiprjrr) irXardvov Kal hpvb<: Kal et rrov 
T07ro9 TLS 6Xco<; evrpoc^o'^. 

1 5' iXAws conj. Sch. from G ; h' al Aid. " Plin. 16. 77. 
* i.e. are not always of the poorest quality. raW ali riva 
conj. W.; Tavra aitruv Ald.H. * 1. 9. 3. 



when it grows in tlie mountains, is called zygiUy 
when in the plain, gleinos : others, however,^ classify 
differently and make maple and zygia distinct trees. 

"^ All those trees which are common to both hill 
and plain are taller and finer in appeaiance when 
they grow in the plain ; but the mountain forms are 
better as to producing serviceable timber and fruits, 
with the exception of wild pear pear and apple ; 
these are in the plain better in fruit and also in 
timber ; for in the hills they grow small with many 
knots and much spinous wood. But even on the 
mountains all trees grow fairer and are more vigorous 
when they have secured a suitable position ; and, to 
speak generally, those which grow on the level parts 
of the mountains are specially fair and vigorous ; 
next to these come those which grow on the lower 
parts and in the hollows ; while those that grow on 
the heights are of the poorest quality, except any 
that are naturally cold-loving. But even these shew 
some variation 3 in different positions, of which we 
must speak later ; for the present we must in our 
distinctions in each case take account only of the 
differences already mentioned. 

Now among wild trees those are evergreen which 
were mentioned before,^ silver-fir fir ^ wild pine ' box 
andrachne yew Phoenician cedar terebinth alaternus 
hybrid arbutus bay phellodrys^ (holm-oak) holly 
cotoneaster kermes-oak tamarisk ; but all the others 
shed their leaves, unless it be that in certain places 
they keep them exceptionally, as was said** of the 
plane and oak in Crete and in any other place which 
is altogether favourable to luxuriant growth. 

5 <f,iK\6^pvs conj. Bod., c/. 1. 9. 3 ; (pfWhs hpvs UMV(?)AId. 
« 1. 9. 5. 


KapTTi/ia Se ra fiev aXka irdvra' irepl he tVea? 
Aral alyeipov kol TrreXea?, wairep i\€)(dt}, hiajKpLcr- 
/SyjTovaiv. evLOi he rijv atyeipov fi6pi]v aKapirelv 
(f)aaLv, oyairep koX ol iv ^ApKahla, to, Be dXXa 
Trdvra rd ev rot? opeai KapTro^opelv. iv Kp/jTy 
he KOL atyeipoi KapTn/jcot TrXeiof? elar /nia fiev ev 
TO) arofiUp rod dvrpou tov ev rfj "iSr/, ev co ra 
dva9)]/jLara dvdKetrat, dWr] Be fiLKpd TrXrjCTiov' 
dnrcoTepco Be fidXiaTa BcoBeKa aTaSiov<; irepl riva 
KpviVTjv ^avpcv KaXov/iievrjv TroXXai. elal Be kol 
ev ru> irXTjcriov opei tt}? "lBrj<; ev ro) KivBpiO) 
KdXoufiev(p KOI Trepl Upaiaiav Be iv roL<; opeacv. 
ol Be fiovov TMV TOiovTcov ry-jv TTTeXeav KdpTrifiov 
elval (paai, KaOdnep ol irepX M.aKeBovlav. 

yieydXrj Be BiaKfyopd tt/jo? Kapirov kol dKapTrlav 
Kol 1] roiv roTTCDv (pvcTi<i, coairep iirl re r?}? vre/jcrea? 
ex€L Kol TMV (f)Oivl/co)V' 7] fiev iv AlyvTrrcp Kapiro- 
(popec KOL et TTov TMV TrXrjalov tottcov, iv 'PoBm Be 
fiey^pi TOV dvOelv povov d(f)LKveLTai. 6 Be (pocvi^ 
Trepl fiev Ba^uXcova OavfiaaTo^i, ev tt) 'EXXdBi Be 
ovBe 7T67raLvei, nap* ii'Loi<; Be oXo)? ovBe TrpocpaiveL 

'O/iotcy? Be KaX eTepa TrXetco ToiavT iaTiv eirel 
Koi TMV eXaTTovMV tToapiMV KOL vXrjiidTMV ev Tjj 

1 2. 2. 10. 

2 cf. 2. 2. 10. It appears that the buds of the poplar were 
mistaken for fruit (8ch.); cf. Diosc. 1. 81. Later writers 
perpetuated the error by calling thcni kokkoi. 

' rov iv Tj) "15?; conj. Sch.; vov iv t^ ''iZri U; tov iv ry "'iSrjj 
MV ; fV TJj WSj? *Ald.H. 



Most trees are fruit-bearing, but about willow 
black poplar and elm men hold different opinions, 
as was said ^ ; and some, as the Arcadians, say that only 
the black poplar is without fruit, but that all the 
other mountain trees bear fruit. However in Crete 
there are a number of black poplars which bear fruit ^ ; 
there is one at the mouth of the cave on mount Ida,^ 
in which the dedicatory offerings are hung, and 
there is another small one not far off, and there are 
quite a number about a spring called the Lizard's 
S})ring about twelve furlongs off. There are also 
some in the hill-country of Ida in the same neigh- 
bourhood, in the district called Kindria and in the 
mountains about Praisia.^ Others again, as the 
Macedonians, say that the elm is the only tree of this 
class which bears fruit. 

Again the character of the position makes a great 
difference as to fruit-bearing, as in the case of the 
persea ^ and the date-palm. The persea of Egypt 
bears fruit, and so it does wherever it grows in the 
neighbouring districts, but in Rhodes ^ it only gets 
as far as flowering. The date-palm in the neighbour- 
liood of Babylon is marvellously fruitful ; in Hellas it 
does not even ripen its fruit, and in some plices it 
does not even produce any. 

The same may be said of various other trees : in 
fact even '^ of smaller herbaceous plants and bushes 
some are fruitful, others not, although the latter are 

* Upaiaiav conj. Meurs. Greta ; npaaiav UMVAld. 

® cj. 4. 2. 5. irepcreai COnj. R. Const.; Trepaelas U; irepaias 

^ '?6Sep conj. R. Const, from G, so too Plin. 16. Ill ; f,U 
Aid. cf. 1. 13. 5. for a similar corruption. 

^ eTrel «aJ conj. fSch. from G ; ind Si Ka\ Aid. 


y ^ 

avTT] %w/3a KaL avvopo) %ct>/3a ra fiev Kupin/ia ra 
5' d/capTTa jiverai' KaOdirep kol to Kevravpiov ev 
rfj 'HXeta, to /jlcv ev tjj opeLvfj Kapiri/iov, to 8' eV 
TO) TreBiG) d/capTTOv aXXd pLovov dvOel, to S* ev rot? 
KoiXoL<^ TOTTOi^i ouS' dvOeZ 7rXr]v KaKoo^. Bo/ceX S' 
ovv KoX Ta)!/ dWcov TOiv 6p.oyevMV koX ev fiia 
iTpoarfyopla to p,€V aKapirov elvau to he Kapiripov, 
olov irplvo^ o piev KapTTipiO'; 6 B' aKapiro^- Kal 

7 KXijOpa Be (i)aavTco<;' avOel 8' dpcpw. a^eBov Be 
oaa KoKovcTLv dppeva tmv opLoyevMV cLKapTra- kol 
TOVTWv TO, pi€V TToWd oLvdelv (f)acn TO, S' oXljov 
TO, 8' oXct)? ovB^ avOelv tcl Be avdiraKiv, to, 
dppeva pova Kapiro^opelv, ov pitjv a/VX' dno ye 
Tcov dvOoiV (jiveadat tu BevBpa, Kaddirep /cat diro 
Twv fcapTTMV oaa Kapin/ia' Kal ev dp,(f)oiv ouro)? 
ei'LOTC TTVKvrjv elvai Trjv €/c(f)vaiv MaTe tou? 
6p€OTV7rov<; ov BvvaaOai Biievai, purj oBottoltj- 

8 * Ap^cfyia-firfTeiTaL Be Kal nepl tmv civOmv evioiv, 
wairep eliropbev. ol pcev yap Kal Bpvv dvOelv 
oiovTai Kal TrfV ^HpaKXecoTiv Kapvav Kal Bioa- 
^dXavov, eTi Be irevKi^v Kal ttItvv ol 5' ovBev 
TOVTOiV, dXXd Tov LOvXov Tov iv rai? Kapvai<; Kal 


^ X<^pa Kol Aid. ; fj koI conj. St. 

' i.e. the 'males' are sterile whether they flower or not. 

Kol TOl'TWV TCt piiV TToWo. I COIlj. ; TOVTUV TO iroWo. TO. fXiV Aid. 

' ? i.e. the flowers of the ' female ' tree. 
* i.e. (a) in those trees whose 'male' form is sterile, 
whether it bears flowers or not; (6) in those whose 'male' 



growing in the same place as the former, or ^ quite 
near it. Take for instance the centaury in Elea; where 
it grows in hill-country, it is fruitful ; where it grows 
in the plain, it bears no fruit, but only flowers ; and 
where it grows in deep valleys, it does not even 
flower, unless it be scantily. Any way it appears 
that, even of other plants which are of the same 
kind and all go by the same name, one will be 
without fruit, while another bears fruit ; for instance, 
one kermes-oak will be fruitful, another not ; and the 
same is true of the alder, though both produce 
flowers. And, generally speaking, all those of any 
given kind which are called ' male ' trees are without 
fruit, and that though ^ some of these, they say, 
produce many flowers, some few, some none at all. 
On the other hand they say that in some cases it is 
only the ' males ' that bear fruit, but that, in spite 
of this, the trees grow from the flowers,^ (just as in 
the case of fruit-bearing trees they grow from the 
fruit). And they add that in both cases,^ the crop 
of seedlings ^ which comes up is sometimes so thick 
that the woodmen cannot get through except bv 
clearing a way. 

There is also a doubt about the flower of some 
trees, as we said. Some think that the oak bears 
flowers, and also the filbert the chestnut and even 
the fir and Aleppo pine ; some however think that 
none of these has a flower, but that, — resembling*^ 
and corresponding to the wild figs which drop off" 
prematurely, we have in the nuts the catkin,'^ in the 

form alone bears fruit, but the fruit is infertile. The passage 
is obscure : W. gives up the text. 
^ eK<pv(riv. cj. 7. 4. 3. 
^ o^ojoj/ conj.W.; bfxoiav UAkl. cf. 3. 7. 3. 
c/. 3. 5. 5. 



LVOV Ofioiov Kol avdXoyov elvau tol<; irpoairo- 
TTTcoToi<; tpLvoL<i. 01 he irepi MuKeSovlav ovSe 
ravrd cf)aaiv civOelv apfcevOov o^vrjv dpiav a(f>€P- 
Ba/jLvov. evioi Be ra? dpKevdov<^ Svo elvai, Kot tt)v 
fxev erepav dvOetv fiev cLKapirov 8' elvai, rrjv Be 
erepav ovk dvOelv jueu Kapirov Be (fyepetu evOv^ 
Trpocpaifofievou, axTTTtp /cal tcl^; (Tvrcd<i rd epivd. 
avfi/3aLveL S' ovv coare inl Bvo ery rov Kapirov 
e')(eLV fJLovov tovto rdv BevBpwv. ravra fxev ovv 

IV. 'II Be ^\daTrjcn<^ tmv fiev d/xa ylverat, /cal 

TOiV l)lXepOOV, TMP Be fXlKpOV e7n\€L7T0/jL€PTJ, TOiV B' 

i]By] TrXeov, dirdvTCdV Be Kaid rr}v rjpLvrjv oypav. 
uXXd T(ov KaprroiV t) TrapaWayrj irXelcov odairep 
Be KOL TTporepou CLTTOfieu, ou Kara Ta? /SXacrr/jaei^ 
at ireirdvaeL^; uXXd iroXv Biacjiepouo-ip- inel Kai 
rSiv 6^LKapiTorep(ov, d S?; rive^i ^aaiv epiavro- 
^opelv, olov dpKevOov koI irpLvov, o/io)? at ^Xaa- 
ri'jaei^ tov r)po<=;. avrd S' aurcov rd 6/ioyevr} rw 
TTporepov Kal varepov BiatpepeL Kara tou? tottou?- 
irpoija fiev yap ^Xacndveu rd ev rol<; eXeaiv, co? 
ol irepl yiaKeBovlav Xeyovai, Bevrepa Be rd ev roI<; 
7reB'i0L<;, ea-x^ara Be rd ev toI^ opeaiv. 
2 Avrcov Be roiv Ka6' exaara BevBpcov rd fiev 

' i.e. the male flower, cf. Schol. on Ar. Vesp. 1111. 
&i6<Ppa(nos Kvplcvs Xijei nvrrapov rrju irpocii'Oriaiv ttJs ttItvos : 
but no explanation of such a use of the word suggests itself. 
cf. 3. 'A. 8 ; 4. 8. 7. 

'■* apiai' conj. Sell., cf. 3. 4. 2; 3. 16. 3; 3. 17. 1 ; o^vyiiv ayplav 



oak the oak-moss, in the pine the * flowering tuft.' ^ 
The peo])le of Macedonia say that these trees also 
produce no flowers — Phoenician cedar beecli aria^ 
(holm-oak) maple. Others distinguish two kinds of 
I^hoenician cedar, of which one bears flowers but 
bears no fruit, while the other, tiiough it has no 
flower, bears a fruit which shows itself at once ^— 
just as wild figs produce their abortive fruit. How- 
ever that may be,^ it is a fact that this is the only 
tree which kee})s its fruit for two years. These 
matters then need enquiry. 

0/ the times of budding and fruiting of wild, as compared 
with cidtivated, trees. 

IV. Now the budding of wild trees occurs in some 
cases at the same time as that of the cultivated forms, 
but in some cases somewhat, and in some a good 
deal later; but in all cases it is during the spring- 
season. But there is greater diversity in tlie time of 
fruiting ; as we said before, the times of ripening do 
not correspond to those of budding, but there are 
wide difl'erences. For even in the case of those 
trees which are somewhat late in fruiting, — which 
some say take a year to ripen their fruit — such as 
Phoenician cedar and kermes-oak, the budding 
nevertheless takes place in the spring. Again there 
are differences of time between individual trees of 
the same kind, according to the locality ; those in 
the marshes bud earliest, as the Macedonians say, 
second to them those in the plains, and latest those 
in the mountains. 

Again of particular trees some wild ones bud 

3 i.e. without antecedent flower. 
* 5" oZv conj. W. ; «rxf S^;/ UM V Aid. 



(TVpava/SXaaTcii'ei. roU r)/jL€poL<;, olov avSpdx^V 
(i(f)dpKr)' d^pa<; Be pLiKptp varepov t/}9 diriov. to, 
he Kol irpo ^€(f)vpou Koi fiera nvoa^ evOv ^€(j)vpov. 
Kol TTpo ^e(f)vpou fiep tcpavela kcu drjXvKpaveLa, 
fiera ^ecpvpov Se Sdcpi/rj K\rj0pa, irpo larjixepia'^ he 
fxLKpov (f)i\vpa ^vjLa (f)r)j6<i au/crj- irpco'i/SXaaTa 
he Koi Kapva kol hpv<; kol dKreo^' en he fiaXKov 
TCL d/capTra ho/covpra fcal dXadohr}, \evK7] irreXea 
Irea atyeipo'^' irXdravo^ he fiiKpo) 6y\riaLrepov 
T0VT03V. rd he dWa wanep euiarafievov rov 
7]po<i, olov epLveo<^ (f)L\v/C7j o^vaKavOo^ iraXiOvpo^ 
repixivdo<; Kapva hioa^dXavo<;' jxifXea 5' 6'^i- 
/3XaaT0(;' oyjrL^XacnoraTov he a'^ehov t'-v/^o? dpia 
Terpajcovla Oveia yutXo?. al jxev ovv ^Xaanjaei'^ 
ouTft)? e')(pvcnv. 

3 At he dv6i]a€L<; ukoXovOovctl fiev di<^ elirelv Kara 
X6<yov, ov p,7]P dXXd TrapaXXuTTOvat,, fxdXXov he 
Kal eirl irXeov r) roiv KapiTMV reXeLa)aL<;. Kpaveia 
fiev yap dirohihwaL vepl rpoTrd^; depivd<; r) irpdno'^ 
ax'^hov wairep irpcoTov t) 8' o^lo^, fjv hi] TLve<i 
KoXovGL OrfXvKpaveiav, /ler avTo to /xeroTrcopov 
€(Tri he 6 TavTr}<i Kapiro<i d^pa)T0<; Kal to ^vXov 
daOeve'^ kol ')(avvov' ToaavTi) hrj hiacfyopd irepl 

4 dfKJxo. TepiiLv9o<; he irepl irvpov dfirjTOV rj fiiKpo) 

* See below, n. 4. 

^ TO a.K. SoK. Koi aKff. conj.W.; rk uk. «al 5uk. kuI a\ij . U 
MP ; Ta UK. Ta ^</k. a\a. Aid. 

^ wanef) apologises for the unusual sense given to ifiar. 



along with the cultivated forms, as andrachne and 
hybrid arbutus ; and the wild pear is a little later 
than the cultivated. Some again bud both before 
zephyr begins to blow, and immediately after it has 
been blowing. Before it come cornelian cherry and 
cornel, after it bay and alder ; a little before the 
spring equinox come lime zygia Valonia oak fig. 
Hazel ^ oak and elder are also early in budding, and 
still more those trees which seem to have no fruit 
and to grow in groves,^ abele elm willow black 
poplar ; and the plane is a little later than these. 
The others which bud when the spring is, as it were, 
becoming established,^ are such as wild fig alaternus 
cotoneaster Christ's thorn terebinth hazel * chestnut. 
The apple is late in budding, latest of all generally 
are ipsos^ (cork-oak) aria (holm-oak) tetragonia 
odorous cedar yew. Such are the times of budding. 
The flowering times in general follow in proportion ; 
but they present some irregularity, and so in still 
more cases and to a greater extent do the times at 
which the fruit is matured. The cornelian cherry pro- 
duces its fruit about the summer solstice ; the early 
kind, that is to say, and this tree is about the earliest 
of all. 6 The late form, which some call 'female 
cornelian cherry ' (cornel), fruits quite at the end of 
autumn. The fruit of this kind is inedible and its 
wood is weak and spongy ; that is what the difference 
between the two kinds amounts to. The terebinth 
produces its fruit about the time of wheat-harvest or 

(usually 'beginning'), to 5* &\\a wairep ^vktt. conj. W,; ri 
5' 6.KKWS Trep* U; ra Se SAAoij Trepifvi(TTafji.4uov MAld, H, 

* Kapva can hardly be right both here and above, 

* See Index. 

^ (TXeSbi/ &anep irpuToy not in G, nor in Plin, (16, 105) ; text 
perhaps defective. 



o-y^iaiTepov cnrohi^wcn kol fieXia koX crcjievSafipo^ 
Tov Oepov; Tov Kaprrov /cXyjOpa Se kol Kapva kol 
d')(p(i8(ov TL <yevo<i fieroiroopov hpv<^ he kol Sioa- 
^d\avo<i oy\naiTepov en irepX \\\eL(iho<i hvaiv, 
co(Taurw? he /cal (fiiXv/cr] koI 7rpLvo<i kol TraXiovpos 
KoX 6^vdKav9o<s fierd IlXe/aSo? Svaiv rj 8' dpla 
')(^ei/xa)vo<; dp)(o/j,€VOV' kol t) fiifkea fiev TOL<i Tr^coroi? 
■<^v)(^eaiv, d)(pd<; Be oyjria 'X^eipiMVO'i' dv8pd\\r] Be 
KOL dc^dp/CT] TO /.Lev TrpCoTOv TreTraivovaLV d/xa tm 
^orpvL 7repKd^ovTi,TO Be varepov, Bok€l yap ravra 
BiKapiTa, dp^op^evov tov ')(ei p.o)vo<;, eXdrrj Be fcal 
6 yLttXo? dvOovai pLLKpov iTpo tjXlov rpoTTCOv [/cal T>}9 
76 eXaT)/9 TO dvdo<; KpoKivov koX dWco^ KaXov] 
TOV Be KapiTov dipcdai fxerd Bvatv liXeidBo^. 

TTeVKl-f Be KOL TTtTf? TTpOTepOVai T7J ^\aaT1](T€l 

fxiKpoVy oaov TTevreKaLBefca I'lp^epai^, tou? Be Kap- 
rrov^ diroBiBoaai fieja TiXeidBa Kara \6yov. 

'Vavra p,ev ovv pier pLcorepav piev e)(eL nrapaWa- 
yrjV' 7rdvT0)v Be TrXeiaTt]!' r; dpKev9o<^ /cal )) /c/jXaa- 
rpo<; Kal 7) rrplvo'^' 7) puev yap ((p.\'€vOo<; eviavcnov 
e^eiv Bo/cel' Trepc/caraXap/BdveL yap 6 1^609 tov irepv- 
aivoi'. o)? Be TLve'i cl)aaii>, ovBe TreTraiveL, Bl o /cal 
7rpoa<j)aipovaL /cal ')(p6vov TLvd Ty]pouaiv edv Be id 
« €7rl TOV BeuBpov TL^,d7ro^>]paLveTai. <paal Be /cal ttjv 
irplvov ol irepl ^Ap/caoLuv eviavTW TeXeiovv dp,a 
yap TOV evov TreTraiveL /cal tov veov viro^aiver 
wcTTe Tot? TOLovTOL^ avpL^aLi^ci avvexM<; tov /capirbv 
exetv. cf)aal Be ye /cal t)]v /ci^XaaTpov vrrb tov 

* airoS. Kol fxeXla U ; d7rc(5i5a)(ri- [.L(\la A)d. Some confusion 
in text, but sense clear. 
"^ oif m : ? T) o^la W. 



a little later, manna-ash^ and maple in summer; alder 
hazel and a certain kind of wild pear in autumn ; 
oak and chestnut later still, about the setting of the 
Pleiad ; and in like manner alaternus kermes-oak 
Christ's-thorn cotoneaster after the setting of the 
Pleiad ; aria (holm-oak) when winter is beginning, 
apple with the first cold weather, wild pear late^ in 
winter. Andrachne and hybrid arbutus first ripen 
their fruit when the grape is turning, and again ^ 
when winter is beginning ; for these trees appear to 
bear twice. As for ^ silver-fir and yew, they flower 
a little before the solstice ; ^(the flower of the silver- 
fir is yellow and otherwise pretty) ; they bear their 
fruit after the setting of the Pleiad. Fir and Aleppo 
pine are a little earlier in budding, about fifteen 
days, but produce their fruit after the setting of the 
Pleiad, though proportionately earlier than silver-fir 
and yew. 

In these trees then the difference of time is not 
considerable ; the greatest difference is shewn in 
Phoenician cedar holly and kermes-oak ; for Phoe- 
nician cedar appears to keep its fruit for a year, the 
new fruit overtaking that of last year ; and, accord- 
ing to some, it does not ripen it at all ; wherefore 
men gather it unripe and keep it, whereas if it is left 
on the tree, it shrivels up. The Arcadians say that 
the kermes-oak also takes a year to perfect its fruit ; 
for it ripens last year's fruit at the same time that 
the new fruit appears on it; the result of which is that 
such trees always have fruit on them. They say also 

' After varepov Aid. adds avdovvTi (so also H and G) ; Plin. 
\-A. 121. omits it ; om. W. after Sch. 

* yap Aid.; Se conj. W. 

* Probably an early gloss, W. cf, Plin. 16, JOG. 



^€Lfxo)VO<^ uTTO^dWeLV. o-y^LKapTTa Be a(f)6Spa kui 
ji'iKvpa KOi 7rv^o<;. [tov Se Kapirov ci^pcorov 
e;^6t navrl t^oiw cpuXupa dijXv/cpaveia ttu^o?. 
oyjrLKapTra Be koX /c^tto? koX apKev9o<; Koi 
irevKri koi avBpdy(\ri.~\ o)? Be ol irepX ^ KpKaBiav 
<f)aaLv, €TL Tovrcou oy^iKapiroTepa cr'^eBov 
Be ttuvtcjov oy^Lairepa rerpaycovla Oveia fil- 
\o9. al fiev ovv twv Kapirwv aTro/SoXal kol 

TceTrdvcrei^ rcov dyplcov TOiavTa<; exovcn Bta(f)opa^ 
ov fiovov irpo^ ra rjjiepa dWd kol tt/jo? eavrd. 

V. ^v/uL^aLvet 8' orav dp^wvTai ^XaajdveLv 
ra /lev dXka avve^r) r/p re ^Xdarijaiv kol ttjv 
av^rjaiv iroLeladai, 7revKi)V Be koI iXdrrjv kuI 
Bpvv BiaXelireiv, fcal T/oei? op/idf; elvai kol rpelf; 
d(f)i,evai, /SXaarov^;, Bl* o kol rpiaXoTror irav jap 
Br] BevBpov orav ^Xaardvrj Xoird' irpoyrov fiev 
aKpov eapo<i evOv^ lara/ievov rod ^apy^jXicovo^;, 
ev Be rfi "IBrj rrepl irevreKaiBeKa fidXtara ijfiepa'^- 
fierd Be ravra BiaXiirovra rrepl rpidKovra i) 
/xLKpw rrX€LOV<i eirL^aXXerai rrdXiv dXXov<; fiXacr- 
rov<; diT^ dKpa<; t% Kopvvi]aea)<; r/}? errl ro) rrpo- 
repw ^Xaarw' Kal ra jiev dvw rd 5' et? rd 
rrXdyia kvkXw iroLelrai rip ^Xdarrjatu, olov <y6vv 

* (piXvpa Aid.; (piXvpta conj. Sch. 

^ rhv 5€ . . . . av'bpaxXri. Apparently a gloss, W, 
' rerpayu^via conj. Sch. {rerpa- omitted after -repo) : c/. § 2 ; 
yuvia MV ; ywyifia U. 

* ruv aypicov after irfnayaeis conj. Sch.; after i^/ifpa Aid. 
" Pliii. Hi. 100. 



that holly loses its fruit owing to the winter. I.inie^ 
and box are very late in fruiting, (lime has a fruit 
which no animal can eat, and so have cornel and 
box. Ivy Phoenician cedar fir and andrachne are 
late fruiting 2) though, according to the Arcadians, 
still later than these and almost latest of all are 
teiragonia^ odorous cedar and yew. Such then 

are the differences as to the time of shedding and 
ripening their fruit between wild* as compared 
with cultivated trees, and likewise as compared with 
one another. 

0/ the seasons of budding. 

V. ^ Now most trees, when they have once begun 
to bud, make their budding and their growth con- 
tinuously, but with fir silver-fir and oak there are 
intervals. They make three fresh starts in growth 
and produce three separate sets of buds ; wherefore 
also they lose their bark thrice ^ a year. For every 
tree loses its bark when it is budding. This first 
happens in mid-spring "^ at the very beginning of the 
month Thargelion,^ on Mount Ida within about 
fifteen days of that time ; later, after an interval of 
about thirty days or rather more, the tree ^ puts on 
fresh buds which start from the head of the knobby 
growth i*^ which formed at the first budding-time; and 
it makes its budding partly on the top of this,^^ partly 
all round it laterally,!'^ using the knob formed at the 

* Tpla\oiroi conj. Sch. ; TpiaKonroi UMoV; rpfcrAeTrot M^Ald. 
cj. 4. 15. 3 ; 5. 1. 1. 
' iapos conj. R. Const.; hioos VAld. c/. Plin. I.e. 
8 About May, 

' What follows evidently applies only to the oak. 
^^ KopwrjaeoiS conj. Sch.; Kopvvrjs cws UMV; Kopv<prjs '4ws 
11 cf. 3. 6. 2. 12 ^^ add. Sch, 



TTOLTjaufiepa rrjv too Trpcorou ^Xaarov Kopvvrjv, 
wcTTre/j KaX rj vpcorr] /3XuaT^]aL<; e%ef. yiverai Be 
Tovro Trepl rbv 'EKippo(f)opLcova Xrjyovra. 

2 Kara Se TavT7jv rrjV j^XdcnrjCTLV kol t) ktjkU 
<f)veTai iraaa, kol rj \€vk7] kol rj jieXaiva' (pveTai 
Be ft)? iirl TO iroXv vvkt6<; a6p6o<;' i(f) t)iiepav he 
fiiav av^TjOelaa, ttXtjv t^? Tr^rroetSoO?, eav vtto 
Tov Kav/iaro^ \r)(f)67j ^rjpaLverai, kol avav^rj<; eirl 
TO fiel^ov, eyivero yap av ixei^wv rw fieyedei. 
SioTrep rLve<; avroiv ov fiel^ov eyovai Kvdixov to 
fieyeOo^;. rj Be jxeXaiva KaX eirl irXe'iov^ i)/jLepa'i 
ey)(\(i)p6'^ eaTL, kol av^dvovTUi kol Xafi/Sdvovaiv 
eviai fieyeOo^; /jLiJXov. 

AiaXeLTTOVTa Be jieTO. tovto Trepl TrevreKaiBeKa 
r]/jLepa<i TTokLV TO Tp'iTov eTTi^dWeTaL (SXaa-TOV's 
'EKaTOfi^aia)VO<i, e\a')(i(TTa^ 'r)/iiepa<; twv irpoTe- 
pov Lcrcof; yap e^ rj eirTCL to TrXelaTOV rj Be 
^XdaTrjGL^ ofjiOLa Kal tov avTOv Tpoirov. irapeK- 
6ovao)v Be tovtwv ov/ceTi et? fi7]K0<i dXX' et? 
7ra;^o? 77 av^rjaL^i TpeTreTai. 

3 Hdai fiev ovv tol<; BevBpoL<; al ^XacTTTjcreL^: 
i^avepaiy jidXiaTa Be TJj eXdTj] icaX Trj ttcvkt] Bid 
TO (TTOi')(elv TO, yovaTa KaX e^ taov toi)? 6^ov<^ 
e%6M^. wpa Be KaX 7rpo<; to Tef-LvecrOai tcl ^vXa 
t6t6 Bid TO Xoirdv ev yap toI<^ dXXoi'^ Kaipoi^: 
ouK evirepLaipeTO^ (j:)Xoi6^, dXXd Kal Treptaipe- 
6evT0<; fieXav to ^vXov ylveTat Kal Trj oyfret. ')(elpov' 
eirel xaX Trpo? ye ttjv 'x^pelav ovBev, dXXd KaX 

' About June. 

2 c/. 3. 7. 4 ; 3. 8. 6 ; Plin. 16. 27. 

' €7xAwpos conj. Coraes ; etjx^(»pos Aid. 

* 5mAe/7ro»'To conj. St.; Sia\flirov<rai Ald.H. 



first budding as a sort of joints just as in the case of 
the first budding. This happens about the end of 
the month Skirrophorion.^ 

2 (It is only at the time of this second budding that 
the galls also are produced, both the white and the 
black ; the liquid forming them is mostly produced in 
quantity at night, and, after swelling for one day 
— except the part which is of resinous character — it 
hardens if it is caught by^the heat, and so cannot grow 
any more ; otherwise it would have grown greater in 
bulk ; wherefore in some trees the formation is not 
larger than a bean. The black gall is for several 
days of a pale green ^ colour ; then it swells and some- 
times attains the size of an apple.) 

Then, after an interval * of about fifteen days, the 
tree for the third time puts on buds in the month 
Hekatombaion ^ ; but this growth continues for fewer 
days than on either of the previous occasions, perhaps 
for six or seven at most. However the formation ot 
the buds is as before and takes place in the same 
manner. After this period there is no increase in 
length, but the only increase is in thickness. 

The periods of budding can be seen in all trees, 
but especially in fir and silver-fir, because the joints 
ofthesearein a regular series and have the knots 
at even distances. It is then the season also for 
cutting the timber, because the bark is being shed*' ; 
for at other times the bark is not easy to strip off, 
and moreover, if it is stripped off, the wood turns 
black ^ and is inferior in appearance ; for as to its 
utility ^ this makes no difference, though the wood 

^ About July. 

^ AoTtav conj.Sch.; Xonrav UMV; \nrau Aid, 

-> cf. Plin. 16. 74. 

* ye conj. Sch.; re Aid, 



l(T')(i)p6Tepov, iav fiera ttjv TreiravaLV rcov Kapirwv 

Tavra jxev ovv thia tcov Trpoeiprj/juevcDv BevBpwv. 
al Be ^Xa(TTrjaeL<^ al inl KvpI kol ^ApKTOvpfp jlvo- 
p,evai iiera tyjv eapivi-jv cry^ehov kolvoI iravTCdv 
evhifKoL he fxaXkov ev T0i9 7)/J,epoi(; koL tovtwv 
fidXiara avKrj kol afMireXw kol poid koI o\(o<; oaa 
€VTpa<prj KOL OTTOV X^P^ roiavTT]' 8i Koi rrjv 
eir WpKTOvp(p irXeLaTtjv (paal <yLvea6aL irepl Ser- 
raXiav teal ^'laKeSovtav' afia yap au/jLJSacvei Kal 
TO fxeroTTwpov KaXov yiveaOau kol fiaKpov, coart 
KOL TTjv /jiaXaK6T7]Ta dvpL^aXXeaOai, rov aepo<^. 
eireX koI ev AlyvnTM Bia tovB* to? elirelv alel 
^Xaardvei to, BivSpa, rj kol puKpov riva BiaXeiireL 

^AXXa ra fiev irepX Ta9 em^Xaar^'iaeL^, waive p 
etprjraL, KOivd, ra Be irepl ra? 3iaA,et-v|^et? dirb t^? 
TTpcoTT]^ iBia rwv XexPevroiv. IBlov 5' eVtof? 
VTrdp^ei KOL to tt)? KaXovfievr]<; Kd'^pvo'^, clou 
TO?? [re] 7rpoeLpr]fievoL<;' ey^eu yap Kal eXdTrj Kal 
TrevKt] Kal Bpv<;, Kal ert (jiiXvpa Kal Kapva Kal 
BioajBaXavo^ Kal iriTVs. avTai Be yivovTai Bpvi 
fiev Trpo T^)? ySXacTTT^crect)? v7ro(f)aivova7]<; tt}? 
r]pLvr]<; Mpa<;. eaTt 5' waTrepel Kvr]a-i<; (jyvXXtKy) 
fiGTa^v TTLTTTOvaa Trj<; i^ ^PX*!'^ €7ToiBr]ae(o<; Kal 
T'^? (pvXXiKT]^ ^XaaTt]ae(o<;' ttj S* 6t) ecrTl tov 

^ SevSpwv conj. R. Const.; Kapirwv Ald.H. 
2 cf.C.P. 1. 10. 6; 1.12. 4; 1.13. 3; 1. 13. 5; 1. 13. 10; Plin. 
16. 98. » c/. C.P. 1. 14. 11. * cf. 5. 1. 4 ; Plin. 16. 30. 



is stronger if it is cut after the ripening of the 

Now what has been said is peculiar to the above- 
mentioned trees. ^ 2 ^^^ ^he buddings which take 
place at the rising of the dog-star and at that of 
Arcturus after the spring budding are common to 
nearly all, though they may be most clearly seen in 
cultivated trees, and, among these, especially in fig 
vine pomegranate, and in general in all those that 
are luxuriant in growth or are growing in rich soil. 
Accordingly they say that the budding at the rising 
of Arcturus is most considerable in Thessaly and 
Macedonia ^ ; for it also happens that the autumn in 
these countries is a fair and a long season ; so that 
the mildness of the climate also contributes. Indeed 
it is for this reason, one may say, that in Egypt too 
the trees are always budding, or at least that the 
process is only suspended for quite a short time. 

Now the facts as to the later buddings apply, as 
has been said, to all trees alike ; but those which 
belong to the intervals after the first period of 
budding are peculiar to those mentioned above. 
Peculiar to some also is the growth of what are 
called ' winter buds,' * for instance in the above- 
mentioned trees ; silver-fir fir and oak have them, and 
also lime hazel chestnut and Aleppo pine. These 
are found in the oak before the leaf-buds grow, when 
the spring season is just beginning. This growth 
consists of a sort of leaf-like formation,^ which occurs 
between the first swelling of the leaf-buds and the 
time when they burst into leaf. In the sorb^ it 

" eari . . . (puWiK^: i(TTt conj. R. Const.; watrepel conj. Sch.; 
$71 Se Siffirep t] Kvr}ais <pv\aK^ UAld.H. ; <pv\\tK}) mBas. etc. 
' TTj 5' op iffrl conj. W. (c/ the description of 077, 3. 12. 8) ; 

TTJ 8' lSl6Tr]Tl Aid. 



fieroTTcopov fieTct rr^v (f)vWo/3oXiav ev6v<; Xiirapd 
Ti<; Kal Mcrnep eTTwh)}Kvla, KaOairepavel fieXKovaa 
^XaardveLV, koI SLa/xei/ec top ')(eip,S)va y^k^pi rov 
ypo^. r) Se 'HpaKXecDTiKr) fierd rijv diro^oXrjv rov 
KapiTov (f)V€i TO ^OTpvcoBe^i tjXlkov (JKOiXr)^ evjxe- 
yeOrj^y i^ €P0<; piia-)(ov irXeicd hr}, a KaXovcrl rives 

6 lovXoVfi. TOVTCOV CKaGTOV ifC flLKpMV avyK€iTai 

/jLOplcov (jjoXiScoTcbv rf] TCi^ei, KaOdirep ol arpo^iXoi 
Tfj<; irevKT}';, ware firj dvopboiav elvai rrjv oyjriv 
arpolSiXcp ve(p koX ')(Xcopa) 7rXr;i; Trpo/xrjKearepov 
fcal ax^^ov la67ra')(^6S BloXov. tovto Se av^erai 
TOP '^^eifiMva' (/cal d/jLa tu> rjpi 'y^daKei to, (^oXl- 
Bcora Kol ^apOa jlpeTaL), kol to fjLrJKo<; XafM/Sdvei 
Kal TpLSdKTvXop' OTUP Se Tov ypc; to <j)vXXov 
fiXaaTdprj, TavT diroirlirTei kol tcl tov Kapvov 
KaXvKcoBr] irepLKapTTLa jLveTac av/jL/xefivKora kuto, 
TOV pbiayov, TocravTa oaa Kal rjv tcl civOi]' tovtojp 
S* ip €KdaT(p Kdpvop ev. irepl he t?}? <pt.Xvpa<; 
eiridKeiTTeop, koI el ti dXXo Ka)(pvo(f)6pop. 

VI. "Ecrrt Be kol to, fiev evav^i) rd Be Bvcrav^rj. 
evav^T] fiev rd re TrdpvBpa, olov TrreXea TrXdravos 
XeuKT] alyeipos Irea' fcau tol rrepX toutt;? dficpia- 
^rjTovai TLves oo? Buaau^ov<i' Kal twp /capTrocjiopcop 
Be iXdrrj irevKri Bpv<;. evav^earaTOP Be . . . fiuXo'i 

* fvOvs \nrapa conj. Sell. ; t*s add. W, ; €v6vs al irapa ttjs \J. 
^ (pvfi conj. W.; (puerai Aid. ' i.e. catkins, c/. 3. 3. 8. 

* TTAe/w 677 conj. Sch.; ttiwStj UMVAld. ; irAeloya U ?. 

* cf. 3. 10. 4. 

*' avix^jUj-ivKuTi 
text ; ? (rvfinecpvicoTa W. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. v. 5-vi. i 

occurs in the autumn after the shedding of tlic 
leaves, and has from the first a glistening look,^ as 
though swelling had taken place, just as if it were 
about to burst into leaves ; and it persists through 
the winter till the spring. The filbert after casting- 
its fruit produces ^ its clustering growth,^ which is 
as large as a good-sized grub : several * of these grow 
from one stalk, and some call them catkins. Each 
of these is made up of small processes arranged 
like scales, and resembles the cone of the fir, so that 
its appearance is not unlike that of a young green 
fir-cone, except that it is longer and almost of the 
same thickness throughout. This grows through the 
winter (when spring comes, the scale-like processes 
open and turn yellow) ; it grows to the length of three 
fingers, but, when in spring the leaves are shooting, 
it falls off, and the cup-like ^ fruit-cases of the nut 
are formed, closed all down *^ the stalk and corre- 
sponding "^ in number to the flowers ; and in each ot 
these is a single nut. The case of the lime and 
of any other tree that produces winter-buds needs 
further consideration. 

Of the comparatict rate of growth in trees, and of the length of 
their roots. 

VI. Some trees are quick-growing, some slow. 
Quick-growing are those which grow by the waterside, 
as elm plane abele black poplar willow ; (however 
some dispute about the last-named, and consider it 
a slow grower :) and of fruit-bearing trees, silver-fir 
fir oak. Quickest growing of all are . . .^ yew lakara 

' offa Kal ?iv TO. &v6r} conj. W. ; '6aa koI Kara. 6.v6t) Aid. 
® Lacuna in text (Sch. W.). The following list of trees also 
appears to be in confusion, and includes some of both classes. 



fcal XcLKapa ^rfyo'^ apfceu6o<; (T(f)evSa/jiVO^ oarpva 
l^vyla fieXia K\i']dpa iriTv^ dvSpd-^Xrj Kpaveia 
TTV^o^ dxpd<;. Kap7To<pop€L 8' €u6v<; iXuTT} irevKy-j 
TTtTf?, KCiv OTrrjXtKOVOvv pLeyeOo^; Xd^cocriv. 

'H Se av^TjaL^ koI rj /3\daTr}aL<; rcov fiev aWoyu 
araKro^ Kara rou? tottou? rdv ^Xaarwv, t^? 8' 
€Xdr^<i d)ptcr/i€Pr] koX avvexv'^ x^cii varepov. orav 
yap CK Tov (TTeXe')(ov<; ra Trpcora o-)(^iadfj, irdXiv i^ 
€K€ivov 77 erepa a')(^Lai<; yiverai Kara top avrov 
rpoTTOv, Kol rovr del ttolcI Kara irdaa^ ra<i eiru- 
^Xaarrjaei,^. iv he roh oXXol^ ovS* 01 o^ol kut 
dXX7]Xou<i irX'qv eiri tlvwv oXlycov, olov kotIvov 
KOL aXXayv e^^t he koI rfjSe Bia<popdv rj av^y-jai^ 
KOLvfi TrdvTcov 6poL(ii<i i)fiepa)v re fcal dyplcop' rd 
fiev yap koX Ik, tov aKpov tmv ^XaaTcov Kal €k 
Tcop irXayicov ^verat, Kaddrrep dirio^ poa crvfcrj 
fivppivo^ a^^hov TO, TrXelara' to. S' e/c tov aKpov 
fieu ovK dvLTjaiv €k he twv irXayicov, Kal avTo 
TrpooiOeiTai to v7rdp')(^op, oxjTrep Kal to oXov crre- 
\€%09 Kal ol dKpe/i6v€<;. dVfxjSaivei. he tovto eirl 
TT}^ TiepaiKT}^ Kapva<; Kal Tr}<i 'HpaKXeo)TiKr)<; Kal 
dXXcov, dirdvTWV he TOiV tolovtcop et? ep (l)vXXov 
diTOTeXevTOdcnp ol jSXaaTOi, St' Kal €vX6ya)<; ovk 
eTn/SXaaTapeL Kal av^dperai firj e')(0PTa dp'^r)v. 
{opoia he Tpoirop Ttpd rj av^rjai^ Kal tov (Tltov 

^ KUTCL . . . BKaffTwv conj. W. ; KOTO Tovs TpSnovs (corrected 
to TOTTovs) Kol $\aaTovs U ; MVP insert tovs before QXaarovs. 

' iKfiyov . . . Kara conj. W.; iKflvov rj krtpa c\[^iTai to Xao 
/fa) UAld. 

* iXKwv : ? i\das W.; I suggest &\\uv i\au>v. 



n)ird-clierry) Valonia oak Phoenician cedar maple 
hop-hornbeam zygia manna-ash alder Aleppo pine 
andrachne cornelian cherry box wild pear. But 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine bear fruit from the very 
first, whatever size they have attained. 

While the growth and budding of most trees are 
irregular as regards the position in which the buds 
appear/ the growth and budding of the silver-fir 
follow a regular rule, and its development afterwards 
is also in a regular sequence. For, when the trunk 
first divides, then again from the divided trunk the 
second division 2 takes place in like manner, and so the 
tree goes on with each fresh formation of buds. In 
other trees not even the knots are opposite to one 
another, except in some few cases, as wild olive and 
others.^ Here too we find a difference in the 
manner of growth which belongs to all trees alike, 
both cultivated and wild : in some cases the growth 
is from the top of the shoots and also from the side- 
buds,* as in pear pomegranate fig myrtle and the 
majority of trees, one may say : in some cases the 
growth is not from the top, but only from the side- 
buds, and the already existing part is pushed out ^ 
further, as is the whole trunk with the upper 
branches. This occurs in the walnut and in the filbert 
as well as in other trees. In all such trees the buds end 
in a single leaf^; wherefore it is reasonable that 
they should not make fresh buds and growth from this 
point, as they have no point of departure. (To a 
certain extent the growth of corn is similar ; for it 

* iK Tov , . . irXayioov : ? iK rov &Kpov kol Sk tuiv irXayluiy 
iSAaffTwv. cf. 3. 5, 1. 

^ i.e. grows without dividing, cf. Pliii. 16. 100. (of dif- 
ferent trees). 

* (pv\\oy perhaps conceala some other word. 



Kal yap ovro^ ael ry Trpoooaei rov V7rdp-^0PT0<; 
av^dveraiy kclv koXo^wOij ra (f)vWa, fcaOdirep ev 
Tol^ e'm^o(JKOfievoL<=;- TrXijv ovr6<: ye ovk ifc rov 
rrXayiov Trapacpvei, Kaddirep eiua rcop y^ehpo-rroiv.) 
avTTj /xev ovv Siacpopd ti<; av elrj ^Xaar/jaecos' 
dfjia Kal av^/]ae(jC)<;. 

4 JiaOuppt^a Be ov ^aai TLve<^ elvau ra ciypia Bui 
TO (f)vea6aL iravra diro aireppLaro'iy ovk dyav 
op6o3<; \€yovT€<;. ipSixerac yap orav i/j-^Lcoarj 
TToppoi KaOcevai ra? pi^a^' €TT€l Kal rcov \a)(^dvci)p 
TO, TToWd TOVTO TTOtel, KaiTTep daOeviarepa ovra 
Kal ivapya)<; (pvufieva <eV> rfj yfj. ^aduppi^oTaTov 
6' ovp BoK€L TO)v dyptcov elvai ?; irplvo'^' iXdrrj Be 
Kal TrevKrj pL€Tpio)(;, eTrLiroXaioraTov Be Opavira- 
Xo<; Kal KOKKUfjLTjXea Kal aTroBidf;' avrt] B' earlv 
cjairep dypla KOKKv/jtyXea. ravra fiev ovv Kal 
uXiyoppL^a- 6 Be Opav7raXo<; nroXvppL^ov. crvfi- 
/SatveL Be roU dXXoi<i to2<; /jlt) Kara (3d0ov<i eyovai, 
Kal ovx riKLGTa iXdrrj Kal TrevKy, Trpoppi^OL^; viro 
rcov iTvevp^arcov eKTrlrrreLV. 

5 01 /xev ovv Tvepl ' KpKaBiav ovrco Xeyovaw. ol 
S' CK rr]<;"lBr)<; (BaOvppil^urepov eXdrrjv Bpvo'^ dXX' 
iXdrrovi; 6)(£iv Kal evdvppL^orepav elvai- /Sadvppi- 
^orarov Be Kal ryjv KOKKV/xijXeav Kal rrjv 'Wpa- 
KXeMrLKi]v, rd<; Be pi^a^ Xeirra^ Kal l(T)^vpa<; rr]v 
'HpaKXea>rLK7]v, rr]V Be KOKKVjirfXeav iroXvppi^ov, 
d/j.<pco 8' ifJi^LOivai Belv BvacoXeOpov Be rr]v 
KOKKVfjLr)Xeav. e7n7roXi]<i Be a^evBafjLVOv Kal 

* TOW vndpxoi'ros conj. Sch. from G ; rp unap\ovaT] Alil. 
'^ ovi' : -f OVK W. 3 piin. 1(5. 127*. 

* (uHiu^ai, : cf. 3. 6. 5; C.P. 1. 2. 1. 



also regularly increases by pushing forward of the 
already existing part/ even if the leaves are mutilated, 
as in corn which is bitten down by animals. Corn 
however does not^ make side-growths, as some 
leguminous plants do.) Here then we may find a 
difference which occurs both in the making of buds 
and in the making of fresh growth. 

2 Some say that wild trees are not deep rootijig, 
because they all grow from seed ; but this is not a 
very accurate statement. For it is possible that, 
when they are well established,* they may send 
their roots down far ; in fact even most pot-herbs 
do this, though these are not so strong as trees, and 
are undoubtedly grown from seed planted in the 
ground.^ The kermes-oak however seems to be the 
deepest rooting of wild trees ; silver-fir and fir are 
only moderately so, and shallowest are joint-fir plum 
bullace (which is a sort of wild plum). The last 
two also have few roots, while joint-fir has many. 
Trees which do not root deep,^ and especially silver- 
fir and fir, are liable to be rooted up b}' winds. 

So the Arcadians say. But the people who live 
near Mount Ida say that the silver fir is deeper 
rooting'^ than the oak,^ and has straighter roots, 
though they are fewer. Also that those which have 
the deepest roots are plum and filbert, the latter 
having sti'ong slender roots, the former having 
many : but they add that both trees must be well 
established to acquire these characters ; also that 
plum is very tenacious of life. Maple, they say, 

• fvapyws . . . y^ : so G ; iv add. W. 

* fiddovs conj. Sch.; Pddos Aid. 

' 0adoppLC6Tipov conj. W.; ^aduppiCoTaioi^ UMVAld. 
" Proverbial for its hold on the ground ; cf. Verg. Aen. A. 
441 foil. 


oXt7a9* T7JV 5e fiekiav TrXeiou? koI elvai irvKVop- 
pit,ov KoX ^aOvppi^ov. eiTLTTo\rj<; he kol dpKevdov 
Kol Kehpov KOL K\.r]6pa<^ Xeina^ koX OfiaXel^' 
en S' o^vrjv koX <yap rovr iir LiroXatoppi^ov kol 
oXiyoppL^op. rr]V Be ovav iTniroXaLOV^ fxev Icrx^' 
pa<i Se KOL Tra^eta? kol SvacoXeOpovi irXyjOet Se 
pLerpla^. /SadvppL^a jxev ovv kol ov ^aOvppL^a 

ra TOiauT eariv. 

VII. ^ K.iroKOirevTO<; Be rov aTeXexov<; ra fiev 
aXXa irdvO^ w? elirelv TrapajSXaardpei, irXrjV edv 
at pi^ai TTporepov ivywcri TTeirovr^Kvlar jrevKr) 
Be KOI eXdrrj reXeo)? i/c pt^cbv avT06T€L<; avaivovraL 
KaX eav to aKpov eirLKOTrfj. avp^alvei, Be tBiov 
n irepX rrjV iXdrrjv orav jdp KOirfj rj KoXovaOfj 
vTTo 7rvev/jLaT0<; rj koI dXXov rLvo<^ irepl to Xelov 
Tov (TTeXexovf; — e-^ei yap P'^XP'- ''"^^o? Xelov koI 
do^ov Kal ofiaXov iKavop Xcttu) irXoiov — irepL- 
<f)V€Tat fiiKpop, viroBeeaTepov eh vyjro^, kol xa- 
XovGiv 01 fiep dp,(pau^ip ol Be dp,<pi(puap, tw pep 
Xpdyp^aTL p^eXap TJj Be aKXypoTi^TC vTrep/SdXXop, 
e^ ov Tov<; KpaTfjpa<i Troiouaip ol irepl ^ApKaBlap' 
2 TO Be Trd^o^ olop tip tv^J] to BepBpop, oawirefi 
dp lax^poTepov kol eyx^^OTcpop rj TraxvTepop, 
avp-^alpeu Be KUKelvo IBlop eV TavTw tovtw irep) 

* (T<p. KoL oXiyus conj. W. ; (T<p. /car' oXlyov UMVAld. 
^ i.e. not very fibrous. 

3 cf. Hdt. 6. 37, and the proverb irhvos Tp6iroy iicrplffeadat. 

* 'dfJLaKop conj. Seal. ; '6pLoiov Aid. 

* iKavhv '((TT<f> TrKoiov conj.W.; % Kol riKinoy n\e7oy Aid.; ac 
UH, but with ir\o7oy. 



has shallow roots and few of them ^ ; but manna-ash 
has more and they are thickly matted and run 
deep ; Phoenician cedar and pri«kly cedar, they say, 
have shallow roots, those of alder are slender and 
• plain,' 2 as also are those of beech ; for this too has 
few roots, and they are near the surface. Sorb, they 
say, has its roots near the surface, but they are 
strong and thick and hard to kill, though not very 
numerous. Such are the trees which are or are 
not deep-rooting. 

Of the effects of cutting down the ivhole or part of a tree. 

VII. Almost all trees shoot from the side if the 
trunk is cut down, unless the roots have previously 
been injured ; but fir and silver-fir wither away ^ 
completely from the roots within the year, if merely 
the top has been cut off. And there is a peculiar 
thing about the silver-fir ; when it is topped or 
broken off short by wind or some other cause 
affecting the smooth part of the trunk— for up to a 
certain height the trunk is smooth knotless and 
plain ^ (and so suitable for making a ship's mast ''), — 
a certain amount of new growth forms round it, 
which does not however grow much vertically ; and 
this is called by some amphaiixis ^ and by others 
amphiphya ^ ; it is black in colour and exceedingly 
hard, and the Arcadians make their mixing-bowls 
out of it ; the thickness is in proportion "* to the tree, 
according as that is more or less vigorous and sappy, 
or again according to its thickness. There ^ is this 
peculiarity too in the silver-fir in the same connexion ; 

* Two words meaning * growth about,' i.e. callus. 
' oXov h.v conj. W, ; olov iav Aid.; '6<rop tiv conj. Seal. 
« Plin. 16. 123. 



tt;!' iXdrijv orap fiev 'yap ri<; tov<; 6^ov<; airavjas 
a(p€\(ov dTTOKoyjrr} to aKpov, diroOvrjaKei Ta;^ea)9* 
oTav Se rd Karcorepco rd Kard to Xelov dipiXr}, 
^77 TO KaTaXoiTTOv, irepX o Brj kclL 77 d/ji(j)av^i<; 
(jyvcTaL. ^fi he BrjXov ort, tw e'y)(yXov elvai Kal 
')(X(op6v, elirep dirapd^XaaTOV. dXXd ydp tovto 
fiev lSiov t^9 eXaT779. 

<t>epet Be ra fiev dXXa tov tc Kapirov top 
eavTMV Koi ra KaT eviavTov iinyivofxeva TavTa, 
4)vXXov dvOo<; jSXaaTov Td Be Kal ^pvov rj eXiKa- 
ra Be TrXeio), KaOdirep rj re iTTeXea tov re /SoTpvv 
Koi TO OuXaKOjBef; tovto, kol avKr) Kal Td epivd 
Td TrpoaTTOTriTTTovTa Kal eX Tive^ dpa twv cvkwv 
oXvv9o(^opovcnv' fcrco? Be Tporrov Tivd Kapirov 
ouTO?. nX)C Tj *HpaKXea>TiK7] Kapva tov lOvXov 
Kal T) irplvo'^ TOV (poiviKovv kokkov 1) Be Bdc^vrf 
TO ^oTpvov. (pepec fiev Kal 7) Kap7ro<p6po<^, el fi7] 
Kal irdaa dXXd tol yevo<; ti auT?)?, ov /irjv dXXd 
TrXeov 7) dKap7T0<s, yv Br] Kal dppevd TLve<; KaXou- 
(TLV. aXV 77 irevKt] tov TrpoaTroTTLTTTovTa kvt- 

TlXetaTa Be ttuvtcov rj Bpv<; irapd tov Kapirov, 
olov TrjV T€ KrjKiBa Trjv fJUKpdv Kal Tr}V eTepav 

^ i.e. and so does not, like other trees under like treat- 
ment, put its strength into these, cf. G.P. 5. 17. 4. 

2 kavTODV conj. Sch, from G ; avrhv Aid. 

» The leaf-gall, cf. 2. 8. 3; 3. 14. 1. For toCto cJ. 3. 18. 11 ; 
4. 7. 1. * Lat. qrosfii. cf, G.P. 5. 1. 8. 

' Tiva Kapnhs conj. Sch.; riva &i(apiTos UAld. 



wherij after taking off all the branches, one cuts oH 
the top, it soon dies ; yet, when one takes off the 
lower parts, those about the smooth portion of the 
trunk, what is left survives, and it is on this part 
that the amphaiixis forms. And plainly the reason 
why the tree survives is that it is sappy and green 
because it has no side-growths.^ Now this is peculiar 
to the silver-fir. 

Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves flowers and 

Now, while other trees bear merely their own ^ 
fruit and the obvious parts which form annually, to 
wit, leaf flower and bud, some bear also catkins or 
tendrils, and some produce other things as well, for 
instance the elm its ' cluster ' and the familiar bag- 
like tiling,^ the fig both the immature figs which drop 
off and (in some kinds) the untimely figs * — though 
perhaps in a sense ^ these should be reckoned as 
fruit. Again filbert produces its catkin,^ kermes-oak 
its scarlet ' berry/ "^ and bay its ' cluster.' ^ The 
fruit-bearing sort of bay also produces this, or at all 
events ^ one kind certainly does so ; however the 
sterile kind, which some call the ' male,' produces 
it in greater quantity. The fir again bears its ^tuft,' ^*^ 
which drops off. 

^^The oak however bears more things besides ^^ its 
fruit than any other tree ; as the small gall ^^ and its 

« c/. 3. 3. 8 ; 3. 5. 5. 

' c/. 3. 16. 1. i.e. the kermes gall (whence Eng. 'crimson'). 

» ^orpvov UMVAld., supported by G. and Plin. 16. 120; 
but some editors read ^pvov on the strength of 3. 11. 4. and 
G.P. 2. 11. 4. » aWd Toi conj. W. ; aWa koX Aid. 

^0 cf. 3. 3. 8 n. " Plin. 16. 28. 

12 Traoh conj. W., c/. § 6; (pfpei Aid. ^» cf, 3. 5. 2. 



rrjv TTiTTcoBrj fieXaivav. en Be avKUfiLVwhe^i aXXo 
Tjj /xop(f)rj ttXtjv (TK\iipov Kol BvaKaraKTOv, 
cnrdvLov he toOto* koX erepov alSoicoBt] ayeaiv 
eyov, TeKeiovyuevov B* eri aKXypov Kara t^i^ 
eiravdaTaaLv kol TeTpvir-qfievov irpoaepi^epe'^ 
TpoTTov TLva TOVT ecTTt Kttl Tuvpov Ke(f)a\7], irepL- 
KaTa^vvjievov Be evBoOev ex^i irvpijvo^ e\da^ 
L(ro(f>ve^. (f)v€L Be kol tov l/tt' eviwv KoXovfievov 
ttTKov rovTO S' earl a-^aipiov epicx)Be<^ fiakaKov 
irepl TTvpyjviov aKXriporepov 7r€<pVK6<i, w ^i^^aii^Tat 
TTyoo? Tou? Xv^vov^' KaiSjaL 'yap Ka\co<;, axrwep 
Kol rj /jLeXacva Kr)Ki<;. <f)vei Be kol erepov a(f)aipLov 
KOfirjv e-xpv, TO, fiev aWa dxpelov, Kara Be rrjv 
eapLvrjv oipav eTri^airrov X^XoG fieXLTTjpo) koI Kara 
Ti-jv d<pr)v Kal Kara rr/v yevaiv. 

Ilapa(l)V€i 8' evBorepay t/}? tmv pa^BSiv ybacrycL' 
\iBo<^ erepov acfyaiplov dp.La-)(pv rj Kal KOiXopucryov 
iBlov Kal iroLKiXov rov^ fiev 'yap eTravecrrrjKora^ 
6/jL(f)aXov<; eTTtXevKov^ rj eTreariy/jievov^ e;\^et fieXa- 
va<; ro B^ dva fieaov KOKKo^a<^e<i kuI Xa/jLirpov 
dvoLyofxevov B' earl jxeXav Kal eiricr arr pov . arrdvLov 
Be 7rapa(f)vei Kal Xtddpiov KiacrripoeiBef; eV) 
rrXelov. en 8' aXXo rovrov (Tivaviairepov (^vXXl- 
Kov au/jLTreTnXrjfievov irpofirjKe^; a^aiplov. errl Be 
rod (f)vXXov (pveL Kara rrjv pd^iv G(j)aipiov XevKov 
Biav'ye<; vBara)Be<;, orav diraXov rj' rovro Be Kal 

rvprjyos i\ata (ipou<pvrii' 
UMV ; TTvpr]va f\a(a flpov(pvriu Aid. 

^ irepl TTvp-nviov (TK\r]p6Tfpou I conj. ; irepl wprjyiov ffKX-qpoT-qTa 
U ; irtpX irvprji'iov (TK\r]p6Tipov M ; Trtpn[vpr)viov <TKK-r]p6r(pov 
VAld. W. prints the reading of U. For vlxos see Index. 


other black resinous gall. Again it has another 
growth^ like a mulberry in shape, but hard and 
difficult to break ; this however is not common. It 
has also another growth like the penis in shape, 
which, when it is further developed, makes a hard 
prominence and has a hole through it. This to a 
certain extent resembles also a bull's head, but, when 
split open, it contains inside a thing shaped like the 
stone of an olive. ^ The oak also produces what some 
call the 'ball ' ; this is a soft woolly spherical object 
enclosing a small stone which is harder,^ and men 
use it for their lamps ; for it burns well, as does the 
black gall. The oak also produces another hairy 
ball, which is generally useless, but in the spring 
season it is covered with a juice which is like honey 
both to touch and taste. 

2 Further the oak produces right inside the axil ^ 
of the branches another ball with no stalk or else ^ 
a hollow one ; this is peculiar and of various colours : 
for the knobs which arise on it are whitish or black 
and spotted,^ while the part between these is brilliant 
scarlet ; but, when it is opened, it is black and 
rotten.^ It also occasionally produces a small stone 
which more or less resembles pumice-stone ; also, less 
commonly, there is a leaf-like ball, which is oblong 
and of close texture. Further the oak produces on the 
rib of the leaf a white transparent ball, which is 
watery, when it is young ; and this sometimes con- 

' Plin. 16. 29. 

* ivSoTepw . . . ;ua<rxaAf5os conj. R. Const. ; iuTfpiuvrjs ruv 
powu>y fxaaxa^iSas UAld. Plin., I.e., gignunt et alae ramorum 
eius pilulas. * ^ ins. St. 

® Plin., I.e., nigra varietal e dispersa. 

^ iniaa-irpoy; Plin., I.e., has apertis amara inanitas est 
whence iiriniKpov conj. Sch. 


yu-ua? ivloT€ ivBou X(T-)(eL. reXeiovfievoi' Be (Jk\i] 
pvverai kj]kl8o<; fiiKpa^; Xela'i rpoirov. 
6 'H ^ev ovv Bpv<i Toaavra (pepei Traph rov 
KapTTov. ol yap pbVKrjTe^ diro tmv pi^cop xal 
irapa ra<; pL^a<; ^vop-evoL kolvoI kol erepwv elalv. 
uicravTcof; Se koi ?; l^ia' kol yap avrrj (fyverai 
KOL iv dX\oL<;' aXX,* ovSev r^rrov, oxrirep iXe-^Ot), 
nfkeLaro^opov iariv el Se ye Srj Ka9' 'HaloSop 
<f)epei fieki Kal pLeXirra^, en p^aXXov (^aiveraL 5' 
ovv Kal 6 p.eXLTQ)Sr)^ ovto<^ ')(^vXo<; €K tov aepo<; 
€7rl ravrrj p,dXt.ara irpoai^eLv. (f)aal Se Kal orav 
KaraKavOfi ylveaOai Xirpov e^ avrrj^i. Tavra 

pLev ovv Xhia r?)? Bpv6<;. 

VIII. TIdvTcov Be, Manep iXe^^V' '^^^ BevBpcov 
ct)? KaO^ eKaarov yevo<; Xa^elv Biaipopal 7rX€Lov<; 
eloiv y) p,ev KOLvrj Trciaiv, y BiaLpovai to OPjXv Kal 
TO appev, u)v to fiev Kapiro^opov to Be aKapirov 
iiTL Tivcov. iv oI<; Be dp^cpco Kap7ro<p6pa to OPjXv 
KaXXiKapirorepov Kal iroXvKapiroTepov' irXi-jv 
oaoi ravra KaXovaiv dppeva, KaXovcri yap Tive<i. 
TrapaTrXyjaia 8' 77 roiavrrj Biacpopd Kal &)? to 
rjpepov BtrjpTjrai irpb^; to dypuov. erepa Be Kar 
elBo<s avTwv tmv op^oyevcov virep cov XeKreov dp,a 
avvepi^aivovTa<; Kal Ta? lBia<; p.op(f)d<; rcov [xtj 
(pavepwv Kal yvwpipLWV, 

^ Plin. 16. 31. 2 Hes. Op. 233. 

» Plin. 16. 16. * X(KT(»v add. Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. vii. 5-viii. i 

tains flies : but as it develops, it becomes bard, like a 
small smooth gall. 

Such are the growths which the oak produces as 
well as its fruit. For as for the fungi 1 which grow 
from the roots or beside them, these occur also 
in other trees. So too with the oak-mistletoe ; 
for this grows on other trees also. However, apart 
from that, the oak, as was said, produces more things 
than any other tree ; and all the more so if, as 
Hesiod^ says, it produces honey and even bees; 
however, the truth appears to be that this honey-like 
juice comes from the air and settles on this more 
than on other trees. They say also that, when the 
oak is burnt, nitre is produced from it. Such are 

the things peculiar to the oak. 

OJ * male ' and '■ ftmalt ' in trees : the oak as an example of 
this and other differences. 

VIII. ^Taking, as was said, all trees according to 
their kinds, we find a number of differences. Com- 
mon to them all is that by which men distinguish 
the 'male' and the '^female,' the latter being fruit- 
bearing, the former barren in some kinds. In those 
kinds in which both forms are fruit-bearing the 
' female ' has fairer and more abundant fruit ; how- 
ever some call these the ' male ' trees — for there 
are those who actually thus invert the names. 
This difference is of the same character as that 
which distinguishes the cultivated from the wild tree, 
while other differences distinguish different forms of 
the same kind ; and these we must discuss,* at the 
same time indicating the peculiar forms, where these 
are not ^ obvious and easy to recognise. 
» /iij conj. St.; ni]Tf Ald.H. 



2 A/Juo? Br) yevrj — ravrrjv jap fidXioTa Biaipovai' 
Kal evioi ye ev6v^ ttjv /xev y/xepov koXovctl ttjv 5' 
aypiav ov rfj jXvkvttjtl tov Kap-JTOV hiaLpovvre<i' 
eVel y\vKVTar6<; ye 6 t?}? (fiyyov, ravri^v 5' 
aypiav iroiovcnv' dWa tw fiaWov iv to?? ipya- 
(TlfjLoi<; (pveadai Kal to ^vXov e)(eLv Xeiorepov, 
TTJV Be ^7]yov Tpaxv Kal iv tol<; opeivoU — yevt-j 
fxev ovv ol fxev rerrapa ttolovctiv ol Be irevTe. 
BiaXXuTTOvai 6' evia TOt? ovofxaaLV, olov rrjv Ta? 
yXvKeia^ (pepovaav ol fiev rjfieplBa KaXovvTe<i ol 
8' ervfjLoBpvv. o/zoto)? Be Kal eV aXXcov. o)? B' 
ovv oi irepl ttjv "IB.rjv Biaipovai, rdK earl ra eiBr/' 
Tj/jLepl<; alyiXw\\r 7rXaTv<pvXXo<; (^7770? aXi(f)\oio^- 
ol Be evOv(f)Xoiov KaXovacv. Kapin/ia fiev iravra- 
yXvKvrara Be ra t/}? (pTjyov, KaOdirep elprfrai, 
Kal Bevrepov ra t>)9 yj/jLeplBo^;, eireiTa rri<i irXarv- 
<l)vXXov, Kal rerapTov rj dXic^Xoio^, ea^arov Be 

3 Kal TTiKporarov t) alyiXwy^. ovy^ diraaai Be 
yXvKetai iv T0t9 yeveaiv aXX' ivi'ore Kal iriKpai, 
KaOdirep 77 ^7770?. Bia^epovcri Be Kal Tot? 
fxeyWecn Kal TOt? cr)(^7]fj,aai Kal Tot? 'X^puifiaai 
rcov ^aXavayv. IBiov Be e^ovaiv yj re (/)7;7o? Kal 
Tj dXi^Xoio^' dficporepai yap irapaXiOd^ovaiv iv 
TOt? appeal KaXovfievoi^; i^ aKpcov rwv /SaXdvcov 
eKarepwOev, al fiev tt/jo? tw KeXvcpei al Be 7rp6<; 

» Plin. 16. 16 and 17. 

^ See Index, Spvs and rj/xtpls. vn^pls, lit. 'cultivated oak.' 

» Plin. 16. 20. 



1 Take then the various kinds of oak ; for in this 
tree men recognise more differences than in any 
other. Some simply speak of a cultivated and a wild 
kind, not recognising any distinction made by the 
sweetness of the fruit ; (for sweetest is that of the 
kind called Valonia oak, and this they make the wild 
kind), but distinguishing the cultivated kind by its 
growing more commonly on tilled land and having 
smoother timber, while the Valonia oak has rough 
wood and grows in mountain districts. Thus some 
make four kinds, others five. They also in some 
cases vary as to the names assigned ; thus the kind 
which bears sweet fruit is called by some hemeris, 
by others Hrue oak.' So too with other kinds. 
However, to take the classification given by the 
people of Mount Ida, these ^ are the kinds : hemeris 
(gall-oak), aigilops (Turkey-oak), ' broad-leaved ' oak 
(scrub oak), Valonia oak, sea-bark oak, which some 
call ^straight-barked ' oak. ^^U these bear fruit; 
but the fruits of Valonia oak are the sweetest, as has 
been said ; second to these those of hemeris (gall-oak), 
third those of the ^broad-leaved' oak (scrub oak), 
fourth sea-bark oak, and last aigilops (Turkey- 
oak), whose fruits are very bitter. * However the 
fruit is not always sweet in the kinds specified as 
such ^ ; sometimes it is bitter, that of the Valonia oak 
for instance. There are also differences in the size 
shape and colour of the acorns. Those of Valonia 
oak and sea-bark oak are peculiar ; in both of these 
kinds on what are called the ' male * trees the acorns 
become stony at one end or the other ; in one kind 
this hardening takes place in the end which is 

♦ Plin. 16. 19-21. 

' ovx ' • . ^»'ioTc conj.W.; text defective in Ald.H. 



avTTJ rfj aapKL. Bi o kol u<^aipe6evT(ov oiJLoia 

AiacjiepouaL Be Kal roL<; (f)vX\oL<; koX toI'^ areXe- 
X^cri' fcal Tot? ^vXoL^ kov tj] oXt) /jLop(f>7J. t) pev 
yap r/yLtepi? ovk 6pdo(f)vrj<; ovBe Xeia ovSe puKpd' 
irepiKopo^ yap 7) (pvTela Kal eireaTpappevrj Kal 
'7ro\vp,daxct'Xo<;, ware o^wSr) Kal ISpax^'^CLv yive- 
aOar to Be ^vXov laxypov p,ev daOevea-repov Be 
Trj<; (prjyov' tovto yap layvporaTov Kal aGaire- 
(TTaTOV. OVK 6p6o(f)U7]<; Be ovB' avrrj dX\' rjTTOv 
en T?}9 rjpeplBo^, to Be crreXe;^©? irayyTaTOV, oiaie 
Kal Ti]V oXtjv pop(f)r]V ^pa^^lav eivar Kal yap 
7) (pureLa 7re/3t/co/xo? Kal ravTrj Kal ovk et? opOov. 
T) Be alyiXw^ 6p6o(^veaTaTov Kal vyp-rjXorarov 
Kal Xeiorarov Kal to ^vXov et? pi]KO<; l(7-)(yporaToi>. 
ov (f)V€TaL Be ev Tot? epyacripiOL^ y airaviw^. 
) 'H Be 7rXaTV(f)vXXo'^ Bevrepov opOocfyvia Kal 
pLrjKet,, 7rpo<; Be rijv ^/aetai^ rr-jv otKoBopiKyjv ^^i- 
piarov fiera rtjv dXi(f>XoLov, (pavXov Be Kal et? to 
KaUiv Kal dvOpuKevetv, wairep Kal to tt}? oXl- 
(fiXoiov, Kal OpLTTrjBeaTaTOv per eKeivrjv 7) yap 
dXlcpXoLO^ Tra^v p^€i> e^^ei to aTeXe^o'i xP'Vvov Be 
Kal KoTXov edv e^J] irdxp'^ &)? eirl to ttoXv, Bl 
Kal dxpetop €69 Ta9 OLKoBop^d^;' eVt Be (T7]7reTai 
TaxtcTTa' Kal yap evvypov eaTU to BevBpov Bt 
Kal KOuXr] yiveTai. (jyaal Be Tive<; ovB^ eyKapBtov 
elvai /lovTj. Xeyovaiv <W9 Kal Kepavvo^XrjTe<i 
avTau fjiovai ylvovTau KaCirep i;-v^09 ovk e^ovaai 

^ i.e. at the ' top' end ; irphs : ? it', trphs being repeated by 

2 C^wl MSS.; wuy conj. Palm. » Plin. 16. 22. 



attached to the cup, in the otlier in the flesh itself.^ 
Wherefore, when the cups are taken off, we find a 
cavity like the visceral cavities in animals.^ 

3 There are also differences in leaves trunk timber 
and general appearance. Hemeris (gall-oak) is not 
straight-growing nor smooth nor tall, for its growth 
is very leafy * and twisted, with many side-branches, 
so that it makes a low much-branched tree : its timber 
is strong, but not so strong as that of the Valonia 
oak, for that is the strongest and tlie least liable to 
rot. This ^ kind too is not straight-growing, even less 
so than the lieiyieris (gall-oak), but the trunk is very 
thick, so that the whole appearance is stunted ; for 
in growth this kind too is very leafy * and not erect. 
The aigilops (Turkey oak) is the straightest growing 
and also the tallest and smoothest, and its wood, cut 
lengthways, is the strongest. It does not grow on 
tilled land, or very rarely. 

The ^ broad-leaved ' oak (scrub oak) ^ comes second 
as to straightness of growth and length of timber to 
be got from it, but for use in building it is the worst 
next after the sea-bark oak, and it is even poor wood 
for burning and making charcoal, as is also that of 
the sea-bark oak, and next after this kind it is the 
most worm-eaten. For the sea-bark oak has a thick 
trunk, but it is generally spongy and hollow when 
it is thick ; wherefore it is useless for building. 
Moreover it rots very quickly, for the tree contains 
much moisture ; and that is why it also becomes 
hollow ; and some say that it is the only ^ oak which 
has no heart. And some of the Aeolians say that 
these are the only oaks which are struck by light- 

i.e. of bushy habit. ^ oyrrj conj. Sch.; air)) UAld. 

Plin. Ifi. 23 and 24. ' pi6vri conj. St.; (Ji6v,)v Ald.H. 



T(t)v AloXecov TLve<;, ovSe tt/oo? to, lepa ')(p(ovTai 
Tot? ^v\oL^. Kara /xev ovv ra ^vXa kol ra<; 

6Xa<; /xop(fia<; iv tovtol^ al 8ia(f)opai. 

Kry/ctSa? Be nrdvra (pepet ra yevt], /xovrj Be eh 
TO, Bep/iara XPV^^^/^I^ V V^'CpL^;. 7) Be rr]<i alyi- 
XwTTO? KOL Tr}? 7r\aTV(f)vWov rfj /xeu 6y\reL irapo- 
fjLoia TTj T?)? r}fjL6pLBo<;, TrX-qv Xeiorepa, a^peLO<; Be. 
<f)€p€i KaX rrjv krepav ttjv /jbiXaivav rj ra epia 
^diTTOVcnv. o Be KaXovcri TLve<; (pdcTKov 6/iolov 
T0t9 paKLOL<; 7) al<yLX(oy\r jjlovt] (j)ep€L ttoXlov kol 
Tpa'Xy' KOL yap TTrj^^alov KaTaKpe/nuvvvraL, 
KaOaTrep Tpv)(o<; oOoviov fiaKpov. (^verai Be 

TOVTO CK TOV (j)XotOV Kol OVK €K Ti)? K0pVV7]<i 

o6ev 7) ^dXavo<;, ovB^ e^ 6(})0aXjjLOv aXX' eV rod 
irXayLOV twv dvcoOev o^cdv. tj 8' dXL(l)Xoi.o<i eVt- 
fjLeXav TOVTO (pvec real ^paxv. 

01 fiev ovv €K rr)? "1 87;? ovTco<i BLaipov(TLP. 01 
Be irepX MaKeBoviap TCTTupa yepij Troiovaiv, 
eTVfioBpvv rj ra? yXvKeia^;, jrXuTixpvXXov rj ra? 
iTLKpd^, (pijyov rj ra? (TTpoyyvXa<;, dairpLV TavTrjv 
Be 01 jxev uKapirov oXw? oi Be <^avXov tov Kapirov, 
(oaTe iJi7)Bev eaOieiv ^wov ttXtjv v6<;, kol tuvttjv 
orav eTepav /jur) exj}' ^aX to, noXXd Xafi^dveaOai 
TrepiKe^aXaia. fjLox^VP^ ^^ ^^* t^ (vXa' ireXe- 

» Plin. 16. 26. 

' <pdffKOv . . . paKiois conj. Sch. {paidois Salm. ) : (fxia-Kos (i/j-oios 
rots $pax(iois UP2 ; <paaKov Sfiolws toIs ^payxiois Ald.H. Plin 
16. 33, cf. 12. 108; Diosc. 1. 20; Hesych. -s.v. cpdaicos. 

' T 


ning, although they are not lofty ; nor do they use 
the wood for their sacrifices. Such then are the 

differences as to timber and general appearance. 

1 All the kinds produce galls, but only kemeri.s 
(gall-oak) produces one which is of use for tanning 
hides. That of aigilops (Turkey-oak) and that of the 
^broad-leaved' oak (scrub oak) are in appearance 
like that of hemeris (gall-oak), but smoother and use- 
less. This also produces the other gall, the black 
kind, with which they dye wool. The substance 
which some call tree-moss and which resembles rags^ 
is borne only by the aigilops (Turkey-oak) ; it is grey 
and rough ^ and hangs down for a cubit's length, like 
a long shred of linen. This grows from the bark and 
not from the knob ^ whence the acorn starts ; nor 
does it grow from an eye, but from the side of the 
upper boughs. The sea-bark oak also produces this, 
bat it is blackish ^ and short. 

Thus the people of Mount Ida distinguish. But 
the people of Macedonia make four kinds, ' true-oak,' 
or the oak which bears the sweet acorns, ^broad- 
leaved' oak (scrub oak), or that which bears the 
bitter ones, Valonia oak, or that which bears the 
round ones, and aspris^ (Turkey-oak); '^ the last- 
named some say is altogether without fruit, some 
say it bears poor fruit, so that no animal eats it 
except the pig, and only he when he can get no 
others, and that after eating it the pig mostly 
gets an affection of the head.^ The wood is also 
wretched ; when hewn with the axe it is altogether 

^ eri/xeXav tovto <pv€i conj. Seal.; iirt/x. tovto <pv<T(i U; inl 
/j.e\iav -TOVTO (pvei MVAld. 

6 See Index. ' Plin. 16. 24. 

8 TrepiKc<pa\aia '. apparently the name of a disease. 



KrjOevTa fiev o/Vo)? a^pela' KajaptjyvvraL yap kol 
BiaTrLTTTer aTreXe/criTa Be (SeXrio), hi o koI ovto) 
XpMi'Tai. fJLo^O^ipa he kol eZ? Kavaiv kol et? 
avOpaKelav a')(^pelo^ yap 6Xci)<; 6 avdpa^ hia ro 
7r7]hdv Koi cirLvOt-jpi^eiv ttXtjp roh xdXKevcn. 
TovTOL^ he ')(py]aificoT€po<^ tmv aXXcov Bia yap to 
aiToa^evvvadaLy orav Travayrai </)L'cra)yaeyo?, 6XLyo<: 
avaXiaKerai. [to Be tt)? dXL(f)Xoiov ')(p/]aL/jiov €t? 
Tov<; a^ova^ fiovov kuI to, rotavTa.] Bpvb<; fxev 

ovv ravTa<; TToiovai Ta? lBea<i. 

IX. Tmv Be aXXo)v eXaTTOU?* Kal <T')(eBov to, 
ye irXelara Biacpovcn dppevc Kal OrjXei, KaOdirep 
eiprjraL, irXyjv oXiywv oiv iart Kal 77 ttcvkt]- 
irevKrjf; yap to fiev rj/xepov Troiovat ro 8' dypiov, 
tt)? 8' dypia<i Bvo yeviy koXovgi Be rrjv jiev ^IBaiav 
Ttjv Be irapaXiav' rovrcov Be opdorepa Kal /xaKpo- 
repa Kal to <^vXXov e^ovaa ira'^vTepov ?; 'iSata, 
to Be (pvXXou Xeirrorepov Kal dpLevrjvoTepov 7; 
TTapaXla Kal Xeiorepop top ^Xolov Kal el<; rd 
Bepfiara 'X^pi^cnpLov' r] Be erepa ov. Kal tmv 
a-TpojBlXwv 6 jJiev tt}? irapaXia^ ajpoyyvXo<; re 
Kal BLa^cLd KOiv rax€(o<;, 6 Be rrj<; 'JSata? fiaKpo- 
repo'i Kal ')(Xa)po<; Kal rjrrov y^dcTKWV co? dv 
dypi(orepo<;' ro Be ^vXov laxvporepov ro tt}? 
irapaXia^;- Bel yap Kal rd<; roiavra<i Bcacpopd'^ 

1 Plin. 16. 23. 

' rb 56 , . . ToiavTa : this sentence seems out of place, as 
a\((p\oios was not one of the 'Macedonian' oaks mentioned 
above (Sch.). 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. viii. 7-ix. i 

useless, for it breaks in pieces and falls asunder ; 
if it is not hewn with the axe it is better, where- 
fore they so use it. ^ It is even wretched for 
burning and for making charcoal ; for the charcoal 
is entirely useless excej^t to the smith, because it 
springs about and emits sparks. But for use in the 
smithy it is more serviceable than the other kinds, 
since, as it goes out when it ceases to be blown, little 
of it is consumed. 2 Xhe wood of the sea-bark oak 
is only useful for wheel-axles and the like purposes. 
Such are the varieties of the oak ^ which men 
make out. 

OJ the differences injirs. 

IX. *The differences between other trees are fewer; 
for the most part men distinguish them merely 
according as they are *^male ' or ' female,' as has been 
said, except in a few cases including the fir ; for in this 
tree they distinguish the wild and the cultivated ^ 
kinds, and make two wild kinds, calling one the ^fir 
of Ida' (Corsican pine^) the other the 'fir of the 
sea-shore ' (Aleppo pine) ; of these the former is 
straighter and taller and has thicker leaves,'^ while 
in the latter the leaves are slenderer and weaker, 
and the bark is smoother and useful for tanning 
hides, which the other is not. Moreover the cone of 
the seaside kind is round and soon splits open, while 
that of the Idaean kind is longer and green and 
does not open so much, as being of wilder character. 
The timber of the seaside kind is stronger, — for one 
must note such differences also betAveen trees of the 

^ T. describes irplvos a-fuXa^, and <pf\\6Spvs in 3. 16, 
<p€\\6s in 3. 17. 1. 
* Plin. 16. 43. ^ Stone pine. See Index. 

» Plin. 16. 48. ' <pv\\ov W. conj.; ^6\oy UxVIVP. 


Xa/ji^dveLv tmv avyyevoiV 'yvcopi/.WL yap Sia rrjv 

2 ^OpOorepop Be koX irax^repov, uxTTrep etTTOfiev, 
rj 'ISaua, Kol TTyOo? rovroL<; TriTTcohecrTepop 6\a)<; to 
SeuSpop, peXaPTepa he Trlrrrj Kal yXvKVTepa kol 
XeiTTorepa Kal evwhearepa, orap rj oip^iy eyjrT]- 
Oelaa Be x^Lpop eK^aipei Bta to ttoXvp ex^i^v top 
oppop. ioi/caai 5' aTvep ovtol Btaipovaip opofiaaip 
IBlol<; 01 aWoL Bcaipelp tw appepi Kal drjXei. 
(paal 5' ol irepl MaKcBopcap Kal aKapirop tl y€P0<^ 
oX-o)? elpai 7TevK7]<i, Kal to p,€P dppep ^pa^vTepop 
T€ Kal aKXrjpocpvWoTepop, to Be OrjXv eufMrjKe- 
<TT€pop, Kol TO, (jivXXa XiTTapa Kal airaXa Kal 
KeKXifiepa /jloXXop e^ciP' €ti Be to, ^vXa rr}? /lep 
appePo<^ Trepl/jLTiTpa Kal aKXyjpa Kal ip rat? 
epyaaiai^ (tt pec^o piepa , t?}? Be ^r^Xeta? euepya Kal 
daTpa^T) Kal fiaXaK cot e pa. 

3 ^x^^^^ ^^ KOLPri TL<i Tj Bia<j)opa ttuptcop tmp 
dppepcop Kal OtjXclmp, w? ol vXoTOfioi cfyaaip. dirap 
yap TO dppep ttj jreXeKrjaei Kal jSpaxvTepop Kal 
iTreaTpa/i/jiepop /laXXop Kal BvaepyoTepop Kal tw 
Xpf^P'CiTL jxeXaPTepop, to Be OrjXv ev/jLrjKeaTepop' 
eirel Kal ttjp alyiBa ttjv KaXovp,ep'>]P r) OijXeia t?}? 
irevKTj^; ex^L' tovto B icrTl to eyKapBiop avTij<;' 

^ ffuyyfvwv conj. R. Const. ; ayydojv UAld. ; ^77€ra)»' MV 

2 yvtipifioi conj. R. Const.; yvwpifios UAld.H. ; yvupi^a 
conj. W. 

^ op06repov con]. R. Const.; o^vrtpov UMVAld. 

■* fieKafTtpa . . . fvwSeaTfpa conj. W.; fiekdvTfpai St it/ttij 
Kol y\vKVTfpai Koi XtirT<^T€/?oj Kol fvu>S((TTfpai UMV; ntXavripa 


same kind,^ since it is by their use that the different 
characters are recognised, ^ 

The Idaean kind is, as we have said, of straighter ^ 
and stouter growth, and moreover the tree is 
altogether more full of pitch, and its pitch is blacker 
sweeter thinner and more fragrant * when it is 
fresh ; though, when it is boiled, it turns out 
inferior,^ because it contains so much watery matter. 
However it appears that the kinds which these 
people distinguish by special names are distinguished 
by others merely as ^male' and ^female.' The 
people of Macedonia say that there is also a kind of 
fir which bears no fruit whatever, in which the 
^male'^ (Aleppo pine) is shorter and has harder 
leaves, while the 'female' (Corsican pine) is taller 
and has glistening delicate leaves which are more 
pendent. Moreover the timber of the ' male ' kind 
has much heart- wood,''^ is tough, and warps in joinery 
work, while that of the ' female ' is easy to work, 
does not warp,^ and is softer. 

This distinction between ' male ' and ' female ' 
may, according to the woodmen, be said to be common 
to all trees. Any wood of a ' male ' tree, when one 
comes to cut it with the axe, gives shorter lengths, 
is more twisted, harder to work, and darker in 
colour ; while the ' female ' gives better lengths. 
For it is the ' female ' fir which contains what is 
called the aigis ^ ; this is the heart of the tree ; the 

hh KoX yXvKvrepa Ka\ KeirroTepa koI evooSeffTtpa Aid. \eirTOT€pa, 
? less viscous. 

6 cf. 9. 2. 5 ; Plin. 16. 60. « Plin. 16. 47. 

' neplfiriTpa con]. R. Const.: so Mold, explains; nepifXTfTpia 
UMV. cf. 3. 9. 6. 

* aaTpa^rj conj. R. Const.; ev<TTpa$ri Aid. 

» aiylSa : cf. 5. 1. 9 ; Plin. 16. 187. 



aiTLOv he otl airevKOTepa fcal yrrov €vSa.Bo<; Kal 
Xeiorepa Kal evKreavcorepa. yiverai Be ev toI^ 
fi€yeOo<; exovat rwv hevhpwv, orav ifCTreaovra irepL- 
aairfj ra XevKa ra kv/c\m. tovtcov yap irepi- 
aipeOevTwv Kal KaTa\€i<j)0€L(TT]<; rrjf; fJiijTpa'; €k 
rauTTj'^ TreXeKarar eaTL Be ev^povv crcpoBpa Kal 
XeTTToivov. o Be ol irepl rrjv "lBy]v BaBovpyol 
KaXovcTL (jvK?]Vy ro eiTLyiyvojievov ev rai^i irevKai^, 
ipvdporepov ttjv xpoi^av t/}? BaBo*;, ev rol^ appeaiv 
icTTL fiaXXov SucrcoSe? Be tovto Kal ovk o^ei, BaBo^ 
ovBe Kaierai (iX\! aTTOTryBa cltto rov ttu/oo?. 

Y[evKi}<i fiev ovv raura yevT] TTOLovauv, ij/iepov 
re Kal aypiov, Kal rrj^; ay plw; appevd re Kal 
O/jXeiav Kal rpirrjv ry-jv aKaprrov. ol Be irepl rrjv 
'ApKaBlav ovre rr)V aKapnov Xeyovaiv ovre rrjv 
rjiiepov irevK-qv, aXXa irirvv elvai (f)a(7r Kal yap to 
areXexo^ i/KJ^epeararov elvai rfj Trurvi Kal e^^Lv 
rrjv re XeTrrorrjra Kal rb peye9o<^ Kal ev roL<i 
epyaaiai^ ravro ro ^vXov ro yap t/}9 Treu/cr;? Kal 
rraxyTepov Kal Xeiorepov Kal vyjnjXorepov elvai- 
Kal ra (pvXXa rrjv /.lev irevKijv e^eiv TroXXa Kal 
Xiirapa Kal ^aOea Kal K€KXip,eva, rr]v Be rrirvv 
Kal rrjv Kfj)VO(j)6pov ravrrjv oXiya re Kal av)(fi(oBe- 
crrepa Kal irecppLKora ficiXXov <aii<^w Be rpiyo- 
<f)vXXa.> en Be rrjv rrirrav epi(^epearepav rP]^ 

^ fvKTfavwTtpa : tvKT-qhovwripa conj. R. Const, cj. 5. 1. 9 ; 
but text is supported by Hesj-ch. s.v. IdvKTfavov. 

2 I omit Koi before ra KVK\cp. 

3 Plin. 16. 44. 


P:NQU1RY into plants, hi. ix. 3-4 

reason being that it is less resinous_, less soaked with 
pitch, smoother, and of straighter grain,^ This aigis 
is found in the larger trees, when, as they have fallen 
down, the white outside part ^ has decayed ; when 
this has been stripped off and the core left, it is 
cut out of this with the axe ; and it is of a good 
colour with fine fibre. However the substance 
which the torch-cutters of Mount Ida call the ' fig,' ^ 
which forms in the fir and is redder in colour than 
the resin, is found more in the ' male ' trees ; it has 
an evil smell, not like the smell of resin, nor will it 
burn, but it leaps away from the fire. 

^Such are the kinds of fir which they make out, 
the cultivated and the wild, the latter including the 
' male ' and the ' female ' and also the kind which 
bears no fruit. However the Arcadians say that 
neither the sterile kind nor the cultivated is a fir, 
but a pine ; for, they say, the trunk closely resembles 
the pine and has its slenderness, its stature, and the 
same kind^ of wood for purposes of joinery, the 
trunk of the fir being thicker smoother and taller ; 
moreover that the fir has many leaves, which are 
glossy massed together ^ and pendent, while in the 
pine and in the above-mentioned cone-bearing tree " 
the leaves are few and drier and stiffer ; though in 
both the leaves are hair-like.^ Also, they say, the 
pitch of this tree is more like that of the pine ; for 

* Tuvra yhf] conj. R. Const, from G ; ravra yt UM VAld. ; 
Plin. 16. 45-49. 

^ Tavrh conj. W.; ahrh Aid. 

" iSaflea : Sacre'o conj. R. Const, cj. 3. 16. 2. 

' i.e. the cultivated -rnvKT) (so called). T. uses this peri- 
phrasis to avoid begging the question of the name. 

^ 6.yi^(a Se Tfjjx- ins. here by Sch.; in MSS. and Aid. the 
words occur in § 5 after inrTw^effrtpov. 



7rtTU09* Kal yap ttjv ttltw 6')(eLV oXijyjv re koi 
TTL/cpdv, wairep /cat TrjV KCOvocf)6pov, Trjv he TrevKtjv 
evcoSr] Kal TroWrjV. <f)verai 8' iv fiev rij ^ApKaSua 
r) TTtTf? oXlyr) irepl 3e rrjv ^HXeiav TroWyj. ovroi 
fiev ovv 6\(p Tw yevei SLa/jL(pLa^7]rov(riv. 

'H 8e TTLTVf; BoK€i tt}? 7revK7]i; kol oia^epeiv tw 
Xiirapwrepa re elvai Kal XeirrocfivXkoTepa Kal to 
fxeyeOo^; iXdrrcov Kal r)TTOV opOo^vi]^' en he rov 
KMVov iXdrro) ^epeLv Kal TrecfypLKora /laXXop Kal 
TO Kcipvov iTLTTCdhecrrepov' Kal ra ^vXa XevKorepa 
Kal ofiOLorepa Ttj eXdrj) Kal to 6\ov direvKa. 
Sia<f)opdv B' eyei Kal ravrrjv fieydXrjv tt/oo? rrjv 
7revKy]v' irevKyjv fxev yap eiTLKavOeiawv rcov pt^cdv 
ovK dva^Xaardveiv, rrjv irirvv Be (fyaaL Tive<; dva- 
^XaardveLv, Mairep Kal ev Aea/3a) i/jLTrprjaOevro'^ 
Tou Uvppalwv 6pov<; rov irirvdihov^. voai^fia he 
ral^ 7revKai<; roiovrov rv Xeyovac av/n^aiveiv ol 
irepl rrji' "IBrfv Mar , orav /jlt] jiovov ro eyKdpBiov 
dXXa Kal ro e^oi rov areXexovi evhahov yevrjrai, 
rrjVLKavra wairep diroirviyeaOai. rovro Be avro- 
(larov avfi^aiveL BC evrpocpCav rov BevBpov, &>? dv 
Ti? elKuaeiev oXov yap yiverai Ba<;- Trepl fxev ovv 
rrjV irevKrjV iBwv rovro 7rd6o<;. 

^EXdrrj 8' earlu rj fiev dppyjv rj Be drjXeia, Bia- 
<f)Opd<; 5* e^ovaa roU (I)vXXol<;' o^vrepa yap Kai 
K€Pry]TiKcorepa rd rod dppevo<; Kal eTrearpajifieva 
fidXXov, Bi o Kal ovXorepov rrj o-yjrei (fyaLverai ro 
BevBpov oXov. Kal rw ^vXw' XevKorepov yap Kal 
fiaXaKoyrepov Kal evepyearepov ro rr}<^ 6ifXeia<; Kal 

^ -KiKpav conj. R. Const, from G ; /xiKpav VAld. 
' KoL Tavrr]v /jnydXTju irphs conj. Sch.; koI rrjv fity. irphs 
UMV; /niyiXriv irphs Aid. 




in the pine too it is scanty and bitter/ as in this 
other cone-bearing tree, but in the fir it is fragrant 
and abundant. Now the pine is rare in Arcadia, 
but common in EUs. The Arcadians then dispute 
altogether the nomenclature. 

The pine appears to differ also from the fir in 
being glossier and having finer leaves, while it is 
smaller in stature and does not grow so straight ; 
also in bearing a smaller cone, which is stiffer and 
has a more pitchy kernel, while its wood is whiter, 
more like that of the silver-fir, and wholly free from 
pitch. And there is another great difference ^ 
between it and the fir ; the fir, if it is burnt down 
to the roots, does not shoot up again, while the 
pine, according to some, will do so ; for instance 
this happened in Lesbos,^ when the pine-forest of 
Pyrrha* was burnt. The people of Ida say that the 
fir is liable to a kind of disease ; — when not only the 
heart but the outer part of the trunk becomes glutted ^ 
with pitch, the tree then is as it were choked. This 
happens of its own accord through the excessive 
luxuriance of the tree, as one may conjecture ; for 
it all turns into pitch-glutted wood. This then is an 
affection peculiar to the fir. 

•^ The silver-fir is either ' male ' or ' female,' and 
has differences in its leaves^; those of the 'male' 
are sharper more needle-like and more bent ; where- 
fore the whole tree has a more compact appearance. 
There are also differences in the wood, that of the 
' female ' being whiter softer and easier to work, 

^ eV A(a$ci) conj. W. from G, and Plin. 16. 46 ; els Af<T0ov 
* On the W. of Lesbos, modern Caloni. c/. 2. 2. 6 ; Plin. Ic. 
^ cf. 1. 6. 1 ; Plin. 16. 44. 
« Plin. 16. 48. 7 cf. 1. 8. 2. 



TO oXov crreXexo^ evfirjKearepov to Be rod appe- 
j/o? TTOLKiXoyrepov koI ira'^vrepov kol aKXrjporepoi' 
Koi '7r€pifit]Tpov /jluWov 6\o3<; Se ^avXoTepov Tr)v 
oyjriv. iv Be rw kwvw tw fiev rov cippevo^; iart 
Kupva oXiya eVl rov a/cpov, tw Be rf]<; 6rfK.eia<; 
oA-w? ovBev, ft)? ol eic MaK6BovLa<^ eXeyov. e^ei Be 
7rT€pvya<; to (pvWov koi iir* eXarrov, wdTe tyjv 
6\r]v fiop(f)y]v elvat OoXoeiBi) koI irapopiOLou /xd- 
Xtara Tat9 BofcoTtctf? Kvveai^;' itvkvov Be ovtw^ 
ware fx-qre yjLova Bilevai pn'jd^ verov. 6X(o^ Be kol 
rfi oyjrei to BevBpov KaXov /cat yap r) ^XdaTTjai^; 
IBia Tf?, oidirep 6Lpy]Tai, irapa Ta? ciXXaf; kol fioprj 
rd^LV exovaa' tc5 Be fieyeOei /leya koI ttoXv t/}? 
TTevKr}<^ evfzrjKecTTepov. 

^lacpepet Be /cal Kara to ^vXov ov piLKpov to 
p.ev yap t/)? eXdTT]^ lvMBe<; Kal fiaXaKov /cat kov- 
(pov, TO Be T>}? 7revK7]<i BaBcoBef; Kal /Sapv Kal 
aapKCdBecTTepov. 6^ov<i Be e^^c TrXeiov^ pev ?} 
TrevKTj (TKXr)poT€pov<; S' r) eXdT^-j, (T-)^eBov Be irdv- 
T(tiV &)? elrrelv aKXypoTepovf;, to Be ^vXov p.aXa- 
KOiTepov. 6Xco<^ Be ol o^oc irvKvoTaTot Kal aTepeco- 
TaTOL piovov ov BLa(f)avel<; eXdT')]<; Kal 7revK)]<i Kal 
T(p ^/ocoyuaTi BaBcoBei^; Kal p^dXiaTa Bid^opot tov 
^vXou, pLaXXov Be t?}? eA,aT7??. ex^i Be, coanep i) 
7revK7] Tyv alyiBa, Kal i) iXuTi] to XevKOV Xovaaov 

* vaxvTepou conj. W. ; iT\aTVT€pov Aid. 

2 Plin. 16. 48 and 49. 3 For the tense see Intr. p. xx. 

* (pvWou, i.e. the leafy shoot. Sch. considers tpvWov to 
be corrupt, and refers the following description to the cone ; 
\V. marks a lacuna after <pv\\ov. riiny, I.e., seems to have 
read <pv\\ov, but does not render Ka\ in' txarTov . . . KWian. 
The words koL eV iXarrov can hardly be sound as they stand. 
For the doseiiption of the foliage c/. 1, 10. 5. 



while the whole trunk is longer ; that of the ' male ' 
is less of a uniform colour thicker ^ and harder, has 
more heart-wood, and is altogether inferior in appear- 
ance. In the cone ^ of the ' male ' are a few seeds at 
the apex, while that of the 'female,' according to 
what the Macedonians said,^ contains none at all. 
The foliage* is feathered and the height dispropor- 
tionate so that the general appearance of the tree 
is dome-like,^ and closely resembles the Boeotian 
peasant's hat*" ; and it is so dense that neither snow 
nor rain penetrates it. And in general the tree has 
a handsome appearance ; for its growth is somewhat 
peculiar, as has been said, compared with the others, 
it being the only one which is regular, and in stature 
it is large, much taller than the fir. 

■^ There is also not a little difference in the wood : 
that of the silver-fir is fibrous^ soft and light, that of 
the fir is resinous heavy and more fleshy. The fir 
has more knots,*^ but the silver-fir harder ones; 
indeed they may be said to be harder than those of 
any tree, though the wood otherwise is softer. And 
in general the knots of silver-fir and fir are of the 
closest and most solid ^^ texture and almost ^^ trans- 
parent : in colour they are like resin-glutted wood, 
and quite different from the rest of the wood ; and 
this is especially so ^^ in the silver-fir. And just as 
the fir has its aigis,^^ so the silver-fir has what is 

' 0o\oet5ri conj. Seal.; eri\o€iSrj U (erased) ; flrjAoeiSeJ MV; 
ut concamtratnm imitetur G ; ? doXioeiSr} ; in Theocr. 15. 39. 
doXia seems to be a sun-hat. 

*" Kvveais : cf. Hesych. s.v. Kwri Boiwrta, apparently a hat 
worn in the fields. 
7 cf. 5. 1. 7. » cf. 5. 1. 5. 9 cf 5. 1. 6. 

^^ cf. 5. 1. 6, KipaTuSets. ^^ ov ins. Sch. 

12 fxaWov Se conj. W. ; iJ.a\\ov ^ Aid. ^'^ cf. 3. 9. 3. 



Ka\ovfi€VOV, olov avTiaTpo(f}Ov rfj alyiSt,, irXrjp ro 
fiev XevKov i) S' atyi? evxpoy'i Blcl to evhahov. 
TTVKVov Be fcal \evKov ylverai kol koXov €k tcov 
irpecy^vTepwv ■ijSr) SevSpwv aWa airdiaov to 
')(pr)aT6v, TO Be tv^ov Sai/^tXe?, €^ ov rd re rcov 
^o)'ypdcf)CDP mvdKia iroiovaL kol to, ypa/n/iareia rd 
TToWd' rd 5' eaTTOvBacr/jLeva ck tov ^eXriovo^. 

Oi Be irepX ^ KpKaBiav dfifporepa KoKovaiv 
alyiBa koI ttjv Tr}? 7revKrj<; koI rrjv Tr}? €XdTT]<;, 
Koi elvai likelo) rrjv tt)? iXdrrjf; dWd KaWio) ttjv 
T/)? 7r€VK7]<;' elvai yap Tr}? fiev eXaT?;? ttoWjjv re 
Kal Xelav kol TTVKvrjv, rrj<i Be 7rev/cr]<; oXiyrjv, rrjv 
fjuevTOL ovaav ovXorepav Kal laxvporepav Kal ro 
oXov KaXXio). ovroi fiev ovv eoiKaai Tot9 ovofiaai 
BLac^ojvelv. r] Be iXdrrj ravra^ e^GL rd<i Biacfio- 

pd<; 7rpo9 rrjv irevKTjv Kal en rrjv irepl rrjv dji- 
<^av^iv, rjv Tvporepov etiroiiev. 

X. '0^u>7 8' ovK e%e£ Biacf)opd<; dXX^ earl /lovo- 
y€ve<;' 6pOo(f>ve<; Be Kal Xelov Kal dvo^ov Kal 7ra;^o? 
Kal u-v/^o? e%oy a')(^eBov I'aov rfj eXdry Kal rdXXa 
Be TrapofxoLOv [te] to BevBpov ^vXov Be ev-)(povv 
l(T-)(ypov evLVOv Kal ^Xoiov Xelov Kal irayyv, <pvX- 
Xov 3' da')(i.B€<; rrpo/xrjKearepov dnLov Kal irra- 
KdvOi^ov e^ aKpov, pL^a<; ovre 7roXXd<; ovre Kard 
^d6ov<;' 6 Be KapiTO<i Xelo<; ^aXavd)Br](; ev e^iv(£) 

1 c/. Eur. /.^. 99 ; Hipp. 1254. 

2 TO 5' conj. 8cal. ; koX Aid. 

' 7r6u«7?s conj. Seal, from G ; ^Acittji Aid. 
■• (Xdrris conj. Seal, from G ; irtvKrjs Aid. 



called its white ' centre/ which answers, as it were, to 
the aigis of the fir, except that it is white, while 
the other is bright-coloured because it is glutted with 
pitch. It becomes close white and good in trees 
which are of some age, but it is seldom found in good 
condition, while the ordinary form of it is abundant 
and is used to make painters' boards and ordinary 
writing tablets,^ superior ones being 2 made of the 
better form. 

However the Arcadians call both substances aigis, 
alike that of the fir ^ and the corresponding part of 
the silver-fir,* and say that, though the silver-fir 
produces more, that of the fir is better; for that, 
though that of the silver-fir is abundant ^ smooth and 
close, that of the fir, though scanty, is compacter 
stronger and fairer in general. The Arcadians then 
appear to differ as to the names which they give. 
Such are the differences in the silver-fir as com- 
pared with the fir, and there is also that of having 
the amphaiixis,^ which we mentioned before. 

J beech, yew, hop-hornbeam, lime. 

X. The beech presents no differences, there being 
but one kind. It is a straight-growing smooth and 
unbranched tree, and in thickness and height is 
about equal to the silver-fir, which it also resembles 
in other respects ; the wood is of a fair colour strong 
and of good grain, the bark smooth and thick, the 
leaf undivided, longer than a pear-leaf, spinous at the 
tip,*^ the roots neither numerous nor running deep ; 
the fruit is smooth like an acorn, enclosed in a shell, 

" toAAV conj, Gesner ; o^X-nv UmBas.; SAtjv MVAId. 

« c/. 3. 7. 1. 

' i.e. mucroriate. cj. 3. 11. 3. 


ttXtjv [ovk] dvaKuvOfp koX Xeirp, kol oify^ co? rj 
SLoa/3d\avo<; uKavOcoSei, 7rpoa€fi(f)€p7]<i Se Koi 
Kara <y\vKVTr]ra koI Kara tov 'yyXov eKeivw. 
jLveraL Be Kal ev tw opei XevKij, f; Kal XprjcnpLOV 
€^(^€1 TO ^v\ov 7Tpo<; TToWd' KOL yap 7r/309 djxa^- 
ovpyiav Kal tt/jo? KXivoTryylap kol et? Sicfipovp- 
y'lav Kol et? rpairel^iav Kal 6t9 vavTrr^yiav' r) 8' iv 
Tot? TTtStoi? {Jbekaiva Kal cixp7](7T0<; Trpo? Tavra' 
TOV he Kapirov e^ovai irapaifKriaiov. 

M.ovoy€vr]<^ Se Kal rj /xlXo^, opOocfivi]'^ Be Kal 
€vav^r)<i Kal op^ola rfj eXdrrj, TrXrjv ou^ v'^yjXov 
ovTco, 7ro\vp,dax(iXov Be fidWov. 6/xolov Be Kal 
TO ^vWov €)(€L rfi eXdrrj, XiTrapciTepov Be Kal 
p,a\aKct)Tepov. to Be ^vXov 7] fiev ef ^ApKaBla^i 
p,e\av Kal ^olvlkovv, i) B' eK tt}? "J St;? ^avdov 
cr(f)6Bpa Kal ofioiop Trj KeBprp, Bi o Kal tov<; ttco- 
kovvTdf; ^aaiv e^airaTav o)? KeBpov ircoXovPTa^' 
irdv yap elvat KapBiav, OTav 6 (f)XoLO<^ TrepiaipeOfj' 
op^OLOv Be Kal tov (pXoiov e)(ei.v Kal Trj TpaxuTrjTL 
Kal T(p ■)(^pd)p,aTL TTj KeBpu), pl^a^ Be p^iKpa^ Kal 
XevTTa? Kal eTniroXaiov^. airdvLov Be to BevBpov 
irepl Trjv "IBtjv, Trepl Be MaKeBovlav Kal ^ KpKaBiav 
TToXv- Kal Kapirov (pepcL aTpoyyvXov puKpCo /jLel^o) 
Kvdfiov, Tft) ')(pcop,aTL B' epvOpov Kal ptaXaKov 
(paal Be tcl pcev Xo^ovpa edv <f)dyr] tmv (pvXXcoi' 
diroOvrjaKeLV, tcl Be pLTjpvKd^ovTa ovBev Trda^^eiv. 
TOV Be KapTTov eaOlovcn Kal tcov dvdpcoirwv TLvh 
Kal ecTTLv r}Bv<; Kal daLvri<i. 

^ ^-Xivos being otherwise used of a prickly case, such as 
that of the chestnut. ttAV avax. Koi Ae/oi conj. W.; itX^v 
ovK i.vaKdv6wi Kol Xiiwt U ; ttAV o^'K ^^ UKavd^ MVAld. 



which is however without prickles^ and smooth, not 
spinous,- like the chestnut, though in sweetness and 
flavour it resembles it. In mountain country it also 
grows white and has ^ timber which is useful for 
many purposes, for making carts beds chairs and 
tables, and for shipbuilding * ; while the tree of the 
plains is black and useless for these purposes ; but 
the fruit is much the same in both. 

^ The yew has also but one kind, is straight- 
growing, grows readily, and is like the silver-fir, 
except that it is not so tall and is more branched. 
Its leaf is also like that of the silver-fir, but glossier 
and less stiff. As to the wood, in the Arcadian yew 
it is black or red, in that of Ida bright yellow and 
like prickly cedar ; wherefore they say that dealers 
practise deceit, selling it for that wood : for that it is 
all heart, when the bark is stripped off; its bark also 
resembles that of prickly cedar in roughness and 
colour, its roots are few slender and shallow. The 
tree is rare about Ida, but common in Macedonia and 
Arcadia ; it bears a round fruit a little larger than a 
bean, which is red in colour and soft; and they say 
that, if beasts of burden*' eat of the leaves they die, 
while ruminants take no hurt. Even men sometimes 
eat the fruit, which is sweet and harmless. 

- aKaydwSei conj. R. Const.; aKavBwSri Ald.H.. 
' XevK^] ^ Ka\ conj. W. ; Aeu/ci^ re koI Ald.H. 

* cf. 5. 6. 4 ; 5. 7. 2 and 6. 

^ Plin. 16. 62. (description taken from this passage, but 
applied to fraxinus, apparently from confusion between 
iJAos and fxf\la). 

• cf. 2. 7. 4 n. 



"EcTTi Se Koi 7] 6aTpv<; ixovoeLhy]'^, rjv KoKovcfi 
TLve^ oarpuau, 6/io(f)ve<; rrj o^va ttj re <f)VT€La kuI 
Tw (pXoLO)' (pvWa Se uTrLoeihi] tu) a-y^yj/xarL, ttXtjv 
7Tpo/jLrjK6(TTepa TToWw Kol 6t9 o^v avvTjyfiiva Kol 
fiel^u), TToXvlva Be, airo Tri<i fiecrr)^ ev6eia<i kol 
fxeyakt]'; toop dWcov TrXevpoeiSco^ KaraTeivovaayv 
KOL ird'xo^ e')(ov(j(i)V' en he eppvTiScofieva Kara 
TO.? lva<i Kol 'X^apay/JLOV e^ovTa kvkKw Xctttop' to 
Se ^vXov aKXrjpov koI dxpovv, exXevKOP' Kapirov 
he fjLLKpov TTpofiaKpov o/ioiov KpiOf) ^avOov pi^a^ 
he exei /j.€Tefopov<;' evvhpov he kol (^apayyd)he<;. 
XeyeraL he ft)9 ovk i7riT7')heLOP eh OLKLap ela(^e- 
petP' hvaOaparecp yap <j>aaL koI huaroKetP ov 
dp y. 

T?}? he (f)i,Xvpa<; i) fxep dpprjp earl rj he OifXeLW 
hcacpepovai he rfj /jLopcpfj rfj oXrj kol ttj rov ^vXov kol 
TO) TO /jL€P elpuL KdpirijJLOP TO h' aKapnop. to fiep 
yap T?}? dppepo^ ^vXop (TKXrjpop koI ^apOop Ka\ 
o^cohecTTepop Kal irvKPOTepop eaTL, eTi S' evcohe- 
arepop, to he t^? OrjXela^; Xev/coTepop. Kal 6 
(f)Xoc6'^ T^9 /xep dppepo<^ Tta'xyTepos Kal TreptaipeOeU 
a/ca^TTr/? hid t7]P aKXifpoT-qTa, tt}? he 6r)Xeia^ Xeir- 
TOTepo^i Kal evKa/x7r7]<;, e^ ov Td<; KLaTa<; iroiovcnp- 
Kal 7/ fiep dKap7ro<; Kal dpap6r)<^, rj he 67'jXeia 
Kal dp9o<; e-)(eL Kal Kapirop' to fiep dpOo<; KaXv- 
Kcohe<; izapd top rod (l)vXXov fxia^op Kal irapd 

1 cf. 1. 8. 2 {offrpvis), 3. 3. 1 ; C.P. 5. 12. 9 (oo-rpuTj) ; Plin. 
13. 117. 

^ fxiff7]s . . . KaraTeivovauv conj. Sell.; jxitrrji irXeupoeiSws 
Twv 6.\\cDV fvdfiwy Koi fieyd\rjv KaTareiyovawy Aid. cf. 1. 10. 2 ; 
3. 17. 3. 



The ostrys (hop-hornbeam)/ which some call 
ostrya, has also but one kind : it is like the beech in 
growth and bark ; its leaves are in shape like a pear's, 
except that they are much longer, come to a sharp 
point, are larger, and have many fibres, which branch 
out like ribs from a large straight one 2 in the 
middle, and are thick ; also the leaves are wrinkled 
along the fibres and have a finely serrated edge ; the 
wood is hard colourless and whitish ; the fruit is 
small oblong and yellow like barley ; it has shallow 
roots ; it loves water and is found in ravines. It is 
said to be unlucky to bring it into the house, since, 
wherever it is, it is supposed to cause a painful 
death ^ or painful labour in giving birth. 

^ The lime has both ^ male ' and ' female ' forms, 
which differ in their general appearance, in that ot 
the wood, and in being respectively fruit-bearing 
and sterile. The wood of the 'male' tree is hard 
yellow more branched closer, and also more fragrant ^ ; 
that of the 'female' is whiter. The bark of the 
' male ' is thicker, and, when stripped off, is un- 
bending because of its hardness ; that of the 'female ' 
is thinner ^ and flexible ; men make their writing- 
cases "* out of it. The ' male ' has neither fruit nor 
flower, but the ' female ' has both flower and fruit ; 
the flower is cup-shaped, and appears alongside 
of the stalk of the leaf, or alongside of next year'i 

^ ZvaBavaTftv I conj. ; Zvadavarov PgAld. ; ivaBavarav conj. 
Sch. , but hvaQavarav has a desiderative sense. 

* Plin. 16. 65. 

^ 6T< 5' €ua)S. inserted here by Sch.; c/. Plin., I.e. In Aid. 
the words, with the addition tJ» t^s QriXdas, occur after 

^ XeTTTSrepos conj. Sob ; KeuKSrepos Aid, 

7 cf. 3. 13. 1 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 



TTjv 6t9 vewra fcdy^pw e0' erepou ixicy)(0Vy yXoepov 
he orav rj koX-vkcoSc^;, eKKokvirToixevov he iiri^av- 
5 Oov 77 he av6rjaL<; ajia Tot9 r}fiepoL<;, 6 he Kapiro^ 
arpoyyvXof; 7rp6jj.aKpo<; 7]Xlko<; Kua/iio<; ofiOLO<; tw 
Tov KLTTOv, jcovLa^i e%wi' o ahpo<; irevre olov Ivwv 
e^e)(ova(av /cat et? o^v avvayofiercov 6 he firf 
ahpo<; ahiapOp6repo<;' hiafcuL^6fievo<; he 6 dhpo^; 
e^^i ybiKp drra kol Xeirrd aTrep/xdrLa rfXiKa kol 
6 t{]<; dhpa<pd^vo<;. ro he cfyvWov kol 6 (p^-oiof; 
t'jhea KoX yXvKea' rrjv he /lop^rjv /ciXTcoSe? to 
(j)vWov, TrXrjv eV it poa ay (oyy)<; jidWov tj irepi- 
(pepeia, Kara rb tt/jo? rro /jLia-)(fp Kvprorarov, 
dWd Kara fxecrov et? o^vrepov ttjv avvaycoyrjv 
€-)(ov Ka\ fjLaKporepov, eirovXov he kvkKm Kal Keya- 
payixevov. jjbrjrpav 5' e%e£ to ^vXov fiLfcpdv Kal ov 
TToXv fiaXaKcorepav rod dXXov fiaXaKov yap Kal 
ro dXXo ^vXop. 

XI. T^9 he acfievhdfjLVOv, KaOdTrep etTTO/iev, hvo 
yevT] TTOiovatv, 01 he rpia' ev fiev hr] rw kolvw 
irpoaayopevovau acpevha/nvov, erepov he ^vyiav, 
rpirov he KXivorpoyov, w? ol rcepl l^rdyetpa. hia- 
(f)Opd 8' earl Tf;? ^vyLa<; Kal tT;? a(^>evhdfjLvov on 
7] fjLev a(f)evha/ivo<^ XevKov e%et to ^vXov Kal 
evLvorepov, t) he ^vyla ^avOov Kal ovXov ro he 
(pvXXov ev/JLeyed6<i dfi^co, rfj Gylaeu ojioiov rm 

» cf. 3. 5. 5. and 6. 

"^ SiaKuiCnuspoi : Siaax^C'^f^^^os, 'when split open,' conj. W. 

-■> cf. 1. 12 4; a P. 6. 12. 7. * 3. 3. 1. 

' irpoaayopevovffi conj. VV. from G ; npoaayopeveTai Aid, 


p:nquiry into plants, hi. x. 4x1. t 

vv;nter-bud ^ on a separate stalk ; it is green, when 
in the cup-like stage, but brownish as it opens ; it 
appears at the same time as in the cultivated trees. 
The fruit is rounded oblong as large as a bean, 
resembling the fruit of the ivy ; when mature, it 
has five angular projections, as it were, made by 
projecting fibres which meet in a point ; the im- 
mature fruit is less articulated. When the mature 
fruit is pulled to pieces,^ it shows some small fine 
seeds of the same size as those of orach. The leaf and 
the bark ^ are well flavoured and sweet ; the loMf is 
like that of the ivy in shape, except that it rounds 
more gradually, being most curved at the part next 
the stalk, but in the middle contracting to a sharper 
and longer apex, and its edge is somewhat puckered 
and jagged. The timber contains little core, which 
is not much softer than the other part; for the rest 
of the wood is also soft. 

OJ maple and ash. 

XI. Of the maple, as we have said,^ some make ^ 
two kinds, some three ; one they call by the general 
name ' maple,' another zygia, the third klinotrokhos ^ ; 
this name, for instance, is used by the people of 
Stagira. The difference between zygia and maple 
proper is that the latter has white wood of finer 
fibre, while that of zygia is yellow and of compact 
texture. The leaf ^ in both trees is large, resem- 
bling that of the plane in the way in which it is 

® kXiv6tpoxov KXd..', icXn'ScTTpoxov U ; iy6Tpoxov conj. Salm. 
from Plin. 16. 66 and 67, cursivenhim or crassivenium. Scli. 
thinks that the word conceals yXlvos ; c/. 3. 3. 1 ; 3. 11. 2. 

' <pv\\ov conj. R. Const. ; fuAov UMVAld.H.G. 


tt}? nXardvov reravov XeirTorepop Be teal aaapKo- 
repov Kol fxaXaKonTepov Koi Trpo/iTjKearepov to, Be 
ay^iafiaO o\a t et? o^v crvvrjKOVTa koI ov^ ovtq) 
/j£croaxt'Bf] a)OC uKpoa'X^LSiaTepa' ov TroXviva he 
0D<; Kara /neyeOof;. e^^t he Kal (f)XoLov fxiKpw 
rpa^vTepop rod tt}? (j)LXvpa<i, viroireXLov ira'^vv Kal 
irvKvoiepov rj 6 tt}? Trtrfo? Kal ciKafXTTTj' pi^aL S' 
oXlyai Kal /j-erewpoc Kal ovXai a')(ehov at TrXelarai, 

2 Kal al tt}? ^av6r]<i Kal at t^? XevKrj<^. jiveraL Be 
/jLciXiara ev roL<i €(f)vBpoL<;, to? ol irepl ttjv "iBrjv Xe- 
yovaiyKal ecTTi aTrdviov. irepl dv6ov<^ Be ovk yBeaav 
Tov Be KapiTov ov Xiav fiev 7rpofn]Krj, Trapo/ioiov Be 
T(p iraXiovpcp rrXrjV TrpofiyjKearepov. ol B' ev rw 
'OXv/jLtto) rrjv jxev ^vyiav opeiov fiaXXov, rrjv Be 
(Tc^evBapvov Kal ev TOL<i TreStot? (jyueaOar elvai Be 
rrjV piev ev tw opet (f)Vop,evrjv ^avOrjy Kal €V)(^povv 
Kal ovXrjv Kal arepedv, y Kal 7r/3o? ra TroXvreXrj 
TMV epywv -xpoiVTaiy ryv Be neBeLvijv XevKi^v re 
Kal piavorepav Kal rfrrov ovXrjv KaXovai 8' avrrjv 
evioL yXelvov, ov acf^evBapcvov. . . . Kal t^9 dppevo^ 
ovXorepa ra ^vXa (Tvve<JTpapip,eva, Kal ev rw 
TTeBiw ravTTjv (pveaOai fiaXXov Kal ^acrrdveiv 

8 "Ecrri. Be Kal p,eXLa<; yevt] Bvo. rovrcov 3' rj 
piev vyjrriXr) Kal evpLJjKTj^ €(ttl to ^vXov e^ovaa 
XevKov Kal evivov Kal pLaXaKMTepov Kal dvo^o- 

1 reravhp : cf. 3. 12. 5 ; 3. 15. 6. 

2 crx^'J'Ma^' conj. R. Const, from G; <rx^i"a^' Aid. Cam.; 
ffXVM-O'^' Bas., which W. reads. 

3 gAa : ? Uws. 

* i.e. do not run back so far. 

' TToAviya conj. R. Const.; iroKv' Ivait Aid.; vo\v- 'iva 5f M. 



divided ; it is smooth,^ but more delicate, less fleshy, 
softer, longer in proportion to its breadth, and the 
divisions '^ all ^ tend to meet in a point, while they 
do not occur so much in the middle of the leaf,"* 
but rather at the tip ; and for their size the leaves 
have not many fibres.^ The bark too is somewhat 
rougher than that of the lime, of blackish colour 
thick closer^ than that of the Aleppo pine. and stiff; 
the roots are few shallow and compact for the most 
part, both those of the yellow and those of the white- 
wooded tree. This tree occurs chiefly in wet ground,^ 
as the people of Mount Ida say, and is rare. About 
its flower they did ^ not know, but the fruit, they said, 
is not very oblong, but like that of Christ's thorn,^ 
except that it is more oblong than that. But the 
people of Mount Olympus say that, while zygia is 
rather a mountain tree, the maple proper grows also 
in the plains ; and that the form which grows in the 
mountains has yellow wood of a bright colour, which 
is of compact texture and hard, and is used even for 
expensive work, while that of the plains has white 
Avood of looser make and less compact texture. And 

some call it g/ei/ioir 10 instead of maple ^^ The 

wood of the * male ' tree is of compacter texture and 
twisted ; this tree, it is said, grows rather in the 
plain and puts forth its leaves earlier. 

12 There are also two kinds of ash. Of these one is 
lofty and of strong growth with white wood of good 
fibre, softer, with less knots, and of more compact 

" irvKuSrepov conj. Seal, from G ; Trupwrepov UAld. 

^ icpvSpois : iKpvSpois conj. Sch. cf. vcpa/jL/xos, viroirerpos, 

8 c/. 3. 9. 6 n.; Intr. p. xx. » cf. 3. 18. 3. 

'» cf. 3. 3. 1 ; Plin. 16. 67. 

" W. marks a lacuna : the description of the * female ' 
tree seems to be missing. ^^ Plin. 16, 62-64. 



T€poi> fcal ovXoTepov i] 8e Taireivorepa kcu *J7tov 
€vav^7]<; Kai rpw^^vrepa Kal afcXijporepa /cal ^av- 
Oorepa. ra Be (f)vXka rco /lev cr^/;yu-aT£ SacfivoetS)), 
TrXarvcfivWov Bd(pvy]<;, et? o^vrepov 6e avvrjj/jieva, 
'X^'pay/jiov Se tlv e-)(Ovra kvkXw koL eiraKavOi- 
^ovra' TO Be oXov, oirep eliroL ri? av (pvWov tS> 
a/xa (pvWoppoelv, a4> evo^ /J.La')(^ov' Kal irepl 
fxiav olov Iva /cara joiw Kal avi^vylav ra (fivXXa 
Ka0' eKaarov TrecpvKe, (TV)(yo}v 8i€^ovaa)i> tcov 
av^vycMv, 6/zotw? Kal iirl t?}? ot?;?. ecm, Se tmv 
fi€V I3pa')(ea ra fyovara Kal at av^vylat to ttXtjOo^ 
iXdrrov^, tmv he t?}? XevKf]<i Kal jiaKpa Kal 
irXeiovi;' Kal ra KaB' eKaarov (f)vXXa /laKporepa 
Kal arevojepa, rrjv Be ')(^p6av TrpaaoyBtj. (pXoiov 
Be Xelov eysL, Karrvpov Be Kal Xeirrov Kal tF/ 
4 %poa TTvppov. TruKi'oppL^ov Be Kal irax^ppi^oi' 
Kal fierewpov. Kapirov Be ol fiev vrepl rrjv ''lBi]v 
ovx VTreXdji^avov e)(eiv ouB' dv9o<i' ej(^eL B' ev 
Xo0M XeTTTcp KapiTov Kapvrjpbv w? rcou d/avyBa- 
Xcov inTOTTLKpov rf] yevcrei. (^kpei Be Kal erep' 
drra olov [Spva, KaOdirep rj Bdcpvi], TrXjjv aricfipo- 
T6pa' Kal eKacnov KaO^ avro a(f)aipoeLBe<;, coairep 
TO. Tcop TrXardvcov tovtcov Be ra /xev irepl rov 
KapiTov, ra 8' dirrjpTrj/jieva ttoXv, Kal ra irXelara 
ovTco. (^verai Be rj fiev Xeia irepl ra ^advdyKi] 
jjidXiara Kal ecpvBpa, rj Be rpaxela Kal irepl rd ^ypd 
Kal TrerpcoBrf. evLOi Be KaXovat ri^v jxev /leXlav 

' ovXoTfpov : avovKSrepov W. from Sch.'s conj,; }i.vov\o% 
does not occur elsewhere, and T. uses ^lavSi as the opposite 
of ovKos. 

2 i.e. instead of considering the leaflet as the unit. For 
the description c/. 3. 12. 5; 3. 15. 4. 



texture ^ ; the other is shorter, less vigorous in growth, 
rougher harder and yellower. The leaves in shape 
are like those of the bay, that is, the broad-leaved 
bay, but they contract to a sharper point, and they 
have a sort of jagged outline with sharp points. 
The whole leaf (if one may consider this as'^ a Meaf ' 
because it is all shed at once) grows on a single 
stalk ; on either side of a single fibre, as it were, 
the leaflets grow at a joint in pairs, which are 
numerous and distinct, just as in the sorb. In some 
leaves the joints are short ^ and the pairs fewer in 
number, but in those of the white kind the joint is 
long and the pairs more numerous, while the leaflets 
are longer narrower and leek-green in colour. Also 
this tree has a smooth bark, whicli is dry thin and 
red in colour. The roots are matted stout and 
shallow.* As to the fruit, the people of Ida supposed 
it to have none, and no flower either ; liowever it 
has a nut-like fruit in a thin pod, like the fruit of 
tlie almond, and it is somewhat bitter in taste. And 
it also bears certain other things like winter-buds, 
as does the bay, but they are more solid, -^ and each 
separate one is globular, like those of the plane ; 
some of these occur around the fruit, some, in fact 
the greater number,^ are at a distance from it. The 
smooth kind '' grows mostly in deep ravines and damp 
places, the rough kind occurs also in dry and rocky 
parts. Some, for instance the Macedonians, call the 

' ^paxea conj. Seal, from G ; rpaxea UAld.H. 

* Bod. inserts ov before ixeTewpov ; cf. 3. 6. 5. (Idaean 

^ (TTKppoTcpa con]. Dalec. ; arputpyoTepa M8S. 

• TTAeiffTa conj. R. Const.; irXe/cra UMVAld. 
7 cf. Pliu., I.e. 



Ti]v Se /Sov/xeXLOv, coanep oi irepl MuKcSoi'Lav. 
6 li6iL,ov ^e Kol ixavoTepov y /3ovfi6\io<;, Sl' o Kal 
rjrrov ovXov. (f>v<T€i Se rb fiev ireheivov Kal rpa^v, 
TO 3' opeivov Kal Xelov eart Se rj fiev iv roU 
opeai (jivofievr) ev)(pov<i Kal Xeua Kal arepea Kal 
yXiaxpci, t) 3' iv tco irehiw axpov<; Kal fxavrj Kal 
rpa-^^eta. (to S' oXov co? eliretv ra SevBpa oaa 
Kal iv TM ttcSlo) Kal iv ru) opei (jiverai, ra fiev 
opeLva ev^pod re Kal arepea Kal Xela ylverai, 
KaOoLTTep Q^vrj irreXea ra aXXa' ra Be TreSeiva 
fxavorepa Kal axpovarepa Kal ^(eipa), ttXtjv airlov 
Kal jjirfXea^ Kal a)(pd8o<;, o)? ol irepl rbv "OXvpurov 
(fiacrr ravra 8' iv tcS ireSicp KpeirTco Kal tw 
KapTTM Kal roL^ ^vXoi<;- iv /xev yap tw opei 
Tpa'X^el^ Kal dKavOcoBecf; Kal 6^(oBeL<; elaiv, iv Be tw 
TreBlcp XeLorepoL Kal /xeL^ov^ Kal rov Kapirov exovai 
ryXvKvrepov Kal aapKwBearepov p^eyeOei Be alel 
/iiei^co ra ireBeLvd.) 

XII. KpaveLa<i Be to puev dppev to Be drjXv, 
rjv Brj Kal OrfXvKpavelav KaXovacv. exovcrc Be 
(f)vX\ov jiev d/xvyBaXfj opLoiov, irXyjv XcTTcoBearepov 
Kal Tra'xyrepov, (pXotbv 8' lvu>Brj Xeirrov to Be 
aTeXe')(o<^ ov irayy Xlav, dXXa irapa^vet pd^Bov<; 
Mairep dyvo<;' iXdrrov; Be 7] OrjXvKpaveia Kal 
OajivwBeaTepov iarLV. tou? Be 6^ov<; 6/jLolco<? 
e')(ovaLv dfi<p(o rfj ayvw Kal Kara Bvo Kal Kar 

^ cj. Plin., I.e., and Index. 

^ /xer^'oj' Se Koi fxav6Ttpov conj. W. from G ; ;u. Se «aJ navdrepa 
MVU {'! /xaySrepov) ; fiei^uu 5e Kal /xaKpoTtpa Ald.H. 



one 'ash' (manna-ash), the other * horse-ash i' (ash) 
The * horse-ash ' is a larger and more spreading ^ 
tree, wherefore it is of less compact appearance. 
It is naturally a tree of the plains and rough, while 
the other belongs to the mountains and is smooth ^ ; 
the one which grows on the mountains is fair-coloured 
smooth hard and stunted, while that of the plains is 
colourless spreading and rough. (In general one 
may say of trees that grow in the plain and on the 
mountain respectively, that the latter are of fair 
colour hard and smooth,"* as beech elm and the 
rest ; while those of the plain are more spreading, 
of less good colour and inferior, except the pear 
apple ^ and wild pear, according to the people of 
Mount Olympus. These when they grow in the 
plain are better both in fruit and in wood ; for on 
the mountain they are rough spinous and much 
branched, in the plain smoother larger and with 
sweeter and fleshier fruit. However the trees of the 
plain are always of larger size.) 

Of corndian chemry, cornel, ^ cedars,^ medlar, thorns, sorb. 

XII. Of the cornelian cherry there is a ' male' and 
a 'female' kind (cornel), and the latter bears a corre- 
sponding name. Both have a leaf like that of the 
almond, but oilier and thicker ; the bark is fibrous and 
thin, the stem is not very thick, but it puts out side- 
branches like the chaste-tree, those of the ' female ' 
tree, which is more shrubby, being fewer. Both 
kinds have branches like those of the chaste-tree, 

' Kol Tpaxv . • . AeTo;/ conj. Sch.; Koi Xe7oy . . . rpaxv Aid. 

^ Afio conj. Mold.; Aeu/ca Aid. G. 

^ ^V^ias conj. Seal., cf. 3. 3. 2 ; fiehlas U:MAld.H. 



aWf]Xou<^' TO Se ^vXov to fxev Tr}<; Kpaveia^ 
aKciphiov icaX arepeov 6\ov, o/jloiov fcepari ri-jv 
TTVKVoTrjTa Kal r7]V lax^'^i to ^e tt}? 6yfKvKpaveia<^ 
ivr€pt(jov7]v €)(^ov Kol jLiaXaKcoTepou kol KoiXaivo- 

2 fievov ^i o KoX ay^pelov et? la aKoviia. to 8' 
u-v/ro? Tov appevo<; hoohcKa fidXiaTa ir-q-^^wv, i)Xlki] 
TOiV aapiaaMV ?; fxeyiaTiy to yap oXov aTeXey^O'i 
£;i|ro9 ovK Xayei. ^aal S' oi jxev iv Tfj"lBr} ttj TpcodSi 
TO fiev dppev aKap-nov elvac to Be OPjXv KapT^Lfiov. 
TTvprjva S' Kap7ro<; e')(eL TrapajrXyaLou iXda, Kal 
iaOi6/jievo<; lyXuKix; Kal €va)Sr]<;- dv6o<; he bfioLOv 
tQ> rr)? eXda<;, Kal aTravOel he Kal Kapiro^opel 

TOV avTOV TpOlTOV T(p ef €1^09 flL(TXOV 7rXeL0l"s 

c^eiVy a')(6hov he Kal Tot9 %/^o^'ot9 irapaTrXi^aiw's. 
01 S' ev MaKehovla Kapiroc^opelv /xev dficpco (f)a(7lv 
TOV he T7]<; OifKeia^; d/3pcoTov elvar Td<; pL^a<; 8' 
6/.wLa<; eyei TaL<; dyvoL^; Icrxvpa^ Kal dvwXWpov^;. 
yuveTaL he Kal irepl tci €(j)vhpa Kal ovk iv Tot9 
^ypoL<; juLovov (PveTai he Kal aTro (T7repiiaTo<i Kal 
diTo TTapaairdho^;. 

3 Y^ehpov he ol fxev (paaiv elvac Blttt^v, ttjv /lev 
AvKLav Trjv he ^0LviKf]V, ol he fiovoeihrj, KaOdirep 
ol iv TTj "\hr]. TrapofjLOLOv he ttj dpKeuOw, hiacpepei 
he jidXiaTa tw (f)vXX(p' to /lev yap T7]<i Kehpov 
aKXnjpov Kal o^v Kal dKav6a)he<;, to he T7)9 dpKevdov 
/laXaKcoTepov' hoKel he Kal v^riXo^vecTTepov elvau 
rj dpKev6o<^' ou firjv dX,V eviol ye ov hiaipovai 

^ The Idaeans are evidently responsible for this statement. 
T. himself (3. 4. 3) says the fruit is inedible. 

^ But (1. 11. 4) only certain varieties of the olive are said 
to have this character : the next statement seems also incon- 
sistent with 3. 4. 3. Perhaps T. is still reproducing his 
Idaean authority. 


arranged in pairs opposite one another. The wood 
of the 'male' tree has no heart, but is hard tlirough- 
out, like horn in closeness and strength ; whereas 
that of the ' female ' tree has heart-wood and is softer 
and goes into holes ; wherefore it is useless for 
javelins. The height of the ' male ' tree is at most 
twelve cubits, the length of the longest Macedonian 
spear, the stem up to the point where it divides 
not being very tall. The people of Mount Ida 
in the Troad say that the ' male ' tree is barren, 
but that the ' female ' bears fruit. The fruit has a 
stone like an olive and is sweet to the taste and 
fragrant^ ; the flower is like that of the olive, and the 
tree produces its flowers and fruit in the same manner, 
inasmuch as it has several growing from one stalk,- 
and they are produced at almost the same time 
in both forms. However the people of Macedonia 
say that both trees bear fruit, though that of the 
^ female ' is uneatable, and the roots are like those of 
the chaste-tree, strong and indestructible. This tree 
grows in wet ground and not only " in dry places ; 
and it comes from seed, and also can be propagated 
from a piece torn oft'. 

^ The ' cedar,' some say, has two forms, the Lycian 
and the Phoenician ^ ; but some, as the people of 
Mount Ida, say that there is only one form. It 
resembles the arkeuthos (Phoenician cedar), differing 
chiefly in the leaf, that of ' cedar ' being hard sharp 
and spinous, while that of arkeuthos is softer : the 
latter tree also seems to be of taller growth. How- 
ever some do not give them distinct names, but call 

^ n6vov ins. R. Const, from G. 

* Plin. 13. 52. See Index neSpos and a^KevBos. 

' ^-oiyiKriy : ^oiuiKiKijy conj. W. cf. 9. 2. 3 ; Plin. I.e. 


T0t9 ovojiaaLV aXX cifKpco KaXovcri /ceSpov^, ttXtjv 
TrapaaTjfxco^; ttjv /ceSpov o^vKehpov. o^coBrj h' 
cifKpa) KOI TToXvfida-^aXa koI eTrearpafji/ieva e'xpv- 
ra TCL ^vXa- fi-^rpav 8' 7) fiev dp/cevOo^ e;^6t 

flLKpaV Kol TTVKV-qV KOl OTUV KOTTrj Ta^v arjTTO- 

pLevi]V' 7) he Kehpo<; to TrXelarov iyKapSiov Koi 
aaaizk'^, ipvOpoKaphta S* djK^a)' koI t) fiev t?)? 

4 KcBpov eucoS?;? 77 Se t/)? erepa? ov. Kapiro'^ 8' 
6 fiev rr^? KeSpov ^avOo<; pLvprov /ieyeOo<; e^cDv 
€va)Bi]<; 7)Sv<; iaOleaOaL. 6 he Trj<=; apKevOov ra 
fiev dXXa 6p,ot,o<i, yueXa? he kol arpvcfyvo^i Kal 
MaTrep d/3pcoTO'i' hiapievei 5' et? eviavjov, eW 
orav dXXo<; eiTLc^vfj 6 7r6pvaLvo<; dTroTTiTrrei. co? 
he ol ev ^ApKahla XeyovaL, Tyoet? d/ia Kapirou^i 
layei, rov re irepvaivov ovirw ireirova koX 
Tov TTpoirepvcnvov 77877 ireirova koi ihcohi/iov 
KOL rpiTov TOV veov vTrocfiaivei. €(f)7) he ^aTvpo^ 
Kal Kopiiaai tou? opeorvirov^ avTw dvavOel^ dfi(p(D. 
TOV he (pXoLov ofioiov e;^et KvrrapiTTw TpayvTepov 
he' pt^a? he p.avd<^ u/Kporepai kol eTrnroXalov^. 
(^vovTai Trepl tcl TreTpcohr] kol ^(^eLfiepLa fcal tovtov; 
T0v<; TOTTOV^; ^rjTOvai. 

6 Mea7riXr)<i 8' earl Tpia <yevr], dv0r]hcbv aard- 
veio<^ dv6r}hovoei,hrj'^y o)? ol irepl Trjv "]hy]v hiai- 
povcn. (fyepei he ?; fiev aaTdveio^i tov Kapirov 
fiei^o) Kal XevKOTepov Kal X'^vvoTcpov Kal Tov<i 
irvprjva^ 6j(pvTa paXaKcoTepov^' at 6' eTepai 

* ■ ttju KcSpou U; tt. rhp KfSpov M ; Aid. omits the 
article ; Trapaa-nfiaala. iceSpov conj W. 

2 uriTpav conj. Sch.; fiaWov UMVAld. Plin., 16. 198, sup- 
ports fxrirpav : he apparently read ixiirpav 8* t) fiev L ex*' fJ^aWov 



them both 'cedar/ distinguishing them however as 
' the cedar ' ^ and ' prickly cedar.' Both are branching 
trees with many joints and twisted wood. On the 
other hand arkeuthos has only a small amount of 
close core,2 which, when the tree is cut, soon rots, 
while the trunk of ' cedar ' consists mainly of heart 
and does not rot. The colour of the heart in each 
case is red : that of the ' cedar ' is fragrant, but not 
that of the other. The fruit of ' cedar ' is yellow, 
as large as the myrtle-berry, fragrant, and sweet 
to the taste. That of arkeuthos is like it in 
other respects, but black, of astringent taste and 
practically uneatable ; it remains on the tree for a 
year, and then, when another grows, last year's fruit 
falls off. According to the Arcadians it has three 
fruits on the tree at once, last year's, which is not 
yet ripe, that of the year before last which is now 
ripe and eatable, and it also shews the new fruit. 
Satyrus^ said that the wood-cutters gathered him 
specimens of both kinds which were flowerless. The 
bark is * like that of the cypress but rougher. Both '^ 
kinds have spreading shallow roots. These trees 
grow in rocky cold parts and seek out such districts. 
^ There are three kinds of mespile, anthedon 
(oriental thorn), sataneios (medlar) and anthedonoeides 
(hawthorn), as the people of mount Ida distinguish 
them. "^ The fruit of the medlar is larger paler 
more spongy and contains softer stones ; in the other 

TTvKvhv ; but the words /col Brav . . . ar}iroixhr)v (which P. does 
not render) seem inconsistent. ? ins. oh before raxu Sch. 

3 ? An enquirer sent out by the Lyceum : see Intr. p. xxi. 

* ^X^' conj. W. ; eSJ/cei Aid. 

^ aixrpSrepai conj. W. ; ap.(j)orepas U; Aid. H. 

« Plin. 15. 84. 

7 cf. C.P.2. 8. 2; 6. 14. 4; 6. 16. 1. 



eXdrro) re ri Kal evcoBiarepov Kal arpui^roTepoi, 
ware hvvaaOai TrXeUo -y^povov Orjaavpi^eadai. 
TTVKVorepou he koX to ^v\ov tovtcov kol ^avdorepov, 
ra 5' dWa o/ioiop. to S' civOo^ iraaoiv o/iolov 
d/jLvyBa\fj, TrXrjV ovk epvOpov wairep eKelvo aX,V 

e<y)(\(x>p6T€pov fjLS'yeOeL peya to hevhpov 

Kol irepiKopbov. <^vWov Be to fiev eVl 

7roXu(T%i5e? Se kol ev citcpw (jekLvoeLhe<i, to h' 
€7rl TMV TraXaiOTepcov 7ro\vcr)(Lhe<; a^ohpa kol 
iyjo)vo€ih6<; jxei^oaL GylaixaaLy T€Tavov tVwSe'? 
XeiTTOTepov aeXivov kol 7rpop.7]Ke(jTepov kol to 
oXov KOL ra o-)(^ba-/jLaTa, 7reyo//<:e%a/3a7/ieVoi^ ^e 
oXov fii(T')(^ov S' e%et XeTrrop /Ma/cpov Tvpo tov 
(jivXXoppoelv S' ipvOpatperaL a(j)uBpa. TroXvppi^oi' 
Be TO hevBpov Kal /Badvppi^ov Sl o kol ')(p6vL0v 
Kal hvaayXeOpov. Kal to ^vXov e)(ei ttvkvov Kal 
6 cTTepeov Kal acraTre?. (fyueTai Be Kal diro crirep- 
paT0<; Kal diro 7rapacr7rdBo<;. voaypa Be avTMV 
eaTLV 0)aT6 yrjpdaKovTa aK(o\7jK6/3pcoTa yiveaOar 
Kal 01 aK(oXT]K6<; fxeyaXoL Kal IBlol rj ol eK tS)v 
BevBpwv Twv dXXcov. 

Twi' S' OLMV Bvo yhrj TroLOvat, to fiev Brj 
Kaprroc^opov OrjXv to Be dppev aKapirov' ov firjv 
dXXd Bcacpepovai, TOi? Kapirol^, tw Ta? jxev 
GT poyyvXov Ta? Be TTpo\i,r]Kr] Td<^ 8' cooetS?} <^epeLv. 
Bia(j)epova-i Be Kal TOt? ^fXot?* &)? yap eirl to 

^ eXaTTw Tt Ti conj. W.; ikarTCi) flal UAld. 

' W. suggests that some words are missing here, as it does 
not appear to which kind of ^ecnr/ATj the following descrip- 
tion belongs ; hence various difficulties. See Sch, 

^ Probably a lacuna in the text. W. thus supplies the 
sense : he suggests criKvodSfs for af\ivoeiS4s. 

PLNQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. xii. 5-b 

kinds it is somewhat smaller,^ more fragrant and of 
more astringent taste, so that it can be stored for a 
longer time. The wood also of these kinds is closer 
and yellower, though in other respects it does not 
differ. The flower in all the kinds is like the almond 
flower, except that it is not pink, as that is, but 

greenish ^ In stature the tree is large and it 

has thick foliage. The leaf in the young tree is 
round ^ but much divided and like celery at the tip ; 
but the leaf of older trees is very much divided and 
forms angles with larger divisions ; it is smooth ^ 
fibrous thinner and more oblong than the celery 
leaf, both as a whole and in its divisions, and it has 
a jagged edge all round. ^ It has a long thin stalk, 
and the leaves turn bright red before they are shed. 
The tree has many roots, which run deep ; wherefore 
it lives a long time and is hard to kill. The wood 
is close and hard and does not rot. The tree grows 
from seed and also from a piece torn off. It is 
subject to a disease which causes it to become worm- 
eaten 6 in its old age, and the worms are large 
and different^ to those engendered by other trees. 

8 Of the sorb they make two kinds, the 'female' 
which bears fruit and the ' male ' which is barren. 
There are moreover differences in the fruit of the 
' female ' kind ; in some forms it is round, in others 
oblong and egg-shaped. There are also differences 

* Tejavhv: cj. 3. 11. 1; 3. 15. 6. 

' TrepiKexapayp-^^ov conj. Seal.; TrepiKeOapfj.hou JJ ; irepiKeKap- 
pieuov MVAId. cf. allusions to the leaf of fieanik-n, 3. 13. 1 ; 
3. 15. 6. 

« cf. 4. 14. 10 ; Plin. 17. 221 ; Pall. 4. 10. 

' UioL Aid. (for construction cf. Plat. Gorg. 481 c); idlovs 
UMV (the first i corrected in U). W. adopts Sch.'s conj., 
fj^iovs, in allusion to the edible cossria : cf. Plin. I.e. 

e Plin. 15. 85. 



TTciv evcohearepa Kai jXvKvrepa ra arpoyyvXa, 
ra 8' (tioeiSri TToWa/c/? iarlv o^ea Kal i]ttov 

7 evcohrj. (pvXXa 3' ufxcpolv Kara iii(j)(ov fiuKpov 
IvoeLhr) TrecpvKaaL aroi')(r)6ov i/c rcov TrXaylcov 
7rr€pvyoei8a)<;, w? ivo'^ 6vto<; tov oXov Xo^ov^; Se 
6XpvT0<i ia)(^i(T/ji€vov<; eo)<;rr]<; lv6<^' ttXtjv hieaTaaLV 
CKJ)* eavTMV v7T6av)(yov ra Kara iiepo<^' (jivXXo- 
^oXel Be 01) Kara fiepo^ dXXa 6\ov ajiia to 
7rTepvycoS€<;. elal Be irepX fiev ra iraXaiOTepa 
KOL /laKporepa TrXetou^ al avtvyiai, irepl Be ra 
veoorepa kcli ^payyrepa eXarrov^, TTavrcov Be eii 
axpov rou fiia^ov (pvXXov rrepirrov, ware Kal 
rrdvr elvai rrepLrrd. too Be ax^ij/xan Bacf^voeiBf] 
Tr}? Xe7rro(puXXov, irXr^v ^(^apaypLOV e^ovra Kal 
^pa')(yrepa Kal ovk et? o^v ro aKpov avvrjKOv 
dXX^ 61? Treptcfyepearepov. dv6o<; Be e;^6t ^orpv- 
Q)Se9 diro fjLidf; Kopvprj<; gk ttoXXmv fiLKpcov Kal 

8 XevKOiv (jvyKeifievov. Kal 6 Kap7ro<i orav evKapirfi 
^orpvdiBri<^' rroXXa yap diro t?}? avT7]<; Kopvvq^, 
war elvai Kaddrrep Kijpiov. aKcoXrjKo/Sopo'^ errl 
rov BepBpov 6 KapTTo^ aTreTrro? cov en yiverai 
/jidXXov roiv ixeaTTiXwv Kal drciaiv Kal d'y^pdBcov 
KairoL TToXv arpvc^voraro'^. yiverai Be Kal avro 
TO BevBpov (TKcoXT^Ko^pcorov Kal ovrco^ avaiverai 
yy-jpdaKOV Kal 6 (TKOiXt)^ lBio<; epvOpo^ Baav<;. 
KapiTO^opel 8' emeLK(ti<^ vea' rpi.err]<; yap eu6v^ 
(pvei. TOV /JLeroTTcopov B' orav d-no^dXr] ro (jyvXXov, 
evdv^ ta')(eL rrjv KaxpvMBrj Kopvvrjv Xirrapdv Kal 

^ (pvWa . . . aroixv^^^ conj, W. ; <pvK\ov 5' a/j.(po7p rh fttv 
fxlaxov fiuKphv luoei^rj- necp. [Se] (TtoixV^^^ UMVAld. 

"^ a(p^ eavTup ( = aiT' a\\-n\wp) COnj. Seal.; air' avTaf U: 80 
W., Mho however renders inter se. 



ill taste ; the round fruits are generally more fragrant 
and sweeter, the oval ones are often sour and less 
fragrant. The leaves in both grow attached to a 
long fibrous stalk, and project on each side in a row ^ 
like the feathers of a bird's wing, the whole forming 
a single leaf but being divided into lobes with 
divisions which extend to the rib ; but each pair are 
some distance apart,'^ and, when the leaves fall,^ 
these divisions do not drop separately, but the whole 
wing-like structure drops at once. When the 
leaves are older and longer, tlie pairs are more 
numerous ; in the younger and shorter leaves they 
are fewer ; but in all at the end of the leaf-stalk there 
is an extra leaflet, so that the total number of leaflets 
is an odd number. In form the leaflets resemble^ 
the leaves of the ' fine-leaved ' bay, except that they 
are jagged and shorter and do not narrow to a sharp 
point but to a more rounded end. The flower ^ is 
clustering and made up of a number of small white 
blossoms from a single knob. The fruit too is 
clustering, when the tree fruits well ; for a number 
of fruits are formed from the same knob, giving an 
appearance like a honeycomb. The fruit gets eaten 
by worms on the tree before it is ripe to a greater 
extent than that of medlar pear or wild pear, and 
yet it is much more astringent than any of these. 
The tree itself also gets worm-eaten, and so withers 
away as it ages ; and the worm ^ which infests it is a 
peculiar one, red and hairy. This tree bears fruit 
when it is quite young, that is as soon as it is three 
years old. In autumn, when it has shed its leaves, 
it immediately produces its winter-bud-like knob,^ 

^ Plin. 16. 92. * For construction cf. 3. 11. 3. 

^ t.c. inflorescence. * Plin. 17. 221. '' cj. 3. 5 




e7ro}hi}Kvlav oyaav I'lhrj ^XaariKov, kol Bia/j.ev€t 
9 TOP '^ei/.uova. avaKavOov Se ecm Kal rj otrj Kai 
T) /xeaTTiXr]' (l)\oi6i> 8' e;^et \elov viroKiTrapov, 
oaairep fit) jepdi'Bpva, rrjv Be ^poav ^avOov 
iTTiXev/caivovTa- ra Be jepdvBpva rpa'xyv fcai 
fieXava. to Be BeuBpov €v/j,ey€Oe<i opdocfyue^ 
evpvO/jiov TY) KO/JLT}' (Tj^eBov yap o)? eTrl to ttoXv 
crTpol3iX.oeLBe<; a-)(rjiJia Xap/Sdvei kuto, ttjv KOfitjp, 
eav fiij Ti ef-LiroBiar). to Be ^v\ov aTepeov ttvkvov 
la^vpov ev')(^povv, pL^a<; Be ov TToWd<^ p.ev ovBk 
KaTa ^(i0ov<;, la-xypa<i Be Kal ira')(eia<s Kal dvw- 
XeOpov; exei. (pueTat Be Kal drro pi^^]<^ kol diro 
TTapaanrdBo'^ Kal dirb aireppaTo^' tottov Be ^-yjTel 
y^v)(^p6v evLKpov, ^lXo^wov B' ev TOUTfo Kal 
BvadSXedpov ov /nrjp dXXd Kal (jiveTai, ev tow 

XIII. "IBlov Be TTj (pvaei BevBpov 6 Kepacro's 
eaTL' peyeOec pev p.eya- Kal yap et? TeTTapa^ 
KOL eiKocTL 7r7])(^eL<i' ecTTt B' up9o(pve<i cr(f)6Bpa' 
7rd')(^o<i Be wcrre Kal BiiTrj-)(^vv t)]v TveplpeTpov avro 
T^9 pL^ri<; eyeiv. (hvXXov S' opoLov T(p t?}? 
peuTTiXr}<^ o-KXrjpov Be a(pGdpa Kal TTa')(vTepov, 
wcrre ttj %poia iroppcoOev (pavepop etpai to BepBpov. 
(jiXoLov Be T7]p XeioT'ijTa Kal tt]v XP^^^ '^^^ '^^ 
irdxp^ ofioiop (piXvpa, Bi o Kal Ta<; KidTa^i e^ 
avTOv TToiovaiv axTTrep Kal eK tov tt}? (j)iXupa<i. 
7T€pL7re(f)VKe Be outo? ovtc op6o^vrj<^ ovTe kvkXw 
KaT iaop, a\V eXiKrjBov 7re/)/etX-'>/</)6 KdTwOep dpco 

' '6(rairep ij.r] coiij. Bod.; wairep ra Aid.; &ar€ to M. 

' Ko^Tjt- Ald.H.; Kopv(pi]u conj. Sell.; vertice G. 

^ I'lin. IG. 125 ; cf. 16. 74 ; 17. 2:U. 

■• -nax^Ttpov : 80 quoted by Atheu. 2. 34; -nXarvytftov AJSS. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xii. 8-xin. i 

which is glislening and swollen as though the tree 
were just about to burst into leaf, and this persists 
through the winter. The sorb, like the medlar, is 
thornless ; it has smooth rather shiny bark, (except 
when ^ the tree is old), which in colour is a whitish 
yellow ; but in old trees it is rough and black. The 
tree is of a good size, of erect growth and with well 
balanced foliage ; for in general it assumes a cone- 
like shape as to its foliage,'^ unless something inter- 
feres. The wood is hard close strong and of a good 
colour ; the roots are not numerous and do not run 
deep, but they are strong and thick and inde- 
structible. The tree grows from a root, from a piece 
torn oft", or from seed, and seeks a cold moist position ; 
in such a position it is tenacious of life and hard to 
kill : however it also grows on mountains. 

Of hird-cherry, elder-, willow. 
XIII. 2 The kerasos (bird-cherry) is peculiar in 
character ; it is of great stature, growing as much as 
twenty-four cubits high ; and it is of very erect 
growth ; as to thickness, it is as much as two cubits 
in circumference at the base. The leaves are like 
those of the medlar, but very tough and thicker,* so 
that the tree is conspicuous by its colour from a 
distance. The bark ^ in smoothness colour and thick- 
ness is like that of the lime ; wherefore men make 
their writing-cases^ from it, as from the bark of that 
tree. " This bark does not grow straight nor evenly 
all round the tree, but runs round it ^ in a spiral 

^ cj. 4. 15. 1 ; Hesych. s.v. Kfpaaos. 
8 cf. 3. 10. 4 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 

' ■n6pnr4(pvK€ . . . irepnreipvKos : text as restored by Sell, and 
others, following U as closely as possible. 
8 Trepiei\T)<p( conj. R. Const. 



TTpoadycvv, wairep rj Biaypacfir] rcou (pvWwv Kai 
koTTL^ofxevo^i ovTO<i ifSeperac, eK€Lvo<; 5' irriro/io^ 

2 jiperai kol ov hvvarar puepo^ 8' avTOv tl rov 
avTOV rpoTTOV acfyatpelrai, Kara ird')(o<^ (T-)(^L^6fjLevov 
XeiTTov Q)<; av cf^vWop, to Se Xolttov it poa jxeveLv 
re SvvaraL Kal aco^ec to SevSpov OLXjavrw^ nepi- 
ire^vKO'^. TTepiaipovp.evov he orav Xoira rov 
(fiXoiou avveKpaiv6L /cat rore rrjv vyporyjra' fcal 
oTau e^co ')(^ct(ov TrepiaLpeOfj, pLovov o V7ro\L7n]<; 
eTTLpLekaiveTai wairep piv^coSeL vypaaia, /cat ttoXlv 
uTTocjiveTaL rw Seurepcp erei ')(iT^v dWo<; dvr 
€K€Lvov TrXi-jv XeiTTOTepo'^. 7r6(f)VK6 Kal TO ^vXov 
opoLov rat^ lal tw c^Xolw crrpeTTTCt)^ eXtTTopevov 
Kal ol pd^hoL ^vovrai top avrov rpoirov ev6v<^' 
TOV<; 6^ov<; 8' av^avopevov avpi^aiveL rov<i puev 

3 Kdrco del diroXXvaOai, tov? S' dico av^etv, to 8' 
oXov ov TToXvo^ov TO ScvSpov dX}C dvo^orepov 
TToXij T/}? alyeupov. TroXvppi^ov Be Kal iiri- 
TToXaioppL^ov ovK dyav he Tra^vppL^ov r) h' 
eTTiarpocpr] :al tt}? pi'^V'i i^^^^ '^^v (pXaov tov nrepl 
avrrjv i) avri]. dvOo'i he XevKov diriM Kal pLearriXi] 
opLOtop, €K pLLKpoiP dvOcop avyKelpepop K-qpLCdhe^. 
o he KapiTO'; epv9pb<; 6/j.oi,o<; hiocnrvpw to a^xfipa, 
TO he peyeOo<^ ifXiKOP Kvap,o<;, ttXijp tov hLoairvpov 
puep 6 TTvpyp (TKXypo^ TOV he Kepdaov paXaKo^. 
(pueTac 8' oTTOf Kal r) (f)LXvpa, to he oXop ottov 
TTOTapol Kal e(f)vhpa. 

4 <t>v€TaL he Kal y dKTrj pLoXiGTa irap vhcop Kal 

^ Which is an ellipse, the segment of a cylinder : so Sch. 

^ €/f6?j'os : i.e. lower down the trunk, where the spiral is 
less open. ^ iiriro/xos: cj. 5. 1. 12. 



(which becomes closer as it gets higher up the tree) 
like the outline of the leaves. ^ And this part of 
it can be stripped off by peeling, whereas with the 
other part ^ this is not possible and it has to be cut 
in short lengths."^ In the same manner part is 
removed by being split off in flakes as thin as a leaf, 
while the rest can be left and protects the tree, grow- 
ing about it as described. If the bark is stripped off 
when the tree is peeling, there is also at the time a 
discharge of the sap ; further, when only the outside 
coat is stripped off, what remains turns black with a 
kind* of mucus-like moisture; and in the second 
year another coat grows to replace what is lost, but 
this is thinner. The wood in its fibres is like the 
bark, twisting spirally,^ and the branches grow in 
the same manner from the first ; and, as the tree 
grows, it comes to pass that the lower branches keep 
on perishing, while the upper ones increase. How- 
ever the whole tree is not much branched, but has 
far fewer branches than the black poplar. Its roots 
are numerous and shallow and not very thick ; and 
there is a similar twisting of the root and of the bark 
which surrounds it. "^The flower is white, like that 
of the pear and medlar, composed of a number of 
small blossoms arranged like a honeycomb. The 
fruit is red, like that of diospyros in shape, and in size 
it is as large as a bean. However the stone of the 
diospyros fruit is hard, while that of the bird-cherry 
is soft. The tree grows where the lime grows, and 
in general where there are rivers and damp places. 
^The elder also grows chiefly by water and in shady 

* wairep conj. Sch.; irep MV; ttus Ald.H. 

^ (TTpeTTTUs eXirrSfxevov conj. Sch. ; arpcirT^ eKiTTOfievwi U ; 
ffrpeiTT^ eKiTTOfievcf, Aid. * cf. 3. 12. 7. ' Plin. 17. 151. 



eV TOis" (rKi€pol<;, ou /xijp dXXa koi iv rois- /ij) 
roiovrois' Oafxvoihe^; he pd/3Soi<; eVeTetoi? av^a- 
vofiepai<; /J-e-^pi' Tr]<; (f)vX\oppoLa<; ei9 jn^'j/co^, elra 
fiera ravra etV iTd)(^o^' to Se vylro<i roiv pd/SScov 
ov fieya \iav dXXa koi /udXiara co? e^aTrr/^f 
Twv he (JTe\6)(^Cov 7rd-^o<; tmv yepavhpvcov oaov 
irepiKec^dXaLa'^ , (^Xoib<i Se Xeto? XeTrro? Kaivvpo^' 
TO he ^liXov ')(avvov kol koix^ov ^i]pav6ev, ev- 
reptcovrju he e^ov /xa\aK7]V, Mare hi oXov kuI 
KOLXaiveadat Ta? pd(3hov<;, e^ mv fcal to.? /BaKT^]- 
pLa<; TTOiovcn Ta? KOLi(f)a<i. ^yjpavdeu he la-)(ypov 
KOL d'^p]p(DV lav ^peyy]Tai, kcLv y XeXoina fievov 
Xoiri^eraL he avrofiaTOv ^^jpaLPOfievop. pLta<i he 
ex^L fjieredipov; ov iroXXd<; he ovhe /j.ejdXa<;. 

6 ^vXXov he TO fceu KaO^ eKaarov jxaXaKov, nrpo- 
pLrjKe^i ft)? TO tt}? TrXarvc^vXXov hd^vy-j^;, p^el^ov 
he KOL irXarvrepov Kal Trepicbepeartpov €k fiecrov 
/cat KarioOev, to 3' ciKpov ei? o^v fiCiXXou avinjKov 
Kv/cXo) 5' e^ov 'y^apaypov to he oXov, irepl eva 
fj.L(T)(^ov TTa'x^vu Kal Ivcoh}] dxrav kXwvlov rd pcev 
evOev rd he evOev Kara yovu Ka\ au^vylap Tvecpv- 
Kaai TMV (f)vXX(ov hiexovra dir dXX/jXcov, ev he 
fc'f cLKpov rod ptaxov. virepvOpa he rd (pvXXa 
eirieLKM'i kol \avva Kal aapKcohrj' (fivXXoppoei 
he rouro oXov, hioTrep (f)vXXov dv ri<; etrroi ro oXov. 
e)(ovaL he Kal ol KXo)ve<^ ol veoi ycovoeihrj riva. 

6 TO 6 dvdo^ XeVKOV €K p,LKpo)v XeuKcov TToXXcoi' 
errl rj] rod'^ov a'X^iaei KypLcohe'i' evcohlav 

* iTepiK€<pa\alas, some part of a ship's prow : so Pollux. 
' Kairvp6s coiij. Sch.; Kal -nvpads U (?) ; koI nvpp6i V; ita] 
■nuvpos M. ' Sc. pith, 



places, but likewise in places which are not of this 
character. It is shrubby, with annual branches which 
go on growing in lengtli till the fall of the leaf, after 
which they increase in thickness. The branches do 
not grow to a very great height, about six cubits at 
most. The thickness of the stem of old trees is 
about that of the ' helmet ' ^ of a ship ; the bark is 
smooth thin and brittle ^ ; the wood is porous and 
light when dried, and has a soft heart-wood,^ so that 
the boughs are hollow right through, and men make 
of them their light walking-sticks. When dried it is 
strong and durable if it is soaked, even if it is stripped 
of the bark; and it strips itself of its own accord as it 
dries. The roots are shallow and neither numerous 
nor large. The single leaflet is soft and oblong, like 
the leaf of the 'broad-leaved' bay, but larger broader 
and rounder at the middle and base, though the tip 
narrows more to a point and is jagged ■* all round. 
The whole leaf is composed of leaflets growing about 
a single thick fibrous stalk, as it were, to which they 
are attached at either side in pairs at each joint ; 
and they are separate from one another, while one 
is attached to the tip of the stalk. The leaves are 
somewhat reddish porous and fleshy : the whole is 
shed in one piece ; wherefore one may consider the 
whole structure as a*leaf'^ The young twigs too 
have certain crooks ^ in them. The flower '^ is white, 
made up of a number of small white blossoms 
attached to the point where the stalk divides, 
in form like a honeycomb, and it lias the heavy 

* x«P"7,"<^'' conj. R. Const, from G ; irapayfiSv UMV; 
(nraoayiMSv Aid. ^ cf. 3. 11. 3 n. 

^ ycoyo€i5ri U; ? ywi^JoetSf/ ; G seems to have read yovaroeiSri; 
Sch. considers the text defective or mutilated. 

7 cf. 3. 12. 7 n. 



Se e%6£ \€ipLci)Brj eTn^apeiav. €)(^€l 8e Kal rbv 
KapiTov 6/bL0L0)<; 7rpo9 em iJbia')((p irayjd ^orpvciihrj 
Be' 'ylverai Be KaTa7re7raLv6/iievo<; yueXa?, w/x-o? Be 
o)v 6pL(j)aK(i)Br]<;' fieyWei Be fitfcpco fiel^cov opo^ov 
rrjv vypaaiav Be oli'oyBtj rfj oyjret' Kal ra? 'xeipa'^ 
TeXeLOVfxevoL ^dirrovraL Kal ra? Ke(f)a\,d<;' e^et Be 
Kal ra eVro? aijaafioeiBi] rrju oyjnv. 
' UdpvBpov Be Kal 77 Irea Kal iroXvecBe^i' r/ fiev 
fiekaiva KaXovjxevr} rw rov (f)\oibv ex^iv jiekava 
Kal (poLviKovv, T) Be XevKTj to5 XevKov. KaWiov^ 
Be e')(eL tA? pd^Bov; Kal ')(p7jcn^Q)Tepa<; 6t9 to 
TrXeKeiv rj jieKaiva, 7) Be XevKr] Kairvpwrepa^i. eari 
Be Kal T/}? fxe\aivr]<; Kal rrj(; Xef/c?}? evLOv yepo<; 
fiLKpov Kal ovK exov av^rja-iv €i9 u^/ro?, Mairep Kal 
eir dWwv touto BevBpoiv, olov KeBpov (pOLViKO<=;. 
KaXovcFL S' ol Trepl ^ ApKaBiav ovk Ireap dWd 
ekiKi^v TO BevBpov oiovrat Be, ioairep e\€')(0)], Kal 
KapTTOV e'xeLV avrrjv yovcfioi'. 

XIV. "EcTTi Be rrjf; TrreXea? Bvo yepy, Kal to p.ev 
opeiTTTeXea KaXelrai to Be iTTeXea' Biacfyepet, Be to) 
0a/MP(i)BeaTepop elpat ttjp irTsXeap evav^eaTepop Be 
Trjv opeiTTTeXeap. (pvWop Be acr^fSe? 7r€pi,Ke)(^apay- 
fxepov rjauxV' TrpopirjKeaTepop Be tov t/}9 diriov, 

* KarairiitaivSfJiivos conj. W. ; Koi ireir. VAld. 

* Kot . . . ^dnrovTai I conj., following Seal., W., etc., but 
keeping closer to U : certain restoration perhaps impossible ; 
Kal ras x^^P^^ Te\eiovs avaBKoiffTei Se koI ras K€(pa\ds U ; x^^P^^ 
5e reXeiovs' ava^Kaoe'i MV ; om. G. 

» Plin. 16. 174 and 175. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xiii. 6-xiv. i 

fragrance of lilies. The fruit is in like manner 
attached to a single thick stalk, but in a cluster : 
as it becomes quite ripe/ it turns black, but when 
unripe it is like unripe grapes ; in size the berry is a 
little larger than the seed of a vetch ; the juice is 
like wine in appearance, and in it men bathe ^ their 
hands and heads when they are being initiated into 
the mysteries. The seeds inside the berry arc like 

^ The willow also grows by the water, and there 
are many kinds. There is that which is called 
the black willow* because its bark is black and 
red, and that which is called the white * from the 
colour of its bark. The black kind has boughs 
which are fairer and more serviceable for basket- 
work, while those of the white are more brittle.^ 
There is a form both of the black and of the white 
which is small and does not grow to a height, — ^just 
as there are dwarf forms of other trees, such as 
prickly cedar and palm. The people of Arcadia 
call the tree *^ not ' willow ' but helike : they believe, 
as was said,''^ that it bears fruitful seed. 

Of elm, poplars, alder, [semyda, bladder -senna']. 

XIV. ^ Of the elm there are two kinds, of which 
one is called the ' mountain elm,' the other simply 
the 'elm': the difference is that the latter is 
shrubbier, while the mountain elm grows more 
vigorously. The leaf is undivided and slightly 
jagged, longer than that of the pear, but rough 

* See Index. 

* KairvpwTipai COnj. Sch.; Koi trvpuTepas U; Kol irvporipas 
MVAld. c/. 3. 13. 4. 

« Sc. treo generally. ' 3- 1. 2. » Plin. 16. 72. 



jpax^ ^^ "^^t ov Xelov. /leya Be to hevhpov Ka\ 
TO) yy^ei koI tm fie'^Wei. ttoXv 5' ouk earc irepl 
Tr)V "\hrjv aWa cnrdvLOV roirov he ecpvBpou ^tXet. 
TO Be ^vXov ^avOov koI layypov fcal evivov koI 
yXlaxpov airav yap KapBia- ^(^pwvraL 6' avrfo 
KOL 7rpo<; dupco/jLara TroXvTeXi), koI yXwpov [lev 
evTOjJiOV ^iipov Be Bva-roixov. aKapirov Be vojjli- 
^ovcTiv, oKX ev rat? KwpvKicn to ko/jl/jli, Kal Orjo'C 
OLTTa KCOvcoTToeiBrj (fiepei. ra? Be KU'^pv'i t'Sta? 
ta^ei Tou fxeToiroopov TroXXa? kol /j,LKpa<i Kal 
lie\aLva<;, ev Be rat? d\Xat<; wpaL<; ovk eirk- 


2 'H Be XevKT) Kal r) alyeipc^ fiopoeLBt]<;, 6pdo(f)vfj 
Be dibi(f)Co, TrXrjv /jLaKporepov ttoXv Kal jiavoTepov 
Kal XeioTepov rj atyeipo<;, to Be a-)(riixa to)v (^vXXwv 
irapo/jLoiov. ojjlolov Be Kal to ^vXov Tejivofievov 
TJj XevKOTTjTL. Kapirov 5' ovBeTepov tovtwv ovBe 
dv6o<i e%eti/ BoKel. 

'H KepKl<^ Be Tvapofioiov tt} XevKTj Kal tm /leyeOei 
Kal T(p TOi/? kXclBov; einXevKov^ eyeiv to Bk 
<f)vXXou KLTTcoBe'i fiev dycvvLov Be eV tov dXXov, 
t7)v Be jiiav 7rpo/jLT]K7] Kal et9 o^v a-wqKova-av tw 
Be 'X^pcoiiaTL ax^Bov ojjlolov to vtttlov Kal to 
TTpave<^' /jLLa^fp Be TrpoaijpTTj/ievov fiaKpfo Kal 
XeTTTW, Bl o Kal ovk opObv dXX eyKCKXi/jievov. 
<j>Xoiov Be Tpa-)(yTepov t?}? XevKr]<; Kal fidXXov 
viroXeirpov, wcrirep 6 t?}? dxpdBo^. dKapirov Be. 

s y[ovoyeve<; Be Kal rj KXrjOpa' <f>v(jet, Be Kal 

' y?^i<TXPov conj. St.; alffxp^v Ald.H. cf. 5. 3. 4. 

' cf. 5. 5. 2. 

3 cf. Th evXoKudts TovTo, 3. 7. 3 ; 2. 8. 3 n. ; 9. 1. 2. 



rather than smooth. The tree is large, being both 
tall and wide-spreading. It is not common about 
Ida, but rare, and likes wet ground. The wood is 
yellow strong fibrous and tough ^ ; for it is all heart. 
Men use it for expensive doors ^r it is easy to cut 
when it is green, but difficult when it is dry. The 
tree is thought to bear no fruit, but in the ' wallets ' ' 
it produces its gum and certain creatures like gnats ; 
and it has in autumn its peculiar * winter-buds ' ^ 
which are numerous small and black, but these have 
not been observed at other seasons. 

The abele and the black poplar have each but a 
single kind : both are of erect growth, but the black 
j)oplar is much taller and of more open growth, and 
is smoother, while the shape of its leaves is similar 
to those of the other. The wood also of both, when 
cut, is much the same in whiteness. Neither of 
these trees appears to have fruit or flower.^ 

The aspen is a tree resembling the abele both in 
size and in having whitish branches, but the leaf 
is ivy-like : while however it is otherwise without 
angles, its one angular^ projection is long and 
narrows to a sharp point : in colour the upper and 
under sides are much alike. The leaf is attached 
to a long thin stalk : wherefore the leaf is not set 
straight, but has a droop.^ The bark of the abele 
is rougher and more scaly, like that of the wild pear, 
and it bears no fruit. 

The alder also has but one form : in growth it is 

^ Kaxpvs, here probably a gall, mistaken for winter-bud. 
^ cj., however, 3. 3. 4 ; 4. 10. 2, where T. seems to follow a 
different authority. 

^ Supply ywviav from ayJivioy. 

' iyK^KXifxivov : Bc. is not in line with the stalk. 


6p0o(f)ve<;, ^v\ov 3' €)(ov /laXaKOV Kot ivrepLu>vi]i' 
puxXatcriv, cliare hi oXov KOiXaiveadai Ta<; Xevrra? 
pdfthov<^. (f)vWov S' ofiOLvv uTTLco, ttXtjv fiel^ov 
KOI Ivwcearepov. Tpa)(^v(p\oLov oe Kal o ^\o^O'^• 
eacoOev ipvOp6<;, St o Kal ^dirrei ra Bepfiara. 
pL^a<; Se eTnir oXaiov^ . . . rjXl/cov Bd(f)vr]<;. (pveTai 
he ev TOi? i(f)vSpoL<i dXkodi 8' ovSajxov. 

[%7]/u.v8a Be TO fiev (f)vWov e)(^et> ofioiov t[] 
IlepaiKfj KoXovjievrj Kapva ttXtjv jJiiKpcp arevore- 
pov, Tov (f)Xoiov Be ttolklXov, ^vXop Be iXacppov 
■)(p7](TL/jiOV Be 61? /3aKT7]pLa^ fiovov et? aXXo Be 

'H Be KoXvrea e-xei to /lev (f)vXXov eyyii'; tov 
Ti}? tTea?, TToXvo^ov Be /cat 7roXv(f>vXXov Kal to 
BevBpov oXft)? fieya' tov Be Kapirov eXXo^ov, 
KaOcLTrep to, 'x^eBpoird' Xo^oU yap TrXaTeai Kal 
ov (TT€vo2^ TO arrepiidTiov to evov fiiKpov Kal ov 
jjLeya' aKXrjpov Be fieTplco^ ovk dyav ovSe iroXv- 
KapiTOV CO? KaTa /leyeOo^. cnrdviov Be to ev 
Xo^OL<=; exeiv tov Kapirov oXiya yap rotavTa tmv 

XV. 'H Be 'WpaKXewTLKr] Kapva — (pvcrei yap 
Kal tout' dypiov tw tc /jtrjBev rj /xr; ttoXv 
^et/Oft) yivecrOai <^> tmv rjfiepojv tov Kapirov, Kai 
Tw BvvaaOai ■)(^eLfia)va<; v7ro(f)epeiv Kal toS ttoXv 
<f)veaOaL KaTa to, opt] Kal iroXvKapTTOV ev Tot? 
opeioL<i' €Ti Be tw fjirjBe crTeXex^Be^s dXXa Oa/i- 

^ Part of the description of the flower, and perliapa of the 
fruit, seems to be missing. Sch. 

2 cf. 4. 8. 1 ; but in 1. 4. 3 the alder is classed with ' am- 
phibious' trees, and in 3. 3. 1 with * trees of the plain.' 

• Betulam, G from PHu. 16. 74. 



also erect, and it has soft wood and a soft heart-wood, 
so that the slender boughs are hollow throughout. 
The leaf is like that of the pear, but larger and 
more fibrous. It has rough bark, which on the inner 
side is red : wherefore it is used for dyeing hides. 
It has shallow roots . . . ^ the fiower is as large as 
that of the bay. It grows in wet places ^ and 
nowhere else. 

The semyda"^ has a leaf like that of the tree called 
the 'Persian nut'(walnut), but it is rather narrower: 
the bark is variegated and the wood light : it is only 
of use for making walking-sticks and for no other 

The bladder-senna'* has a leaf near that of the 
willow, but is many-branched and has much foliage ; 
and the tree altogether is a large one. The fruit is 
in a pod, as in leguminous plants : the pods in fact 
are broad rather than narrow, and the seed in them 
is comparatively small, and is moderately hard, but 
not so very hard. For its size the tree does not 
bear much fruit. It is uncommon to have the fruit 
in a pod ; in fact there are few such trees. 

Of Jilhert, Urebinth, box, krataigos. 

XV. The filbert is also naturally a wild tree, in that 
its fruit is little, if at all, inferior to that of the tree 
in cultivation, that it can stand winter, that it grows 
commonly on the mountains, and that it bears 
abundance of fruit in mountain regions ^ ; also because 
it does not make a trunk, but is shrubby with 

* Sch. remarks that the description of koAutco is out of 
place : c/. 3. 17. 2. W. thinks the whole section spurious. 
The antitheses in the latter part suggest a different context, 
in which /coAureo was described by comparison with some 
other tree. ' dpeiois couj.W.; (popais Aid. 



rwSe? elpai pa/3Sof? avev fjiaa^f^XoiV koI dv6^0L<: 
/xa/cpaU Be Kal 7ra;^eta£9 tvlat^' — ov firjv aXXa 
KOI i^yfiepovrai. Biacpopap Be eyet rat rov 
Kapirov uTToBtBovai ^eXrlo) koX fiel^ov to (f)vWov 
K€)(apa<yiievov S' a/jLcpolv ofwioTarov ro t?}? 
KX7]0pa<^, 7rX7]v TrXarvTepov Kal avro to BevBpov 
fxel^ov. KapirifjicoTepoi' B' alel 'ylverai KaTa- 

2 KOiTTopievov ra^ f)d^Bov<;. yevr] Be Bvo d/it(pOLV' 
ai fiev yap arpoyyuXov at Be irpopiaKpov (pepouat 
ro Kcipvov i/cXevKorepov Be ro roiv i)/j,epcov. Kal 
KaXXLKaprrel /udXLard y iv rol<^ i(jivBpoL<;. e^?;- 
ULepovrai Be rd dypia ^erac^vrevo/xeva. (fiXoLOP 
S' €^€L Xelov eiTLiToXaiOP Xeirrop Xiirapov tStw? 
Triy/Lid'; XevKa^; eyovra ep avrto' rb Be ^uXop 
<T4)6Spa yXia')(pop, Mare Kal rd Xewrd rrdpv pa^- 
Bia TvepiXorTLaapre^ Kapea iroLOvcn, Kal rd Tra^ea 
Be Kara^vcrapre<i. e^ei Be kol eprepicopyjp Xeirrrjp 
^apOrjP, y KOiXaiveraL. lBlop 8' avrcop ro irepl 
rop XovXop, warrep eiTTOfiep. 

z T/}9 Be repfiipdov ro fiep dppep ro Be Oi'iXv. ro 
f.Lep ovp dppep aKapirop, Bt o Kal KaXovaiv dppeP' 
rcop Be dyjXeiMP rj fxep epvOpop evOix; (fyepei top 
Kapirop ifXiKOP ^aicop direTrroPy 77 Be 'xXoepov 
epeyKaaa fxerd ravra epvOpalvei, Kal d/xa rfj 
d/jLTreXa) rreiraipovaa ro ea)(arop rroiel fieXapa, 
fieye6o<i rfXiKOP Kvafiop, prjrLPCoBrj Be Kal 6vco- 
Becrrepop. ecrrt Be ro BepBpop rrepl fiep rrjp "IBrjp 
Kal IsiaKeBoi'iap ^pa')(y OafiPCoBe^ earpa/xfiepop, 
irepl Be ^afiaaKOP t?}9 XvpLa<; /xeya Kal iroXv 
Kal KaXop' opo(; yap ri (paaLV elpai Trd/i/iearop 

» cf. a P. 2. 12. 6. 2 c/. Geop. 10. 68. 

' Xdov conj. W. ; irKfov UMVAld. 



imbranched stems without knots ; though some of 
these are long and stout. Nevertheless it also submits 
to cultivation. The cultivated form differs in produc- 
ing better fruit and larger leaves ; in both forms the 
leaf has a jagged edge : the leaf of the alder most 
closely resembles it, but is broader, and the tree itself 
is bigger. ^ The filbert is always more fruitful if it 
lias its slender boughs cut off". ^ There are two kinds 
of each sort; some have a round, others an oblong 
nut ; that of the cultivated tree is paler, and it fruits 
best in damp places. The wild tree becomes 
cultivated by being transplanted. Its bark is smooth,' 
consisting of one layer, thin glossy and with peculiar 
white blotches on it. The wood is extremely tough, 
so that men make baskets even of the quite thin 
twigs, having stripped them of their bark, and ot 
the stout ones when they have whittled them. Also 
it has a small amount of yellow heart-wood, which 
makes ^ the branches hollow. Peculiar to these trees 
is the matter of the catkin, as we mentioned.^ 

6 The terebinth has a ' male ' and a * female ' form. 
The ' male ' is barren, which is why it is called 
' male ' ; the fruit of one of the ' female ' forms is 
red from the first and as large as an unripe ^ lentil ; 
the other produces a green fruit which subsequently 
turns red, and, ripening at the same time as the 
grapes, becomes eventually black and is as large as a 
bean, but resinous and somewhat aromatic. About 
Ida and in Macedonia the tree is low shrubby and 
twisted, but in the Syrian Damascus, where it 
abounds, it is tall and handsome ; indeed they say 

* ?) Ald.H.; i, W. with U. cj. 3. 13. 4. 
5 3. 7. 3. « Plin. 13. 54. 

' Koi before iiniTTov om. St, 


4 t€P/jliv9q)v, aXXo 8' ovSev TrecfyuKevai. ^vXov he 
€)(€L yXiCT'y^^pop Koi pi^a^ layypci'; Kara /3d0ov<;, 
Kol TO oXov avodXeO pov av6o<; he 6/xoiov tm Tri<^ 
iXda^, T(p ')(^p(o/xaTL he epvOpov. (fyvXXov, Trepl 
eva iJiLa-)(ov TrXeuo) hacpvoeihrj Kara av^vylav, 
ciiairep kol to t^? oh]<;' kol to i^ uKpov irepLTTov 
TrXrjp iyyoyvLcoTcpov t/}? ot/;? kol hacpvoeihecTTepov 
he kukXo) kol XiTTapov dirav ajxa tm KapTrw. 
(f)€pei he Koi KcopvKcohr] tlvcl KolXa, KaOdirep t) 
TTTeXea, ev ol<; 07]pLhia iyylyveTaL Kcovwiroeih))' 
eyyiyveT at he tl kol pi)TLV(iihe<; ev TovTOi<; kol 
yXia-^^pov ov pbyv evdevTev ye t] prjTivyi avXXe- 
yeTau dXX' drro tov ^vXov. 6 he Kapiro^; ovk 
d<j)Lr]at p7]TLVT]<; 7rX.^(9o?, dXXd TTpoae-^^eTai fiev 
rat? xepai, kclv fir] ttXvOJ) /xeTCL ttjv avXXoyr)v 
avvex^Tai' rrXvp6fievo<! he 6 fiev XevKo^ kol 
aireTTTO^ eTrnrXel, 6 he fieXa<; vc^iaTaTai. 

5 'H he TTv^o^ fieyeOev fiev ov jieydXri, to he 
(^vXXov ofxoLov e^Gt jxyppivw. (jiveTai 8' ev tol<=; 
'>^rvxpo'l'i TOTTOi? KoX Tpax^ar koi yap tcl l^vTwpa 
TOLOVTOV, ov rj irXeiaTTj yuveTar -yjrvxpo'^ he /cal 
6 "OXfyLtTTO? 6 ^laKehovLKo^i' kol yap evTavOa 
yiveTai 7rX7]V ov peydXiy /leylaTy] he kuI KaX- 
XicTTT] ev Yivpvcp' Kal yap €vfn]Kei<i Kal 7ra;^o? 
exovaat ttoXv irapd Ta<i dXXa<;. ht' o Kal to 
/leXt ovx vhv o^ov tT;? ttv^ov. 

^ nXeiw : BC. (pvWa, in loose apposiLion to (pvWov. Ap- 
parently the leaf is said to resemble that of ot-rj in its compo- 
site structure, but that of the bay in shape : cf. 3. 12. 7. 

2 airav a/xa conj.iW. ; a/xa airav UAld. 

' cf. 2. 8. 3 ; 3. 7. 3; 3. 14. 1. KupvKuS-n conj. R. Const.; 
KopvdSr} Aid.; kwpuwStj H. ; KapvuSr] mBas. 



that there is a certain hill which is covered with 
terebinths, though nothing else grows on it. It has 
tough wood and strong roots which run deep, and the 
tree as a whole is impossible to destroy. The flower 
is like that of the olive, but red in colour. The leaf 
is made up of a number of leaflets,^ like bay leaves, 
attached in pairs to a single leaf-stalk. So far it 
resembles the leaf of the sorb ; there is also the 
extra leaflet at the tip : but the leaf is more angular 
than that of the sorb, and the edge resembles 
more the leaf of the bay ; the leaf is glossy all 
over,2 as is the fruit. It bears also some hollow 
bag-like ^ growths, like the elm, in which are found 
little creatures like gnats ; and resinous sticky 
matter is found also in these bags ; but the resin is 
gathered from the wood and not from these. The 
fruit does not discharge much resin, but it clings to 
the hands, and, if it is not washed after gathering, it 
all sticks together ; if it is washed, the part which is 
white and unripe floats,^ but the black part sinks. 

The box is not a large tree, and it has a leaf like 
that of the myrtle. It grows in cold rough places ; 
for of this character is Cytora,^ where it is most 
abundant. The Macedonian Olympus is also a cold 
region; ^for there too it grows, though not to a 
great size. It is largest and fairest in Corsica,^ 
where the tree grows taller and stouter than anywhere 
else ; wherefore the honey there is not sweet, as it 
smells of the box. 

^ firnr\(7 conj. R. Const, from G ; iirl ttK^Iov Aid.; eVl irAei 
(erased) U. 

» c/. Gytore huxifer, Catull. 4. 13 ; Plin. 16. 70. 

« c/. 5. 7. 7. 

^ Kvpvcf conj. R. Const, from PHn. I.e.; Kvoriyui U; Kvp-nvn 



6 TiXyjOei he ttoXv KpdTaLy6<i icrriv, ol he Kpa- 
Taiyova KoXovaiv e%ei Be to fxev (pvWop ofioLov 
fieairiXy reravoVjTrXrjv fxel^ov eKeivov kch irXarv- 
repov Tj Trpo/nrjKecTTepov, rbv 8e ')(^apayp,bv ovk 
e^ov Mairep i/celvo. yiperat Se to Sei'Bpov ovt€ 
/jeya Xlav ovTe rraxv' to Be ^vXov itolkLXov 
la)(ypov ^avOov e%6t Be (f)Xoibi> Xelov o/xolov 
/xeaTTiXr]' /loroppi^ou 8' ei? ^clOo<^ co? eirl to ttoXv. 
KapiTOV S' e;)^et aTpoyyvXov 7)Xikov 6 kotlvo'^' 
ireTraivofiepo'; Be ^avOvveTaL koI einpLeXaiveTaL' 
KaTa Be Trjv yeuair koI tov ^yXov fieaTTiXcoBe^;' 
Btoirep olov aypla /jueaTTiXri Bo^eiev av elvai. 
/xovoeiBe^; Be Kal ovk e^ov BLa(^opd'^. 

XVI. O Be TTplvo'^ (f)vXXop /xeu e^ei Spv(oBe<;, 
eXaTTOV Be /cat erraKavOil^oi', tov Be ^Xolov Xclo- 
Tepov Bpv6<i. avTO Be to BevBpov p^eya, KaOdirep 
i) Bpv<i, eav €)(7) Toirov Kal eBa(f)0<i' ^vXov Be 
rrvKVOv Kal la^vpov jSaOvppL^ov Be eTTieiKcb'^ Kal 
TToXvppL^ov. KapTTOv Be e^ei /SaXavcoBy]- piKpd 
Be 1) j3dXavo<^' irepLKaTaXaplSdvei, Be 6 veo^ tov 
evov oyjre yap rrenTaivei, Bl o Kal BL(f)opelv TLve<i 
(padL. (pepec Be irapd ttjv fSdXavov Kal kokkov 
TLva (poLVLKOvv Xayei Be Kal l^iav Kal vcpeap- 
wcTTe eviOTS avpL^aivei TeTTapa<; dpa Kapirov'^ 
eycLv avTov, Bvo fiev tou? eavTov Bug B* dXXov<i 
TOV T€ tt)? f^ta? Kal tov tov v(j)eapo(;. Kal ttjv 

» Quoted by Athen. 2. 34; cf. Plin. 16. 120; 26. 99; 
27. 62 and 63. 

« T(Tav6y: cf. 3. 11. 1; 3. 12. 5. Allien., I.e., baa rtra- 


• iKuvo Athen. I.e.; kolkuvo Aid. 

* ^avQhv before lax^P^" Athen. l.€. 



^ The kraiaigos is a very coinmon tree ; some call it 
kraiaigon. It has a smooth '^ leaf like that of the 
medlar, but longer^ and its breadth is greater than 
its length, while the edge is not jagged like that^ 
of the medlar. The tree does not grow very tall or 
thick; its wood is mottled strong and brown ^; it 
has a smooth bark like that of the medlar ; it has 
generally a single root, which runs deep. The fruit 
is round and as large as that of the wild olive ^ ; as 
it ripens it turns brown and black ; in taste and 
flavour it is like that of the medlar ; wherefore this 
might seem to be a sort of wild form of that tree.*^ 
There is only one form of it and it shews no 

Of certain other oaks, arhiitus, andrachne, wig-tree. 

XVI. The kermes-oak " has a leaf like that of the 
oak, but smaller and spinous,^ while its bark is smoother 
than that of the oak. The tree itself is large, like 
the oak, if it has space and root-room ; the wood is 
close and strong ; it roots fairly deep and it has many 
roots. The fruit is like an acorn, but the kermes- 
oak's acorn is small ; the new one overtakes that of 
last year, for it ripens late.^ Wherefore some say 
that it bears twice. Besides the acorn it bears a kind 
of scarlet berry ^'^ ; it also has oak-mistletoe ^^ and 
mistletoe ; so that sometimes it happens that it has 
four fruits on it at once, two which are its own and 
two others, namely those of the oak-mistletoe ^^ and 

* K6rivoi Athen. I.e.; kS^i/hos UMVAld. 

' fxeaitiXri added from Athen. I.e. 

f cf. 3. 7. 3. 8 cf. 3. 16. 'J. 9 cf. .3. 4. 1, 4 and 6. 
»<» Plin. 16. 32 ; Simon, ap. Plut. Theseus 17. 
»» cf. a P. 2. 17. 1. 


jxev l^iav (pepet i/c tmv Trpo^ ^oppav, to 8e v^eap 
€K TMV 7r/30? fX€arjfi^pLav. 

Ot Be Trepl ^Ap/caBiav heuhpov ri afiiXaKa 

KoXovaiV, 6 eCTTLV OflOLOV T(p TTpLVW, TO, he (f)vX\a 

ovK aKavOcoSrj e%efc aW' airaXcoTepa fcal ^aOvrepa 
Koi Bia(f)opa<i e^ovra irkelov^' ovhe rb ^vkov 
McjTTep eKelvo arepeov koX ttvkvov, aWa kuI 
jxaXaKov iv ralf ipyaalai^. 

'^O Be KoXovaLV ol ^ApKdSe<i (peWoBpvv roicivBe 
e'xei TYjV (pvaiv ct)9 p^ev aTrXw? eLTvelv dva fiecrov 
TTpivov KoX Bpv6<; eariv koI evLoi ye vTroXapc^d- 
vovaiv elvai OrfXyv irplvov Bl o kclI ottov fir) 
(pverac 7TpLvo<; tovtm ^(pcovTat tt/oo? rd<; up,d^a<s 
/cat ra roiavra, KaOdirep ol irepl AaKeBalfiova koX 
^WXeiav. KaXovai Be oi ye AcopLel's kol dplav to 
BevBpov eari Be pcaXaKcorepov p.ev kol jxavorepop 
Tov irpivov, GK\ripoTepov Be kol irvKvorepov t^? 
Bpv6<;' KoX ro '^(^pcop^a <pXola6evTO<^ rod ^vXov 
XevKorepov p,ev tov Trpivov, oLvcoirorepou Be Tr}? 
Bpv6<;' rd Be (j)vXXa irpoaeoLKe /xeu djJLcj^olv, ey^ei 
Be pel^w [xev r) o)? 7rp2vo(; iXdrrco Be rj co? Bpv<;' 
KoX TOV Kapirov tov p.ev TTpivov Kara fieyedo^ 
eXaTTCt) Tal<; eXa')(iaTai<i Be /3aXdvoi<; lctov, koX 
yXvKVTcpov pev tov irplvov iriKpoTepov Be tt}? 
Bpv6<;. KaXovcn, Be Tive<; tov jiev tov Trpivov koI 
TOV TavTrj^ KupTTov ciKvXov, TOV Be tt}? Bpvo<; 
^dXavov. fi7]Tpav Be e^ec ^avepcoTepav rj 6 
TTplvo^' KOL Tf fiev <f)eXX6Bpv<; ToiavTrjv TLvd e%€i 

» Plin. 16. 19. See Index. 

^ PaOvrepa MSS. ; evdurepa conj. Dalec. 

" I'lin. I.e. See Index. 



of the mistletoe. It produces the oak -mistletoe on 
the north side and the mistletoe on the south. 

The Arcadians have a tree which they call smilax ^ 
(holm-oak), which resembles the kermes-oak, but 
has not spinous leaves, its leaves being softer and 
longer ^ and differing in several other ways. Nor 
is the wood hard and close like that of the kermes- 
oak, but quite soft to Avork. 

The tree which the Arcadians call * cork-oak ' ^ 
(holm-oak) has this character : — to put it generally, 
it is between the kermes-oak and the oak ; and some 
suppose it to be the ' female ' kermes-oak ; wherefore, 
where the kermes-oak does not grow, they use this 
tree for their carts and such-like purposes; for instance 
it is so used by the peoples of Lacedaemon and Elis. 
The Dorians also call the tree aria.^ Its wood is softer 
and less compact than that of the kermes-oak, but 
harder and closer than that of the oak. When it is 
barked,^ the colour of the wood is paler than that of 
the kermes-oak, but redder than that of the oak. 
The leaves resemble those of both trees, but they 
are somewhat large, if we consider the tree as a 
kermes-oak, and somewhat small if we regard it as 
an oak. The fruit is smaller in size than that of the 
kermes-oak, and equal to the smallest acorns ; it is 
sweeter than that of the kermes-oak, bitterer than 
that of the oak. Some call the fruit of the kermes- 
oak and of the aria ' mast,' ^ keeping the ijame 
' acorn ' for the fruit of the oak. It has a core which 
is more obvious than in kermes-oak. Such is the 
character of the ' cork-oak.' 

* Already described ; cj. 3. 4. 2 ; 3. 1^. 1. 

* c/. Pans. Arcadia, 8. 12. 

' &Kv\ov : c/. Horn. Od. 10. 242. 



'H Se K6/j,apo<;, rj to ixefiaiKvXov ^epovaa to 
eScoBi/jLOv, earl fiev ovk ciyav fieya, tov he (f)\otov 
e')(€L XeTTTOP fi€v TrapofiOLOV pivpiKr), to he (f)vWov 
fieTa^v irpivov koI hd(^vrj<;. dvOel he tov TLvave- 
'^iOi)Vo<;- TCL he civOrj 7Te(f)VKev drro jiid^ Kpe/xdaTpa^; 
eir OLKpcov /SoTpvhov Tyv he /iop<j)7]i^ e/caa-Tov 
ecFTLV 0/jLolov fivpT(p 7rpo/jL^K€t, Kul TO) fieyedci he 
o"^ehbv TrfkLKovTov a<pvWov he koI kolXov wairep 
MOV eKKeKoXafifievov to aTo/ia he dvecpyfievov 
oTav 3' uTravO/jar], kol r) Trp6a(^vcn^ TeTpvrrtjTai, 
TO 8* cnravOrjcrav XeiTTOv koI Mcnrep a(j)6vhvXo<; 
irepX aTpaKTOV rj KupveiO'^ AcopiKo^i' 6 he Kapno^ 
eviavTM ireTTaiveTai, (oaff" afia crv/jL/Saivei tovtov 

T eX^iV KOL TOV €T€pOV (IvOelv. 

Hapojioiov he to (pvXXov kol t) dvhpdxXyj e;^e/ 
TM KOfidpcp, iieye6o<i ovk dyav fieya' tov he (pXoiov 
Xelov e%et kuI TrepLpprjryvvpievov' Kapirov S' e^^t 

OfJiOlOV TTj Ko/idpw. 

"OfioLov 5' eaT\ TOVTOi<i to (pvXXov kol to rr^? 
KOKKvyea^' to he hevhpov puKpov. thiov he e^^i 
TO eKiraiTirovaOai tov Kapirov tovto yap ovh' 
e<^' €Vo<; aK^jKoafiev dXXov hevhpov. TavTa fiev 

ovv KOivoTcpa TrXeloaL ^coyoat? koX tottol^;. 

» Plin. 15. 98 and 99 ; Diosc. 1. 122. ' October. 

' iKK^KoXaaiiivQV MV, cf. Arist. H.A. 6. 3 ; iyKtKoKa^ixfvoi' 
UAld. * cJ.l.U. 3. 

^ Kapveios, an unknown word, probably corrupt ; kiovos 
^wpiKov conj. Sell., 'drum of a Doric column.' cf. Athen. 
5. 39. 



1 The arbutus, which produces the edible fruit 
called memaikylon, is not a very large tree ; its bark is 
thin and like that of the tamarisk, the leaf is between 
that of the kermes-oak and that of the bay. It 
blooms in the month Pyanepsion - ; the flowers grow 
in clusters at the end of the boughs from a single 
attachment ; in shape each of them is like an oblong 
myrtle flower and it is of about the same size ; it has 
no petals, but forms a cup like an empty eggshell,^ 
and the mouth is open : when the flower drops off, 
there is a hole * also through the part by which 
it is attached, and the fallen flower is delicate and 
Hke a whorl on a spindle or a Doric knrneios.^ The 
fruit takes a year to ripen, so that it comes to pass 
that this and the new flower are on the tree 

^ The andrachne has a leaf like that of the arbutus 
and is not a very large tree ; the bark is smooth "^ 
and cracked,^ the fruit is like that of the arbutus. 

The leaf of the wig-tree ^ is also like that of 
the last named tree, but it is a small tree. Peculiar 
to it is the fact that the fruit passes into down ^^ : 
we have not heard of such a thing in any other 
tree. These trees are found in a good many 
positions and regions. 

« Plin. 13. 120. 

' \f1ov conj. Sch.; X^vkIv UAld. In Pletho's excerpt the 
passage has K^'iov, and Plin., I.e., evidently read \elov. 

® Trepipprtyyufxeyov. Plin., I.e., seems to have read irfpnrr]- 
yvv^ievov. c/. 1. 5. 2; 9. 4. 3. 

' Plin. 13. 121. K0KKvy4as conj. Sch. after Plin. I.e., cf. 
Hesych. S.v. KeKKOKvycofievTiv; K0KK0fxr]\4as U ; KOKKufi-qKeas 

^'* iKiraiTTTovadai : fruetum amittere lanugine Plin. I.e. cf. 
6. 8. 4. 



XVII. "Kvia Be lBio)T€pa, KaOairep koX 6 </)eX,Xos • 
ytveraL [lev iv TvpprfVLa, to Be B^vBpov ccttI are- 
X.e;^&>Se9 yw-ei/ koX oXtyoKXaSov, eu/jLTjKe^ S' iineiKm 
Kol euaf^e?* ^vXov la'y^upov' rov Be ^Xoiov'n-a')(yv 
(T(j)6Bpa KOL Karapprjyvv/ievoVy wairep 6 rrj<; ttltuo^, 
nrXrji/ Kara /xet^w. to Be (j)vXXov ofioiov rat? 
fieXiai^ TTaj^y 7rpo/jbr]KeaT€pov' ovk aei^vXXov 
aXXa ^vXXojBoXovv. Kapirov Be [aleX] (fyepei 
/3aXavi]pov ofioiov ttj apia. Trepiaipovac Be tov 
(fiXoLov Kal (paat, Betv iravTa a(^aLpelv, el Be fit) 
^(elpov ylveTat to BevBpov e^avairXrjpovTai Be 
TTuXiV (JXeBov iv TpL(T\v cTeatv. 

"JBlov Be Kal i) KoXouTea irepl Aindpav BevBpov 
fxev ev/xeyeOe^, tov Be Kapirov (f)€p€i, iv Xo/SoU 
rjXUov ^aKov, o? Tnaivec to, irpo^aTa OavfiaaTcj^;. 
(f)veTaL Be awo airepfiaTO'i Kal iK t>)9 twv irpo^d- 
Twv Koirpov KoXXiaTa. wpa Be t/}? <^VTeia^ apua 
*ApKTovp(p BvopLev(p' Bel Be (pvTeveiv 7rpo^pe^ovTa<; 
OTav i'lBrj Bia^vriTai iv tw vBaTt. (f)vXXov 8' e^^i 
irapopiOLOv T)]Xei. ^XaaTavei Be to irpMTov 
pbovo(f)U€<; iirl eTij pLuXitTTa Tpia iv ol^; kol Ta<i 
^aKTrjpla'^ Tepvovar Bokovctl yap elvai KaXai- 
Kal idv Ti? KoXovarj d7ro6vr](TKeL' Kal yap dira- 
pd/BXacTTov iaTiv etra ax^'^^Tai Kal diroBev- 
BpovTai T(p TeTapTrp eTei. 

I Plin. 16. 34. 

^ Tvppi)vla conj. R. Const.; iruppr]vlai UMV; Trvppr)vla. Aid. 

' aU\ must be corrupt : probably repeated from ail<pv\\ov. 

■* ^aXav-qphv conj. Sch. ; 0a\avT}(popov UM VAld. 

* apia conj. R. Const, from G ; 07^(0 PjM VAld. ; 07^/01 U. 



Of corlc-oak, kolutea, koloitia, and of certain other trees 
peculiar to particular localities. 

XVII, ^ Some however are more local, such as the 
cork-oak : this occurs in Tyrrhenia ^ ; it is a tree with 
a distinct trunk and few branches, and is fairly tall 
and of vigorous growth. The wood is strong, the 
bark very thick and cracked, like that of the Aleppo 
pine, save that the cracks are larger. The leaf is 
like that of the manna-ash, thick and somewhat 
oblong. The tree is not evergreen but deciduous. 
It has always ^ an acorn-like ^ fruit like that of 
the aria^ (holm-oak). They strip off the bark,® and 
they say that it should all be removed,'' otherwise 
the tree deteriorates : it is renewed again in about 
three years. 

The kolutea^ too is a local tree, occurring in the 
Lipari islands. It is a tree of good size, and bears 
its fruit, which is as large as a lentil, in pods ; this 
fattens sheep wonderfully. It grows from seed, and 
also grows very well from sheep-droppings. The 
time for sowing it is the setting of Arcturus ; and 
one should first soak the seed and sow it when it is 
already sprouting in the water. It has a leaf like 
telis^ (fenugreek). At first it grows for about three 
years with a single stem, and in this period men cut 
their walking-sticks from it ; for it seems that it 
makes excellent ones. And, if the top is cut off 
during this period, it dies, for it makes no side- 
shoots. After this period it divides, and in the 
fourth year develops into a tree. 

8 cf. 1. 5. 2 ; 4. 15. 1 ; Plin. 17. 234. 
' a<paipe7v conj. Coraes ; Siatpe7v PjAld. 
8 cf. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 3. 

' T^Aet conj. R. Const, from G, faeno graeco ; rl\^i UMV; 
TuAp Aid. 



'H Be rrrepl t'))v "IBrjp, rjv KoXovai KoXoirlav, 
erepov eI86? iartp, Oafxvoeihh Be /cal o^wSe? Kal 
7ro\vfida^a\ov, (TTrdvLov Be, ov ttoXv- e-)(eL Be 
(PvWov Ba(j)voeLBe<; TrXarvcfivWov Sac^i^/;?, ttXtjv 
arpoyyuXwrepov Kol /lel^ov coa6^ 6/xoiov (palveaOai 
TO) T>}? 7rTeXea<;, irpoin^Kearepov Be, rrjv XP^^^' 
€7rl Odrepa ^(Xoepov oiriaOev Be einXevKalvov, Kal 
TToXmi'OP i/c T(bv OTTcaOev ral'^ XeTrrat? Icrl eK re 
T?}? pd^ew^ Kal fiera^v rcov irXevpoeiBfov uTrb 
Tr)<i piear)<i Karareivovcrcov' (f)XoLov 8' ov Xelop 
d\X* oXov TOP rrj<; d/jLTTeXov to ^e ^vXov (tkXtjpov 
Kal irvKvov f)L^a<; Be errrLiToXaLOVf; Kal XeTrrd'i 
Kal iiavd<^ ovXa^ S' evlore, Kal ^avdd<; a(f>6Bpa. 
Kapirov Be ovk ex^iv (f)aalv ovBe dv6o<^' tt]v Be 
KopvvcoBrj Kd^pvp Kal tov<; 6^6aXiiov<; tou? rrapd 
rd (fivXXa XeLOu<; acpoBpa Kal Xiirapov'^ Kal 
XevKOV'i TM ax^j/jbaTL Be Ka^pydiBei^;' uTroKOTrev Be 
Kal eiTLKavOev irapac^veTai koI dua^Xaardvei. 

"iBia Be Kal rdBe rd irepl rrju "IBrjv earlv, olov 
■}] T€ ^AXe^dvBpeia KaXovfievrj Bd^vrj Kal avKy) ti<; 
Kal dfJLTreXo^. Trj<i fiep ovv Bdcf)vr]<; ev tovtw to 
lBiov, on, eTTLcpvXXoKapTrov eariv, Mairep Kal y 
KevTpo/ivppLi>r)- dfKpOTepai yap rov Kapirov ex- 
ovdLV eK Tr]<; pdx^co'i tov (fyvXXou. 

'H Be avKp] Oap,vcoBe<; fiev Kal ov^ vy\ryX6v, 
ird^o^ 5' e^ov coare Kal tttj^vcilov elvat t7]v irepi- 
fierpov TO Be ^vXov eTrearpa/ifievov yXiaxpov 
KarcoOev fj,ev Xelov Kal dvo^ov dvcodev Be rrepi- 

» KoKoiTiav {'>. KoKoirUv) U. cf. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 2. Which- 
ever spelling is correct should probably be adopted in all 
three places. ^^ c/. 3. 11. 3. 



The tree found about Mount Ida, called koloitia,^ 
is a distinct kind and is shrubby and branching with 
many boughs ; but it is rather rare. It has a leaf 
like that of the ' broad-leaved ' bay,^ but rounder 
and larger, so that it looks like that of the elm, 
but it is more oblong : the colour on both sides is 
green, but the base is whitish ; in this part it is 
very fibrous, because of its fine fibres which spring 
partly from the midrib,^ partly between the ribs^ 
(so to call them) which run out from the midrib. 
The bark is not smooth but like that of the vine ; 
the wood is hard and close, the roots are shallow 
slender and spreading, (though sometimes they are 
compact), and they are very yellow. They say that 
this shrub has no fruit nor flower, but has its knobby 
winter-bud and its ' eyes ' ; these grow alongside of 
the leaves, and are very smooth glossy and white, 
and in shape are like a winter-bud. When the tree 
is cut or burnt down, it grows from the side and 
springs up again. 

There are also three trees peculiar to Mount Ida, 
the tree called Alexandrian laurel, a sort of fig, and a 
' vine ' (currant grape). The peculiarity of the laurel 
is that it bears fruit on its leaves, like the ' prickly 
myrtle ' (butcher's broom) : both have their fruit on 
the midrib of the leaf. 

The ' fig ' ^ is shrubby and not tall, but so thick 
that the stem is a cubit in circumference. The wood 
is twisted and tough ; below it is smooth and un- 
branched, above it has thick foliage : the colour both 

^ Ik t6 Tr\s ^axfoos /col conj. W. ; koI ra'is ^/^^ais koI Aid. cf. 
3. 10. 3, and e/c ttjs pax^oss below, 3. 17. 4. 


* TrAei/poezSwf : irXfvpofiSMS COnj. St. 

» See Index. Plin. 15. 68 ; cf. Athen. 3. 11. 


KOfiov ')(pa)fjia Be kol (f>vXXov koI <p\oiov Trekiov, 
TO Be axTjiJLa rwv ^vWcov ofioLov tu> Trj<; (pikvpa^ 
Kol fiaXuKov KoX TrXarv kol ro fieyeOo'; irapa- 
TrXyjaiov avOo^ jjieairiXMBe'^ Kal av6el afia rfj 
fieairlXr). 6 Be Kapiro'^, ov koKovctl avKOv, epv6po<i 
rfkiKO^ e\da^ irX'iiv cyrpoyyvXaoTepo^, iaOi6/jL€Vo<; 
Be fieainXcoBy]^' pl^a^ Be e^^c Tra^j^eta? uxrav 
<TVKr]<; t'^fiepov kol Y^ucr^pa?. acraive^ Be iari to 
BevBpov KOL KapBiav 6%a arepeav ovk ivrepccovijv. 

'H Be ayuTreXo? ^verat fiev tt)? "\Brj<; irepl Ta<; 
^d\dKpa<; Ka\ovfieva<;' earc Be 6a/j,v(j!)Be<i pa^- 
Bloifi fiLKpol^i' reli'OVTat, Be ol K\a)ve<; &)? TTfYw- 
vialoL, 7rp6<; oI? pd'ye<; elaiv €K irXaylov fieXaivai 
TO fieyeOo^ r)XLKO<; Kiia/jLo<; yXv/ceiar e^ovai Be 
ivTO'^ yijaprcoBe^; TC fiaXaKov (f>vXXov ar poyyvSov 
daxi'Bh piLKpov. 

XVIII. ''E;^e£ Be Kal raXXa g^gBov op-q ^vaet^ 
riva<i tSta? rd piev BevBpwv to, Be 6dp,vo)v tu B' 
dXXoov vXijp.dTcop. dXXd yap irepl piev t?}? IBlo- 
rr)TO<=; e'lprjraL TrXeovdfci^ on yiveTat Ka6^ eKdarov^ 
TOTTOf?. 77 Be ev avTOL<i toT? opLoyeveaiv Bia<l)opd, 
KaOdirep t) tmv BevBpwv Kal twv Odpivwv, opboico^i 
earl Kal twv dXXcov, wairep etprjrai, rcov TrXeiarcov, 
wairep Kal pdpbvov Kal TraXiovpov Kal ol'aov [Kal 
otTOu] Kal pov Kal klttov Kal ^drov Kal erepcov 

' I^it. grape-stone. 

"^ I omit ri before 5ia<popd with Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xvii. 5-xviii. i 

of leaf and bark is a dull green, the shape of the 
leaf is like that of the lime ; it is soft and broad, 
and in size it also corresponds ; the flower is like 
that of the medlar, and the tree blooms at the same 
time as that tree. The fruit, which they call a 'fig,' 
is red, and as larore as an olive, but it is rounder 
and is like the medlar in taste ; the roots are thick 
like those of the cultivated fig, and tough. The 
tree does not rot, and it has a solid heart, instead of 
ordinary heart-wood. 

The 'vine' (currant grape) grows about the place 
called Phalakrai in the district of Ida ; it is shrubby 
with small twigs ; the branches are about a cubit 
long, and attached to them at the side are black 
berries, which are the size of a bean and sweet ; 
inside they have a sort of soft stone ^ ; the leaf is 
round undivided and small 

0/ the differences in variotts shrubs — huchthom, ivithy, Christ's 
thorn, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilaz, [spindle-tree]. 

XVIII. Most other mountains too have certain 
peculiar products, whether trees shrubs or other 
woody plants. However we have several times 
remarked as to such peculiarities that they occur in 
all regions. Moreover the variation ^ between things 
of the same kind which we find in trees obtains also 
among shrubs and most other things, as has been 
said : for instance, we find it in buckthorn Christ's 
thorn withy ^ sumach ivy bramble and many 

' [koI oXtov] bracketed by W. ; koI laov Aid. ; ku) Itrov Ka\ 
oXtov MVP ; Koi oXaov Koi oTtoi U. Only olaoi \a mentioned in 
the following descriptions. 



*Pa/Ai'o? re yap iarip rj fxev fxeXaiva 7) Se \evKrj, 
Kal 6 Kap7ro<; Sidcjiopo^, uKavdocpupoL Be ap(j)co. 

Tou re oLaov ro pev Xevfcov ro Be pekav kol to 
dvOo<i e/carepov kol 6 Kapiro^ Kara Xoyov p,€v 
XevKO^; 6 Be /ueXa?* evLOi Be Kal axrirep dva p,eaov, 
oiv Kal ro dv6o<; eiTLrropcpvpi^eL Kal ovre olvwrrov 
ovre eKXevKov eartv oyarrep rcov erepwv. e;^et Be 
Kal rd (f)vWa Xerrrorepa Kal Xeiorepa Kal rd<; 
pd/3Bov(; ro XeuKov. 

"O re rrdXiovpo'^ e^^et BLa(f)opd<i . . . drravra Be 
ravra Kap7ro<p6pa. Kal 6 ye 7ra\iovpo<; ev Xo^m 
riVL rov Kap-Kov e%ei KaOairepel (f)vX\(p, ev c5 rpua 
7] rerrapa yLverat. ypcovraL 8' avrw tt/jo? rd<; 
/3>};\;a? 01 iarpoX Korrrovre^' e%et yap nva 
y\LcrxporT]ra Kal \L7ro<;, wairep ro rov Xivov 
(TTreppia. cpverai Be Kal errl ro2<; i(f3vBpoL<; Kal ev 
roL<; ^7]pol<=;, ioarrep 6 /3dro<;. [ov)( yrrov Be eon 
ro BevBpov 'jrdpvBpov.'l (f)vXXo(36Xov Be Kal ov\ 
uicjirep 7) pdpvo<^ deL(l)vXXov. 

"Et£ Be Kal rov ^drov irXeiu) yevr), p^eyiar-qv Be 
€')(Ovre<i Bia(f)opdv on o p,ev 6p0o(f)V7]<; Kal u-v|ro? 
e^wv, 6 8' errl rP]^ 7^? Kal ev6v<^ Kdrco veiuov Kal 
orav crvvdrrrr} rrj yfj f)L^ovp,evo<i irdXiv, ov 87; 
KoXovai nv€<; yapiaifBarov. ro Be Kvvoa^arov 
rov Kapirov vrrepvOpov e^et Kal 7rapa7rX7j(Tiov ray 
rrj^ p6a<;' ean Be 6dp.vov Kal BevBpov p,era^v Ka\ 
rrapopoLOV Tat? p6ai<i, rb Be (jivXXov aKavOcoBa. 

1 c/. 1. 9. 4; 3. 18. 12; C.P. I. 10. 7. 

'^ .Some words are missing, wliich described various forms 
of naKiovpos, alluded to in irdi'Ta ravTa (!Sch.)- c/. 4. 8. 3, 
where an African naKiovpos is described. 

2 Kaeanepd (puWcf^ conj. W., cf. 3. 11. 2 ; Kaednep rh (pvWop 



^ Thus of buckthorn there is the black and the 
white form, and there is difference in the fruit, 
though both bear thorns. 

Of the withy there is a black and a white form ; 
the flower and fruit of each respectively correspond 
in colour to tlie name ; but some specimens are, as 
it were, intermediate, the flower being purplish, and 
neither wine-coloured nor whitish as in the others. 
The leaves in the white kind are also slenderer and 
smoother, as also are the branches. 

There is variation also in the Christ's thorn . . . ^ 
all these forms are fruit-bearing. Christ's thorn has 
its fruit in a sort of pod, resembling a leaf,^ which 
contains three or four seeds. Doctors bruise ^ them 
and use them against coughs ; for they have a certain 
viscous and oily character, like linseed. The shrub 
grows in wet and dry places alike, like the bramble.^ 
But it is deciduous, and not evergreen like buckthorn. 

Of the bramble again there are several kinds, 
shewing very great variation ; one is erect and tall, 
another runs along the ground and from the first 
bends downwards, and, when it touches the earth, it 
roots again ; this some call the ' ground bramble.' 
The ' dog's bramble ' (wild rose) has a reddish fruit, 
like that of the pomegranate '° ; and, like the pome- 
granate, it is intermediate between a shrub and a 
tree ; but the leaf is spinous.''' 

* KSnrovTes : for the tense cf. 3. 17. 2, npoBpexoi'Tas. 

^ ovx ■ • • -irdpvSpoy probably a gloss, W. 

6 pSaii UMV (?) Aid.; h^als conj. Sch. from Plin. 16. 180. 
Athen. (2. 82) cites the passage with irapair. tt? ^oia. The 
Schol. on Theocr. 5. 92 seems to have traces of both readings. 

' oLKavewSfs conj. Sch. from Schol. on Theocr. (see last note), 
which quotes the passage with aKayduSei ; ayva^ts UAld.; so 
also Athen. I.e. Plin. (24. 121) seems to have read ix»'w5€j 
{vestiyio hominis simile). 



Tt)? Be pov TO jiev appev rb Se OrjXv KoXovcn 
T(f TO fiev cLKapTTOv elvaL to Se KapTTi/Jiov. ovk 
ey^et Se ovSe tol'^ pd^Sovf; {'■v/rT^Xa? ovBe Tra')(^eia<; , 
(pvWov 8' 6/jLOLOv TTTeXea ttXtjp jjuiKpov TrpofiTj- 
KecTTepov Kol iTrlSaau. tmv he /cXwvlwi' twv vewv 
e^ laov tA (f)uWa et? Svo, kut aXXyXa Se eK twv 
TrXayicov wcrre aToc^elv. ^drrTOvai Be tovtw kol 
01 aKVToBeyjraL to, BepfiaTa to, XevKa. avdo^ 
XevKov ^0Tpv6)Be<;, tw ax^fJ'CLTL Be to oXocr^e^e? 
6(TTXLyya<; eyov wairep kol 6 /36Tpv<;- aTravdrj- 
(javTO<; Be o Kapiro^ dfia r^ aTa(^vXrj epvOpaiveTai, 
KaX yivovTat olov cf>aKol XeirTol auyKeifievoL' 
^OT/JfwSe? Be TO (T)(rjiia kcll tovtwv. e^^c Be to 
(f)ap/jLaKMBe<i tovto o KaXecTai poO? ip avTw 
ocTTcoBe^, o KOL T^? pov Bn]TTy]/jLev7]'i e')(^ec 7roXXdfCL<;' 
pi^a S* €7n7r6XaL0<; kol iiovo<^vr]^ wo-re dva- 
Ka/jLTTTeadaL paBico^ oXoppc^a' to Be ^vXov eWe- 
pLoivrjv e^ei, ev(p6apT0v Be /cat KoiTTofievov. Iv 
7rd<TL Be yiyveTai toI<; tottol'^, evOevel Be /idXiaTa 
ev T0t9 dpyiXcoBeac. 

TloXveiBrji; Be 6 kltto';' kol yap eiriyeLO^;, 6 Be 
et? yy^o'i aLp6fxevo<;' kol TOiv ev vyjreL TrXeico yevrj. 
Tpla S' ovv (^aiveTai to, fieyiGTa 6 t€ X€VKo<i kol 
6 yLteXa? Kal TpiTOv 7] eXi^. etBrj Be koX eKdaTOv 
TOVTwv irXeico. XevKo<; yap 6 fiev tw Kapirw 
p^ovov, 6 Be Kal rot? (f)vXXoi<; eVrt. rrdXiv Be to)v 
XevKOKdpTTwv jiovov 6 fjLeu dBpov Kal ttvkvov Kal 
avvecTTTjKOTa top Kapirop e;\;ei KaOairepel acpalpap, 

> Plin. 13. 55; 24. 91. 

2 (TTOix^iu: cf. 3. 5. 3; Plin. 13.55. 

' $0Tpvui5es con']. W. ; ^orpvrjdSy \J ; $0Tpvd6y Aid. 

* 6 ^ovs masc. cf. Diosc. 1. 108. 



^ Of the sumach they recognise a ' male ' and a 
* female ' form, the former being barren, the latter 
fruit-bearing. The branches are not lofty nor stout, 
the leaf is like that of the elm, but small more 
oblong and hairy. On the young shoots the leaves 
grow in pairs at equal distances apart, corresponding 
to each other on the two sides, so that they are in 
regular rows.^ Tanners use this tree for dyeing 
white leather. The flower is white and grows in 
clusters ; the general form of it, with branchlets, is 
like that of the grape-bunch ; when the flowering is 
over, the fruit reddens like tlie grape, and the 
appearance of it is like small lentils set close 
together; the form of these too is clustering. ^ The 
fruit contains the drug called by the same name,* 
which is a bony substance ; it is often still found 
even when the fruit has been put through a sieve. 
The root is shallow and single, so that these trees 
are easily bent right over,^ root and all. The wood 
has heart-wood, and it readily perishes and gets 
worm-eaten. 6 The tree occurs in all regions, but 
flourishes most in clayey soils. 

"^ The ivy also has many forms ; one kind grows 
on the ground, another grows tall, and of the tall- 
growing ivies there are several kinds. However the 
three most important seem to be the white the 
black and the helix. And of each of these there are 
several forms. Of the ' white ' one is white only in 
its fruit, another in its leaves also. Again to take 
only white-fruited sorts, one of these has its fruit 
well formed close and compact like a ball ; and this 

^ i.e. nearly uprooted by wind. 
* KotTT6,u€vov : cf. 8. 11. 2, 3 and 5. 
' Plin. 16. 144-U7. 


ov Srj KoXovai rive^i KopvjijBiav, ol 5' *A6)']vrjaiv 
^ X')(apviK6v. 6 he iXaTTcov BiaKe^vfieuo'^ Mcnrep 
Kol 6 fieka^' e')(€i' ^e kol 6 fie\a<^ Sia(f)opa<i aXX 
ov^ 6/JL0LC0<; (f)av€pd<i. 

7 'H Se eXi^ iv /jL€yLaTai,<; BLa(j)opaL<;' kol yap 
TOt? <j)vX\oL^ ifXelcrrov htac^epei rfj re /xiKpoTTjrt, 
KOL Tw ycovoeiSr] kol eupvO/xorepa elvat' ra Be rov 
KiTTOv rrepK^epearepa kol dirXa' kol tw pn^KGL 
Tcov kXtj/icitcov kol en tw cLKapTVO'^ elvai. Sia- 
reivovrai, yap nve^ tw /xt) diroKLTTOvaOai rfj 
(fyvaei rr]v eXiKU dWd ttjv ck tov kittou reXeiov- 
lievrjv. (el Be irdcra diroKLTTOVTai, Kaddirep Ttve<; 
(^acriv, rj\iKia<; dv eitj Kal BLaOeaecd<; ovk etSou? 
Bia<popd, KaOdirep /cal r?}? diriov 7rpo<; ttjv 
dxpdBa.) irXrjv ro ye (j)vWov Kal ravTr)<; ttoXv 
Bia(f)epei, Trpo? rov klttov. cnrdvLOv Be tovto Kal 
iv 6\iyoL<; ecnlv ware TraXaiovfievov [xera^dWeiv, 

8 wGirep iirl r^? \evKr}<i Kal rod KpoTcovof;. eiBr] 
5' eVrl TrXetct) r?}? e\iKO<;, co? /lev ra 7rpo(Pave- 
(Trara Kal [leyLcrra XajSelv rpia, i] re ^(Xoepd Kal 
ttolcoBtj'^ riTTep Kal TrXeiarT], Kal erepa rj XevKt], koI 
Tplry T) TTOiKiXr}, Yjv Brj KaXovai Tive<; SpaKiav. 

' cf. Theocr. 11. 46. « Plin. 16. 145 foil. 

' i.e. is the most * distinct ' of the ivies. 

* c/. 1. 10. 1 ; Diosc. 2. 179. 

* i.e. as an explanation of the barrenness of helix. 
' i.e. and so becomes fertile. 

'' SiaTfivovTai : cf. C.P. 4. 6. 1. 5toT. Ttf . . . apparently 
= " insist on the view that," . . . but the dative is strange. 
The sentence, which is highly elliptical, is freely emended by 
most editors. 



kind some call korymhias, but the Athenians call it the 
' Acharnian ' ivy. Another kind is smaller and loose 
in growth like the black ivy.^ There are also vari- 
ations in the black kind, but they are not so well 

^ The helix presents the greatest differences ^ ; the 
principal difference is in the leaves/ which are small 
cngular and of more graceful proportions, while 
those of the ivy proper are rounder and simple; 
there is also difference in the length of the twigs, 
and further in the fact that this tree is barren. For,^ 
as to the view that the helix by natural development 
turns into the ivy,'' some insist "^ that this is not so, 
the only true ivy according to these being that which 
was ivy from the first^; (whereas if, as some say, the 
helix invariably ° turns into ivy, the difference would 
be merely one of age and condition, and not of kind, 
like the difference between the cultivated and the 
wild pear). However the leaf even of the full- 
grown helix is very different from that of the ivy, 
and it happens but rarely and in a few specimens 
that in this plant a change in the leaf occurs as it 
grows older, as it does in the abele and the castor-oil 
plant. 1° ^^ There are several forms of the helix, of 
which the three most conspicuous and important are 
the green ' herbaceous ' kind (which is the common- 
est), the white, and the variegated, which some call 
the ^Thracian' helix. Each of these appears to 

' i.e. and helix being a distinct plant which is always 

* iraffa COnj. Sch.; iras Aid. 

1° So. as well as in ivy; cf. 1. 10. 1, where this change is 
said to be characteristic of these three trees, (The rendering 
attempted of this obscure section is mainly from W.'s note.) 

" Plin. 16. 148 folU 



eKaarr} Be rovToav Bokci Sia^Spetw Kal yap lyj^: 
'^\o(dBov<; 7} fiev Xeirrorepa /cal ra^K^vWorepa 
Koi en iTVKVO(pvWoTepa, rj 3' '^ttov iravra tuvt 
€)(Ovaa. Kal rfj^; 7roiKL\r]<; rj fiev [lel^ov 7) 8' 
eXaTTOv TO <^vXKov, Kal ttjv iroLKiXiav hta- 
<f)6povaa. (i)(javTO}<i Be Kal ra t?}? Xcvkt]'; tw 
/xeyeOeL Kal rfj XP^''^ Sia(f)epovaiv. evav^eardri] 
Be T} 7roio)B7]<; Kal eirl irXelarov nrpolovaa. (pavepav 
B^ elvai (^acLV rrjv cLTTOKLTTOVfievrjv ov fiovov rot? 
(^vXkoL^i on jiel^o) Kal irXarvrepa 6;^et aXKa 
Kal rol<s ^XaaTOL<i' €v0u<; yap 6pOov<; e;^et, Kal 
ovx cjairep rj erepa KaraKeKafifievT], Kal Blcl t^ju 
XeTTTorrjTa Kal Bia ro /jLT]ko<;' t?)? Be kittcoBou^; 
Kal ^pax^T^poL Kal Tra^vrepoi. Kal 6 Kcrrbf; 
orav apxvrat, aTrep/iovaOat /jberecopov e^^L Kal 
opOov rov /SXaarov. 

9 Ilo\vppi^o<; /JL€V ovv aira'^ kltto<; Kal irvKvoppi- 
^o? (T wear pap, fievo<i ral^ pii^ai<^ Kal ^vXajBeat Kal 
TTay^eiai^ Kal ovk ayav /Sadvppi^of;, pdXiara 8' 
/jieXa<;, Kal rov XevKOV 6 Tpaxv'raro'^ Kal dypico- 
TaTO<j* Bl o Kal ^j^aXeTTO? '7rapa(^vea6aL Trdai Tol<i 
BevBpoL<;- diToXXvcn yap iravra Kal d^avaivei 
'napaLpovp,evo'^ ttjv rpocfirjv. Xapb^dveL Be [idXtaja 
7ra%o? ovTO<i Kal uTroBevBpouTai, Kal yiverai avro 
KaO' avTo KLTTOv BevBpov. o)? 3' eirl to irXelov 
elvai 7rpo<; erepw (piXel Kal ^tjtcl Kal wairep 

10 eiraXXoKavXov iariv. e;^et 8' €v6v<i Kal r?}? 

* Ta^i<pv\\oT€pa conj. W. from Plin. 16. 149, folia in 
ordinem digesta ; ixaKpo<pvX\oT(pa MSS. cf. 1. 10. 8. 

^ KaraKfKajJLfjifVT] con}. W. ; Kara/f eKau/ieVTj UAld. ; KaTaKtKafi- 
/nifovs conj. Sch. 

' KtTTwSovs MSS.; irowSovs conj. St. * cf. C.P. 1. 16. 4. 



present variations ; of the green one form is slenderer 
and has more regular ^ and also closer leaves, the 
other has all these characteristics in a less degree. 
Of the variegated kind again one sort has a larger, 
one a smaller leaf, and the variegation is variable. 
In like manner the various forms of the white helix 
differ in size and colour. The ' herbaceous ' kind is 
tlie most vigorous and covers most space. They say 
that the form which is supposed to turn into ivy is 
clearly marked not only by its leaves, because they 
are larger and broader, but also by its shoots ; for 
these are straight from the first, and this form does 
not bend over^ like the other; also because the 
shoots are slenderer and larger, while those of the 
ivy-like^ form are shorter and stouter. ^ The ivy 
too, when it begins to seed, has its shoots upward- 
growing and erect. 

All ivies have numerous close roots, which are 
tangled together woody and stout, and do not run 
very deep ; but this is specially true of the black 
kind and of the roughest and wildest forms of the 
white. Wherefore it is mischievous to plant this 
against any tree ; for it destroys and starves any 
tree by withdrawing the moisture. This form also 
more than the others grows stout and becomes tree- 
like, and in fact becomes itself an independent ivy 
tree, though in general it likes and seeks to be ^ 
against another tree, and is, as it were, parasitic.^ 
"^ Moreover from the first it has also this natural 

• iivat conj. W. ; aU\ UM ; del Aid. 

* i.e. depends on another tree ; not, of course, in the 
strict botanical sense, c/. 3. 18, 11. inaWSKauXov conj. 
Seal.; inavXoKaKov MVAld.U (with v corrected), cf. vfpt- 
aWSKavXos, 7. 8. 1 ; CP. 2. 18. 2. 

f Plin. 16. 152. 



(f)V(7€a)'^ Ti TOLOVTOV CK yap Twv ^Xaarcbv dcplyaiv 
del pt^a? dva fieaov tmv <f)vWa)i/, alairep evhveraL 
Tot? hevhpoL'i Kai TOt? Tei')(LOi<; olov i^eTrirrjhe^ 
7r€7roirjp€vai<; vtto t/}? (f)V(T€a)<;' Sl o Kal i^aipov- 
pevo<^ T7)p vypoTJjra koX cXkcov cKpavaivei, kol idv 
cnroKOTTTJ fcdroiOev hvvarai hiapueveLv kol ^rjv. 
eyei he kol erepav BLUcfyopdv Kara tov Kapirov ov 
fjLLKpdv 6 /lev <ydp eTTLyXvKu^; eanv 6 he a(f)6Spa 
'TTLKpo<; Kal TOV XeuKov Kal rod yu.eXai^o?- arj/xeiov 
S' OTV TOV fiev eaOiovaiv ol 6pvi0e<; rov B' ov. 
TO, jiev ovv irepl rov klttov oi/tw? €)(^ei. 

'H Be afilXd^ ecTTL /xev eTraWoKavXov, 6 Be 
KavXo^ dKav6(jiBri<i Kal Mairep 6pOdKav0o<;, ro 
Be (f)vXXov KLTTa)Be<; fxiKpov dyooviov, Kara rrjv 
fiicrxov 7rp6a(f)va-iv rvXTjpov. iBlov B^ otl ti'-jv re 
Bid jieaov ravryv coanep 'pdxi-v Xeirryjv ex^i 
Kal ra? (TT7jpoi>iov<; 8iaA,7;-\/r6i9 ovk diro TavT7]<;, 
wcrirep rd tmv dWcov, dWd Trepl avT)]v 7repi(f)€peL<^ 
7)yp.eva<; drro t?}? 7rpoa(f)vaea)<; rov fiLcy^ov tw 
(f)vW(p. irapd Be tov KavXov rd yovara Kal 
irapd rd<i BLa\ei^eL<s rd^ cf)vWiKd'i eK tmv avTwv 
p,i<j')(CL>v Tot? (f)vWoi<; 7rapa7re(pvKev iov\o<; XeTrro? 
Kal €\lkt6<;' dvdo<; Be XevKOV kol eva)Be<; XeipLvov 

aixlKa^: ? iTiKa^ W. c/. 1. 10. 5; Plin. 16. 153-155. 

iira\x6Kav\ov con]. Sch. ; iiravX6KavXov Y, cf. 3. 18. 10. 

KavXhs cony R. Const.; Kapnhs UMVAld. 

TuXrjpov conj. W. ; vor-qpov Ald.U (corrected). 

TavTf)v: c/. tJ) flfAa/cciSev tovto, 3. 7. 3. Is the pronoun 


characteristic, that it regularly puts forth roots from 
the shoots between the leaves, by means of which 
it gets a hold of trees and walls, as if these roots 
were made by nature on purpose. Wherefore also 
by withdrawing and drinking up the moisture it 
starves its host, while, if it is cut off below, it is able 
to survive and live. There are also other not incon- 
siderable differences in the fruit ; both in the white 
and in the black kind it is in some cases rather 
sweet, in others extremely bitter ; in proof whereof 
birds eat one but not the other. Such are the 

facts about ivy. 

The smilaxi jg parasitic,^ but its stem^ is thorny 
and has, as it were, straight thorns ; the leaf is ivy- 
bke small and without angles, and makes a callus* 
at the junction with the stalk. A peculiarity of 
it is its conspicuous ^ slender midrib, so to call it, 
which divides it in two ; also the fact that the 
thread-like branchings ^ do not start from this, as in 
other leaves, but are carried in circles round it, 
starting from the junction of the leaflet with the 
leaf. And at the joints of the stem ^ and the 
spaces between the leaves there grows from the 
same stalk as the leaves a fine spiral tendril.^ The 
flower is white and fragrant like a lily ^ The fruit 

deictic, referring to an actual specimen shewn in lecture ? 
c/. also 4. 7. 1. 

" 5ta\T)ii/€ts Aid.; SiaXelipeis UMV. A mistake probably 
due to diaXflypiis below, where it is right. Sid\r)\pis is the 
Aristotelian word for a 'division.' 

' rov KavXov to. yovaTu conj. Sch. ; rhv KavXhvrhv 6,t ovov Aid. 

' This must be the meaning of iovAus here, qualified by 
(AiktSs; but elsewhere it = catkin, cf. 3. 5. 5. 

^ \eipivov conj. R. Const, from Plin. I.e. oltnte lilium ; 
Tr]piv6v UAld. 



TOP Se fcapTTov e;^6i TrpoaefKJ^eprj tcS aTpvxi^fp fcal 
TOO fjbr)\(i)Opo) Kol fiaXiara rrj KaXov/ievy GTa<^v\fi 

12 aypta' KaraKpefxaaroL 5' ol /3oTpve<; klttov rpo- 
TTOV nrape'yyi^ei 8* 6 TrapadpLyKca/jLO'i Trpo? rrjv 
<Tra(j)v\i']V' UTTO yap €Vo<; arjfietov ol /jLia-^oi ol 
payiKoL 6 he Kapiro'; epvOpo^, e^cov TTupi]va<; to 
fiev eVl TTCLV hvo, ev to?? //.et^ocrt rpel^ ev he TOt? 
fjLiKpoL<; eva' a-K\r]po^ 8' o irvprjv ev /xaXa kol tco 
'^(^pco/xaTi /xeXa? e^coOev. iSlov Se to tmv (Sorpvwv, 
on eK TrXayLwv re rov KavXov irapaO piyKi^ovaiv, 
KOL Kar aKpov 6 fMeyiaro^ (Borpv^ rov KavXov, 
(oairep eirl t^9 pdfivov kol tov ^drov. rovro he 
hrjXov ft)? KaX iLKpoKapiTOV koX irXayioKapiTOV. 

13 [To 8' evciivvixo^ KaXovfievov hevhpov (pverai ptev 
dXXoOi re /cat Tr}? Aecr^ov ev rw opei tw 'Ophvv- 
V(p KaXovfievui' eart he 7]Xikov poa kol ro (jivXXov 
e%et powSe?, /xel^ov he rj ')(apLai,hd^vri<i, kol fiaXa- 
Kov he oiairep rj poa. r] he p\dar'rjcn<; dp^eraL 
fiev avrrp rrepX tov TioaeLheoiva' dvOel he tov 
7)po<;' TO he dvOo^ ofiocov TrjV ')(^p6av tw XevKco 
Lfp' o^ei he heivov axrirep <j)6vov. 6 he Kap7ro<i 
€pL(f)epr)(; tyjv /iiop<f)T)v fieTa tov KeXv(f)Ov<; tm tov 
o-rjad/JLOV Xo^w' evhoOev he aTepeov ttXtjv htDpij- 
puevov KaTCi Trjv TeT paaTOL'xlav. tovto eaOio- 

^ Presumably <r. b ^SwSi^uos. See Index. 

"^ -irapeyyiCei 8' 6 irapadpiyKiffnhs I conj., cf. irapadpiyKlCouffi 
below; irapwyyvCfi^ Se napa9pivaKl(fi Se dis U; irapayyi^fi St 
Tapadpr}yaKl(ft 5« «s MV; irapaBpiyKi^ei St i)S conj. W. 



is like the sLrykJmos^ and the melothron (bryony), 
and most of all like the berry which is called the 
' wild grape ' (bryony). The clusters hang down as 
in the ivy, but the regular setting - of the berries 
resembles the grape-cluster more closely ; for the 
stalks which bear the berries start from a single 
point. The fruit is red, having generally two stones, 
the larger ones three and the smaller one ; the 
stone is very hard and in eolour black outside. A 
peculiarity of the clusters is that they make a row ^ 
along the sides of the stalk, and the longest cluster 
is at the end of the stalk, as in the buckthorn and 
the bramble. It is clear that the fruit is produced 
both at the end and at the sides. 

■* The tree called the spindle-tree ^ grows, among 
other places, in Lesbos, on the mountain called 
Ordynnos.^ It is as large as the pomegranate and 
has a leaf like that of that tree, but larger than that 
of the periwinkle,^ and soft, like the pomegranate 
leaf It begins to shoot about the month Poseideon,^ 
and flowers in the spring ; the flower in colour is 
like the gilliflower, but it has a horrible smell, like 
shed blood. ^ The fruit, with its case, is like the 
pod of sesame ^° ; inside it is hard, but it splits easily 
according to its four divisions. This tree, if eaten 

' "napaQpiyKi^ovffiv conj. Sch. ; irapa.QpvyKiCovcrav U (cor- 
rected) ; irapadpvyyiCova-t M. 

* This section down to the word auoxv is clearly out of 
place : €vwpv/j.os was not one of the plants proposed for dis- 
cussion 3. 18. 1. It should come somewhere among the 
descriptions of trees characteristic of special localities. 

6 Plin. 13. 118. « cf. Plin. 5. 140. 

' This irrelevant comparison probably indicates confusion 
in the text, as is shewn also by Pletho's excerpt of part of 
this section : see Sch. 

» January. » <p6yoy: cf. 6. 4. 6. ^^ cf. 8. 5. 2. 



fievov VTTO TO}v Trpo/BuTcov arroKTivvveL, kol to 
(fivWov /cat 6 Kap7r6<;, kol fidkiaTa ra<; alyas 
iav fjLTj KaOdpa€(o<; tvxd- KaOaiperai he av- 
oX^p-] rrepl /xev ovv hevhpwv koX Odfxvcov 

€Lpr]TaL' ev he roU e^P/^; irepl jdv \ei7ro/jLevo)i> 



by sheep, is fatal ^ to them, both the leaf and the 
fruit, and it is especially fatal to goats unless they 
are purged by it ; and the purging is effected by 
diarrhoea.2 So we have spoken of trees and 

shrubs ; in what follows we must speak of the 
plants which remain. 

1 In Pletho's excerpt (see above) this is said of periwinkle. 

2 i.e. and not by vomiting. 



I. At fxev ovv SiacJiopaL rcou ofxoyercoi' TeOeoo- 
prjuTUL irporepov. airavTa S' iv roU ol/celoi^ 
TOTTot? koWlq) yiveraL kol fidWov evaOevel- kuI 
yap T04? ayploL^ elalv eKaaroi^; olfcetOL, KuOdirep 
T0t9 r}/uLepoi<;' ra fikv yap (piXel tov<; icfivSpov^ 
Ka\ k\oL>hei^, OLOV atyeipo^ XevKrj Irea Kal oXw? ra 
irapa tol/? 7rorafiov<=; <^v6p,eva, to. he tou? evaKe- 
7reL<; Kal evrjXiov^, ra Se /jLoWov rov<; 7ra\La/CLov^. 
irevKi] jxev yap iv roh irpoaeiKoL^ KaWiarr) Kal 
/xeytari], iv Be roi? iraXLaKioL's oXro? ov (pveraL- 
iXuTT] Be avunaXiv iv rot? 7ra\iaKioi<; KaWiart] 

TOt? 5' eV€L\OL<; 0V)(^ 6flOLM<;. 

'Ef ^ApKaSla yovv irepl Ttjv Kpcimjv KaXov- 

fieVTJV TOTTO? i(TTL Tt? ATOiXo? Kul dlTVOVi, ftf OV 

ovheiroO^ 6\a)^ tjXlov i/x^dXXeiv (paatv iv tovtm 
Be TToXv Bia(f)epovaiv al iXdrai, Kal tm p^/jKet Kal 
T(p 7rd')(^et,, ov p,i]v op,oiu)<^ ye irvKval ovB' copalai 
aX-V TjKLGTa, KaOdirep Kal at TrevKai al iv rots" 
iraXiaKioL^' Bt o Kal Trpo^ rd rroXuTeXi} tcov 
epywv, olov dvpcofULTa Kal et rt dXXo airovBalov, 
ov '^pcovTat T0VT0i<; dXXd 7rpo<; ta? vavTrfjyia'^ 
pLoXXov Kal rd^ olKoBop,d<i' Kal yap BokoI KdXXi- 



Of the Trees and Plants special to particulak 
Districts and Positions. 

Of the importance of position and climate. 

I. The differences between trees of the same kind 
have ah-eady been considered. Now all grow fairer 
and are more vigorous in their proper positions ; for 
wild, no less than cultivated trees, have each their 
own positions : some love wet and marshy ground, as 
black poplar abele willow, and in general those that 
grow by rivers ; some love exposed ^ and sunny 
positions ; some prefer a shady place. The fir is 
fairest and tallest in a sunny position, and does not 
grow at all in a shady one ; the silver-fir on the 
contrary is fairest in a shady place, and not so 
vigorous in a sunny one. 

Thus there is in Arcadia near the place called 
Krane a low-lying district sheltered from wind, into 
which they say that the sun never strikes ; and in 
this district the silver-firs excel greatly in height and 
stoutness, though they have not such close grain 
nor such comely wood, but quite the reverse, — like 
the fir when it grows in a shady place. Where- 
fore men do not use these for expensive work, such 
as doors or other choice articles, but rather for 
ship-building and house-building. For excellent 

* evaKeirf7s should mean 'sheltered,' but cannot in this 
context, nor in G.P. 1. 13. 11 and 12: the word seems to 
have been confused with eUffKowos. 



arat kol ravelaL koX Kepacat at ck tovtcov, en S' 
icTTol Tw fjiy]K€L hiaj)epovT6<; aXX ovx 6/jLOL(o<i 
la-^vpoi' Kol €K TMV TTpoaeLXwv cifjLa rfj ^pa)(yTT]Ti 
TTVKvoTepoi re eKeivoiV kol la')(yp6T€poi yivovTai. 

Xatpec Se a(f)6Spa koI y /it\o? tol<; TraXtaKLOi'^ 
KOL }) TraSo? Kal rj 6pav7ra\o^. rrrepl Se Ta<; 
Kopvcpa^ rcov opecov kol toi)? '\\rv)(^pov<=; roirov^; Ovla 
fiev (pverai Kal et? u-v^o?, iXaTt] Be Kal dpKevOo<; 
(pverac fiev ovk eh vylro<; Se, Kaddirep Kal irepl ttjv 
ciKpav K.vWi]vi]v' (fiverac Se Kal rj KrjXaaTpos 
eirl tS)v aKpoiv Kal 'xeifiepLOirdrwv. ravra p,ev 
ovv av ri<; Oeir] ^i\6-^v')(^pa' rd S' aXXa iravra 
a)<i elirelv [ou] /xdXkov ')(aipeL tol<; 7rpoaeLX,oi<;. 
ov /jlt]v dWd Kal rovro av/jb/SaiveL Kara rrjv 
')((j)pav rr)v olKelav eKdarw tmv hevhpwv. ev 
Kpi]Ty yovv (f)acnv ev roh 'lSaLOL<; opeai Kal eV roh 
AevKOL<; Ka\ou/jievoL<; eirl rcov aKpcov odev ovheiTOT 
eirikelTTeL X'-^^ KVirdpiTrov eluar irXeiarr] yap 
avrr) t/}? i/Xt?? Kal oX.w? eV TJ} v/jaw Kal ev Tot<i 
6 pea IV. 

"EcTTt Be, waTrep Kal irporepov eipTjrai, Kal twv 
dypioyv Kal tmv jjfiepcov rd fiev opeivd rd Be 
ireBeLvd fidWov. dvaXoyla Be Kal ev avToh TOts 
opeai rd fiev ev to4? vTroKaTco rd Be rrepl ras 
Kopv<f>d<;, Mare Kal KaWiO) ylverau Kal evaOevrj 
navraxov Be Kal irdai^'i ry)<; vXt]^; tt/do? ^oppdi 
rd ^v\a TTVKvurepa Kal ovXorepa Kal dirXoi^^ 
KaXXioi' Kal oXo)? Be rrXeio) ev roh irpoa^opeloLs 
(pveraL. av^dverau Be Kal iTriBuBwaL rd irvKvd 

* I omit al before Kepatat with P. 

^ afia I conj. ; ciAXa Aid.; om. W. after Sch.; iAA' ufxa 
conj. St. 


rafters beams and yard-arms ^ are made from these, 
and also masts of great length which are not however 
equally strong ; while masts made of trees grown in 
a sunny place are necessarily ^ short but of closer 
grain and stronger than the others. 

Yew pados and joint-fir rejoice exceedingly in 
shade. On mountain tops and in cold positions 
odorous cedar grows even to a height, while silver-fir 
and Phoenician cedar grow, but not to a height,^ — 
for instance on the top of Mount Cyllene ; and holly 
also grows in high and very wintry positions. These 
trees then we may reckon as cold-loving ; all others, 
one may say in general, prefer a sunny position. 
However this too depends partly on the soil appro- 
priate to each tree ; thus they say that in Crete on 
the mountains of Ida and on those called the White 
Mountains the cypress is found on the peaks whence 
the snow never disappears ; for this is the principal 
tree both in the island generally and in the moun- 

Again, as has been said ^ already, both of wild and 
of cultivated trees some belong more to the moun- 
tains, some to the plains. And on the mountains 
themselves in proportion to the height some grow 
fairer ^ and more vigorous in the lower regions, some 
about the peaks. However it is true of all trees 
anywhere that with a north aspect the wood is 
closer and more compact^ and better generally; and, 
generally speaking, more trees grow in positions 
facing the north. Again trees which are close 

' 3. 2. 4. 

* Something seems to have dropped out before uxttc. 
"^ ov\6r(pa conj. W. from mutilated word in U; KaWiwrepa 
MV: KaWlw Aid. 


fjiei^ ovra fiaWov ft? /ir]Ko<>, 5t' o Kal dvo^a Kal 
evOea kol 6pOo(f)vrj jLverai, Kal Kwireoive^ eV 
TOVTCov KoXXLcrroL' <ra Be /jLava> fxaWov et9 
l3d0o<; Kal 7ra;!^o?, Sl o Kal aKoXicoTepa Kal 
o^foBecrrepa Kal ro okov arepecorepa Kal irvKvoTepa 
5 ^^(ehov he ra? avra^ e^^L Biacfyopaf; rovTOi<i 
Kal ev Tol<; iraXiaKLOL^ Kal ev TOL<i ev€iXoi<; Kal ev 
roL<; airvooi^ Kal ev7rv6oL<;- o^wSeaTepa yap Kal 
^pa'X^urepa Kal rjrTOV evOea ra ev rols evelXoLt; 
r) Tol^ irpoa-rjve/JLOL^. on Be eKaarov ^rjrel Kal 
')(^u>pav OLKeiav Kal Kpdaiv depo<; (pavepov tm tcl 
fiev ^epeiv evLOV<; tottov^ to, Be /nrj <f)ep€iv fi-qre 
avTCi yLyvofieva /iijre (pvrevo/ieva pahi(o<^, eav Be 
Kal avTcXd/Syrai fir) Kapiro^opelv, wdTTep eirl tov 
(f)OLViKO<; eXex^V ^^^^^ '^')'> AiyvTTTLa'i avKafiivov 
Kal dXXcov elalydp irXeiw Kal ev TrXeiocn ')((jopaL^ 
ra fxev oXo)? ov ^vofieva rd Be (^vofieva jiev 
dvav^i] Be Kal aKapira Kal to oXov (pavXa. irepl 
MV L(rco<i XeKreov e^' oaov exofiev laTopia^. 

II. 'Ei/ Alyvirra) ydp ecrrLV tBta BevBpa irXeio), 
Tj re (TVKd/Jiivo(i Kal y irepaea KaXovfxevr] Kal t) 
^dXavo<i Kal rj aKavOa Kal erep* ciTra. 

"EcTTfc Be r; fiev (TVKdfiivo<; TrapairXTjaLa ttw? rfj 
evravda avKafilvo)' Kal ydp to <pvXXov nrapo/ioiov 

^ KuTreccves : cf. 5. 1. 7. ' to. St fxava add. W. 

» cf. 5. 1. 8. " 2. 2. 10. 

' o\wj . . . juevconj. W. ; ohws ou (pvTfvSfifyaU ; oAws <pvT(v6- 
^ifva MVPAld. 



together grow and increase more in height, and so 
become unbranched straight and erect, and the best 
oar-spars ^ are made from these, while those that 
grow far apart- are of greater bulk and denser 
habit ' ; wherefore they grow less straight and with 
more branches, and in general have harder wood and 
a closer grain. 

Such trees exhibit nearly the same differences, 
whether the position be shady or sunny, windless or 
windy ; for trees growing in a sunny or windy 
position are more branched shorter and less straight. 
P'urther that each tree seeks an appropriate position 
and climate is plain from the fact that some districts 
bear some trees but not others ; (the latter do not 
grow there of their own accord, nor can they easily 
be made to grow), and that, even if they obtain a 
hold, they do not bear fruit — as was said'' of the 
date-palm the sycamore and others ; for there are 
many trees which in many places either do not grow 
at all, or,^ if they do, do not thrive nor bear fruit, 
but are in general of inferior quality. And perhaps 
we should discuss this matter, so far as our enquiries 

Of the trees special to Egypt, and of the caroh. 

II. ^ Thus in Egypt there are a number of trees 
which are peculiar'' to that country, the sycamore 
the tree called persea the balanos the acacia and 
some others. 

Now the sycamore to a certain extent resembles 
the tree which bears that name ^ in our country ; its 

« Plin. 13. 56 and 57. 

'' fSta conj. R. Const. ; evia Aid. 

" i.e. mulberry. See Index. 



€)(€L KOI TO /jL€'ye6o<; Kal rrjv oXrjv Trpoaoyjnv, rov 
Be /capirov I'Stci)? cf)€p€L irapa ra ciWa, KaOdnep 
iXe^dr] Kal iv TOi? i^ "PX'}?* ov yap diro rcov 
^Xaaroiv ovK diro tcop aKpepLovwv aXX ck tov 
(TT6\6Xov<;, /leyeOo^ fiev tjXlkov gvkov koX rfj oyjrei 
Be irapaiTXrjcnov, tm X^^V ^^ '^^^^ '^V yXvKvrrjrt 
T0t9 6XvvOoL<;, TrXrjv yXv/cvrepov ttoXv Kal Key- 
XpcL/jLiBa^; oXo)? ovk exovra, irXi^Oei Be iroXvv. 
Kal TTerreiv ov Buvarac firj eTriKviaOevra' aW' 
exovTe<i ovvxa'i cnBrjpov^ eiTLKvii^ovaLV' a 5' dv 
eiriKviadrj rerapraLa TreTreraL' rovrcov 8' d(f)ai- 
peOevTOiv irdXiv dXXa (jyverai Kal aXXa Kal €k 
TOV avTOV TOTTOV fir)Bev irapaXXaTTOPra' Kal 
Tov6* ol /lev rpl<? ol Be irXeovaKL^ (f)aal ylveadai. 

2 TToXvoirov Be to BevBpov (T(j)6Bpa IgtI Kal to ^vXov 
avTOv el's TToXXd XPW^/^^^' 'lBlov Be ex^iv BoKel 
irapd TaXXa' T/irjOep yap €v6v<; xXoipov ecTTi' 
avaiveTai Be e/x^vOwp' et? ^66pov Be ifx/SaXXovac 
Kal €19 Ta? XifjLva<; ev6v^ Kal Tapix^vovcn' 
^pexofievov S' iv tm ^v6w ^i^paiveTai- Kal OTav 
reXect)? ^r/pov yevrjTai, tot6 dva<^epeTai Kal einvel 
Kal BoK€t t6t€ KaXcof; reTa/Pi^eucr^ai- yivcTai yap 
Kov(jioi> Kal fiavov. t) fiev ovv avKUfxivo^ exa 
TavTa<; Td<; lBLOTrjTa<i. 

3 "Eoi/ce Be Tt? TrapairXyaia i) ^i^cri? elvai Kai 
T^9 eV Kp-t]T7j KaXovpievi]<^ KfTrpta? avKr}<^' Kal 
yap eKeivrj (pepec tov Kaprrov €k tov crreXe^oi;? 
Kal €K TMV irax^TaTOdv dKpejiovojVy irXrjV otl 
pXaGTOv Tiva d^urjat /iiKpou d(f)vXXov wcrirep 
pL^iov, 7r/309 M ye 6 Kap7r6<i. to Be aTeXexo<i fieya 

M. 1. 7; cf. 1. 14 2. 

2 cf. G.F. 1. 17. 9; Diosc. 1. 127; Athen. 2. 36. This 



leaf Is similar, its size, and its general appearance ; 
but it bears its fruit in a quite peculiar manner, as 
was said at the very outset ^ ; it is borne not on the 
shoots or branches, but on the stem ; in size it is as 
large as a fig, which it resembles also in appearance, 
but in flavour and sweetness it is like the ^immature 
figs,' except that it is much sweeter and contains 
absolutely no seeds, and it is produced in large 
numbers. It cannot ripen unless it is scraped ; but 
they scrape it with iron ' claws ' '^ ; the fruits thus 
scraped ripen in four days. If these are removed, 
others and others again grow from exactly the same 
point, and this some say occurs three times over, 
others say it can happen more times than that. 
Again the tree is very full of sap, and its wood is 
useful for many purposes. There is another peculiar 
property which it appears to possess ; when it is 
cut, it is at first green, but it dries in deep water ^ ; 
they put it at once in a hole or in pools and so season 
it ; and it becomes dry by being soaked in the deep 
water, and when it is completely dry, it is fetched up 
and floats and is then thought to be duly seasoned ; 
for it is now light and porous. Such are the 
peculiarities of the sycamore. 

Somewhat similar appears to be the character of 
the tree which in Crete is called the *^ Cyprian fig '* 
(sycamore). For this also bears its fruit on the stem 
and on the thickest branches ; but in this case there 
is a small leafless shoot, like a root, to which the 
fruit is attached. The stem is large and like the 

scraping was the prophet Amos' occupation : cf. Amos 7. 14. 

' i/jL^vOiov conj. W.; els ^vBov UMVPAld. ? iv iSufly %v. 

« See Index, cf. Athen. 3. 11 ; Plin. 13. 58 ; Diosc. 1. 127. 3. 



Kol TTapoiioiov jfi Xev/crj, (pvXXov Se rfj TrreXea. 
ireiraiveL Se Terrapa? napiTov'^, oaanrep avrou /cal 
al ^XaaTr](T€i<i' ovSeva Se TreiraLveL firj iimjiti- 
6evT0<; rov epLvov koX eKpvevro^ rou oirov. 7) Be 
yXvKVT7]<; 7rpoa€/x(j)€pi]<i tm avK(p kol to, eacoOei 
Tot? eptvoW fieyeOo<; i)\lkov KOKKvpLtiXov. 

(^Vavrr] he TrapaTrXijaLa kol r)v 01 "Iwi^e? Kepw- 
viav KaXovaLV etc rov aTeXe)(ov<^ yap kol avrrj 
<f>ep€L rov irXelaTOV /capiTov, utto he twv aKpefxavcdv, 
(0(J7rep etiTopev, oXlyov. he Kapiro^ eXXo/3o<i, op 
KaXovai Tive<; AlyvTrriov ctvkov hLr}p,apT)]K6re^' 
ov yLvejai yap 6X(t)<i Trepl Aiyuirrov aXX' ev ^vpla 
KOL ev ^loivla he /cal irepl K^vuhov Kal 'Vuhov. 
delcpvXXov he /cal dv6o^ eKXeu/cov e^ov /cat tl 
^apvT7)T0<^, fit] [lerecopil^ov he a(f>6hpa /cal oXo)? 
eK ra)V kutco 7rapal3XaaT7]TLKoi> civwOev he 
vTTO^rjpaLVOfievov. ex^t- he cifia Kal rov evov Kal 
rov veov Kapirov dcpaLpov/jievov yap Oarepov /nerd 
Kvva Kal 6 er€po<; evOv^ ^avepo<; Kvovp^evo^- 
Kverai yap wairep ^6rpv<i ofioaxij/jicov' elr av^ij- 
Oel^ dvOel Trepl ApKrovpov Kal larjixepiav diro 
TOVTOV hi) hiap,€V€L Tov yeip.wva p^e^^pi Kuj^o?. ;; 
p.ev ovv ofioLorr]^ on areXe)(^0KapTTa Kal ravra- 
hia(f)opal he al elpripievaL iTpo<=; ti]v avKafiivov.) 

'Ef KlyviTTM 8' early erepov i) irepaea KaXov- 
fxevov, rfj fiev TrpoaoyjreL fieya Kal KaXov, irapa- 
7rXj]aiov he /xaXiara rfj oLTTLfp Kal (I)uXXol<; Kal 
dvBecn Kal aKpe/xoac Kal tw oXro axy/xarr irXrjv 

* opatnef) conj. R. Const., etc., cf. Athen, I.e.; Haa vntp 
aiiTov U (corrected) ; tiaa vn^p avrhv M ; ocra virtQ avTov Aid. 
•^ Plin. 13. 59. * 1. U. 2. 



abele, but the leaf is like that of tlie elm. It ripens 
its fruit four times a year, haviiior also 1 four periods 
of growth ; but it ri])ens no fruit unless the 'fig' is 
split and the juice let out. The sweet taste resembles 
that of the fig, and the inside of the fruit is like 
that of wild figs : it is as large as a plum. 

2 (Like this too is the tree which the lonians call 
carob ; for this too bears most of its fruit on the 
sitem, though it bears a little also on the branches, as 
we said.^ The fruit is in a pod ; some call it the 
'Egyptian fig' — erroneously; for it does not occur at 
all in Egy})t, but in Syria and Ionia and also in 
Cnidos and Rhodes. It is evergreen and has a 
whitish flower and is somewhat acrid ; it does not 
attain to a great height, and it sends out side-shoots 
entirely from its lower parts, while it withers above. 
It has on it at the same time both last year's fruit 
and the new fruit ; for if the one is removed after the 
rising of the dog-star, immediately the other is seen 
swelling up; for there swells ^ up as it were another 
similar cluster. This then increases and flowers 
about the rising of Arcturus and the equinox ; and 
thenceforward it ^ persists through the winter to the 
rising of the dog-star. The likeness then consists in 
the fact that these trees too bear fruit on their stems, 
and the differences between them and the sycamore 
are as has been said.) 

^ In Egypt there is another tree called the persea, 
which in appearance is large and fair, and it most 
resembles the pear in leaves flowers branches and 
general form, but it is evergreen, while the other is 

* Kverai conj. W. from G ; Kvei MSS, 

^ i.e. the cluster, now in the fruit stage. 

^' Plin. 13. 60 and 61. 



TO /ia' u6L(f)vWop TO Se (l)v\Xo/36Xou. Kapirov he 
(pepei TToXvv kuI irciaav wpav TrepLKaraXa/u/Sdvei 
yap 6 z'eo? del tov evov irerreu he viro rov<i 
€T7](TLa<i' TOP 8' dXXov (jojjiorepov dcfiaipovai koX 
diroTiOeaaLv. ecm he to fieyeOo'^ r^XiKov dmo^, 
r(p a')(^y]p.aTL he TrpofiaKpo^ d/jLvyhaXcohr]!;, y^poifxa 
he avTOV TTOtcoSf?. €')(^et he eVro? icdpvov, oiairep 
ro KOKKvixrfXov, rrX-r-jv eXarrov iroXv koX /xaXaKco- 
Tepov TYjV he crdpKa yXvKelau a<j)6hpa Koi i]helav 
Kol evTTeirTOV' ovhev yap evo')(Xel iroXv irpoa- 
eveyKajievwv. evpi^ov he ro hevhpov Kal fiyKec 
Kal ird^ei kol irXyjOet ttoXv' e)(ev he Kal ^vXov 
IcT'xypov Kal KoXov rfj o-^jret /jueXav, coairep 6 X&)T09, 
e^ 01) Kal rd dydX/jLara Kal rd KXivia kol 
Tpaire^ia Kal rdXXa rd roiavra iroLovaLV. 

'H he ^dXavo<; e;^ei fiev ttjv Trpoarjyopiav diro 
TOV KapiTov' (^vXXov 8' avTTj TrapaTrXijcrLOP to) 
T/}? /jLvppLvrjt; ttXtjp Trpo/jirjKeaTepop. eaTL he to 
hevhpov eviraxh JJ-ev Kal ev/ieyeOe'i, ovk evcpve^ 
he dXXd TrapeaTpafi/LLevop. tov KapTrov he Tot? 
KeXiKpeat 'X^pSivrai ol fivpeyjrol KOTTTOPTd' euwSe? 
ydp e^et top he Kapirop avrop d')(p€LOP. eaTL he 
Kal TM fieyeOet Kal ry oyjrei TrapairXrjcno's tu) tt}? 
KaTTTrdpLo^i' ^vXop he lay^vpop Kal et? dXXa Te 
')(^prj(Ti/iiov Kal et? Ta? paviTr)yla<;. 

To he KaXovpLSPOP KovKLocpopop eaTLP ojjloiov to) 
^oivLKL' rrjp he ofiOLOTtjTa Kara to aTeXe')(0'i 
6X€i Kal Ta (fyvXXa' hia^epec he otl 6 peep (f)olpi^ 
/jLovo(fiV€<; Kal dirXovp eaTL, tovto he 7rpoaav^r]6ep 
axi'^erat Kal yiveTaL hiKpovp, elra ndXiv eKdrepop 

1 aiT0Ti6eaaiv conj. R. Const, from G {recondunt) ; Ttdtaai 



deciduous. It bears abundant fruit and at every 
season, for the new fruit always overtakes that of 
last year. It ripens its fruit at the season of the 
etesian winds : the other fruit they gather somewhat 
unripe and store ^ it. In size it is as large as a pear, 
but in shape it is oblong, almond-shaped, and its 
colour is grass-green. It has inside a stone like the 
plum, but much smaller and softer; the flesh is 
sweet and luscious and easily digested ; for it does 
no hurt if one eats it in quantity. The tree has good 
roots as to length thickness and number. Moreover 
its wood is strong and fair in appearance, black like 
the nettle-tree : out of it men make their images 
beds tables and other such things. 

2 The balanos gets its name from its fruit ^ ; its leaf 
is like that of the myrtle * but it is longer. The 
tree is of a good stoutness ^ and stature, but not of a 
good shape, being crooked. The perfumers use the 
husks of the fruit, which they bruise ; for this is 
fragrant, though the fruit itself is useless. In size 
and appearance it is like the fruit of the caper ; the 
wood is strong and useful for shipbuilding and other 

^ The tree called the doum-palm is like the date- 
palm ; the resemblance is in the stem and the leaves, 
but it differs in that the date-palm is a tree with a 
single undivided stem, while the other, as it increases, 
splits and becomes forked,'' and then each of the two 

^ Plin. 13. 61. 

' i.t. it is like an acorn {BdXavos). 

* fjivppivvs MVPAld.; nvpUris U. 

* (vTraxfS con]. Sch.; euTra^es U; OTro^ej Ald.H. 
« Plin. 13. 62. 

^ cf. 2. 6. 9, where the same tree is evidently indicated. 
SlKpovy conj. Salm., Seal., etc.; iKpov UAld.H. 



rovTcov 6fioici)<;' en Se ra<; pd^Sov^ iSpay^eia^; e)(€i 
acpoSpa Koi ov ttoWu^. ')(^pwvrai Be tw (^v\\w, 
KaOdirep rfo (})Olvikl, irpb^ rd TrXeyp.ara. Kapirov 
he I'Blov e')(ei rroXv hiac^epovra kol /leyedet Kal 
(T')(i]ijLarL Kal ^l'A.w- /xey€Oo<i jxev yap e-)(eL a'x^ehov 
XGcpo7r\7]6e<^' arpoyyvXov 8e /cal ov -rrpo/iyJKt]- 
y^pwpia eiTi^avOov' 'xyXov SeyXv/cvv Kal evarofiov 
ovK dOpoov he, ojcnrep 6 ^olvi^, dWd Kexd^pi-cr/^evov 
KaO^ eva' rrrvprjva he fieyav Kal crc^ohpa crKXrjpov, 
e^ ov Tou? KpiKov<i Topvevovat tov^ eh rov^ 
(TTpay/jLareh rov<; htaTrotKiXovf;' hia^epei he irokv 
ro ^vXov Tov ^0LViK0<s' TO piev yap piavov Kal 
ip(bhe<; Kal ')(javvov, to he ttvkvov Kal ^apv Kal 
(TapK(ohe<; Kal hiarpL^jOev ovXov a^ohpa Kal 
cTKXrjpov ecTTiv. Kal oX ye hrj Uepcrat irdw 
eTLpLwu avro Kal Ik tovtov tmv kXlvwv eiroiovvTo 
T0L/9 TToha';. 

'H he uKavOa KaXelrai puev hid to aKavOwhe^ 
oXov TO hevhpov elvai irXyjv tov crT€X€^ov<;' Kal 
ydp eVt Twv aKpepiovwv Kal enl to)v jSXacrTMv 
Kal eVt TMV (f)vXXo)v exec pieyeOei he p^eya, Kal 
ydp hcdheKdiTiiX}'^ i^ avTr]<; epe-^if.Lo<; vXi] TeptveTai. 
hiTTov he TO yevo'^ cruT/}?, 7; piev ydp eaTi XevK7] 
77 he pieXaiva' kol 1) piev XevKTj daOevrj^; re Kal 
evar)7rT0<i' rj he pueXaLva ia\ypOTepa tc Kal 
darfTTTOfi, hi o Kal ev rat? vavTTr]yiaL<; ^/awi^raf 
irpo^ Td eyKOiXia avTrj. to hevhpov he ovk dyav 
6pOo(pve<i. 6 he Kapiro'i eXXoySo?, Kaddirep tmv 
y^ehpoTVMV, (p ^j^pwi^rat 01 eyxdtpioi 7rpo<; Td hepp.aTa 
dvTL Kr}KLho<;. to 5' dv6o<i Kal ttj o-yjreL KaXov, 
ware Kal aTe<pdvov<i iroielv ef avTOv, Kal ^ap/^a- 



branches forks again : moreover the twigs are very 
short and not numerous. They use the leaf, Hkc the 
palm-leaf, for plaiting. It has a peculiar fruit, very 
different from that of the date-palm in size form and 
taste ; for in size it is nearly big enough to fill the 
hand, but it is round rather than long ; the colour is 
yellowish, the flavour sweet and palatable. It does 
not grow bunched together, like the fruit of the date- 
palm, but each fruit grows separately ; it has a large 
and very hard stone, out of which they turn the 
rings for embroidered bed-hangings.^ The wood is 
very different to that of the date-palm ; whereas the 
latter is of loose texture fibrous and porous,^ that of 
the doum-palm is close heavy and fleshy, and when 
split is exceedingly compact and hard. The Persians -^ 
used to esteem it highly and made the feet of their 
couches out of it. 

*The akaniha (acacia) is so called because the 
whole tree is spinous {akanthodes) except the stem ; 
for it has spines on the branches shoots and leaves. 
It is of large stature, since lengths of timber for 
roofing of twelve cubits are cut from it. There are 
two kinds, the white and the black ; the white is weak 
and easily decays, the black is stronger and less 
liable to decay ; wherefore they use it in shipbuilding 
for the ribs.^ The tree is not very erect in growth. 
The fruit is in a pod, like that of leguminous plants, 
and the natives use it for tanning hides instead of 
gall. ^ The flower is very beautiful in appearance, so 
that they make garlands of it, and it has medicinal 

^ Plin. I.e., vdares annulos ; cf. Athen. 12. 71, ad Jin. 

'^ Xavvov con j. Sch.; x^'^P^'' Aid. 

^ i.e. during their occupation of Egypt. 

* Plin 13. 63 ; Athen. 15. 25. 

* cf. Hdt. 2. 9G. « cf. Athen. I.e. 



K(t)Se<;, Bl KOL avWeyovcriv ol larpoL 'yiverai 
Be eK ravrrj(; koI to KOfxiiL' koI piei kuI ttXtj- 
y€Lcrr)<; koI avrofiaTOV avev cr^T^acreo)?. orav Be 
Koirrj, fiera rplroi' eVo? €vdu<; dpa/Se/SXaaTTj/ce- 
TToXv Be TO BevBpov earri, Kal Bpvfib<; fieya'; irepl 
Tov Sjj/SaiKov vofiovy ovTvep Kal rj Bpu<; Kal rj 
irepaea TrXelarTj Kal rj iXda. 
9 Kal yap rj eXda irepl tovtov tov tottov iari, 
T(p TTorap-u) fiev ovk apBevofievrj, irXeiw yap yj 
rpiaKoaia ardBia direyei, vaiiaTLaioL<^ 8' vBacnv 
elal yap Kprjvat TToXXaL to 8' eXaiov ovBev 
■)(elpov TOV evOdBe, ttXjjv KaKcoBeaTcpov Bid to 
airavLOL'^ tol<; dXal ')(^py]a6aL' (pvaec Be to ^vXov 
TOV BevBpov Kal aKXrjpov kul irapairXricnov 
Te/jLvo/xevov ttjv ^(^poav tCo Xcotlvw. 

10 "AXXo Be Ti BefBpov ?; KOKKv/jLrjXea, fieya fxev 
Tft) fieyWei Kal ttjv <pvaiv tov Kapirov ofioiov rot? 
fiearrlXoL^;, Kal to /xeye^o? TrapairXyjaiov ttXtjv 
exovTa TTvpTjva (jTpoyyvXov apx^Tat Be dvOelv 
firjvo^ Uvaveylna)vo<;, tov Be Kapirov ireTraivei irepl 
TjXlov T/307ra? ')(eLiiepLvd<;' dei^ivXXov S* eaTiv. 
ol Be irepl ttjv SrjlSatBa KaT0LK0VVTe<; Btd T7]V 
dcpOovlav TOV BevBpov ^rjpaivovaL tov Kapirov Kal 
TOV 7rvpf]va e^ai.povvTe<i KoiTTOvcn Kal iroLovai 

11 "TX7] fia Be lBcov tl (pveTaL irepl MefJL(f)Lv, ov 
KaTa (f)vXXa Kal ySXacrroi)? Kal t^i^ oXrjv /lopipjjv 

1 cf. Hdt. Ic. 

^ (Tx'io'ewJ conj. R. Const.; crxfcreois Aid. 

^ Tr\(l(TTri conj. R. Const.; irXeKTi] UMVAld. 

* cf. C.P. 6. 8. 7, where this olive is said to produce no oil. 

••> cj. Strabo, 17. 1. 35. 



properties, wherefore physicians gather it. ^ Gum 
is also produced from it, which flows both when the 
tree is wounded and also of its own accord without 
any incision " being made. When the tree is cut 
down, after the third year it immediately shoots up 
again ; it is a common tree, and there is a great wood 
of it in the Thebaid, where grow the oak, the persea 
in great abundance,^ and the olive. 

^ For the olive also grows in that district, though 
it is not watered by the river, being more than 300 
furlongs distant from it, but by brooks ; for there 
are many springs. The oil produced is not inferior 
to that of our country, except that it has a less 
pleasing smell,^ because it has not a sufficient 
natural supply of salt.^ The wood of the tree is hard 
in character, and, when split, is like in colour ''^ to 
that of the nettle-tree. 

^ There is another tree, the (Egyptian) plum 
(sebesten), which is of great stature, and the 
character of its fruit ^ is like the medlar (which it 
resembles in size), except that it has a round stone. 
It begins to flower in the month Pyanepsion,!^ and 
ripens its fruit about the winter solstice, and it is 
evergreen.i^ The inhabitants of the Thebaid, because 
of the abundance of the tree, dry the fruit ; they 
take out the stones, bruise it, and make cakes of it. 

There is a peculiar bush ^^ which grows about 
Memphis, whose peculiarity does not lie in its leaves 

' (Tiravlois . . . (pvffei conj. W. ; ffiraviws ro7s a.\cr\ XP- ^V 
(pvffei Aid.; 80 U, but omitting ttj. 
7 i.e. black, cf. 4. 3. 1. » Plin. 13. 64 and 65. 

• Tov Kapnov add. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e. ^^ October. 
^^ ae/c^uWorconj. Seal, from G and Plin. ^.c.;^yX\oi'UM V Aid, 
^2 Mimosa asperata ; see Index, App. (2). £;A7;;ua conj. Seal, 
from G {materia) ; otSTj/xa M Aid. U (corrected). 



e^ov TO iSlov aXX' et? to av/x/Salvov irepl avro 
Tra^o?" T) /j.€V yap 7rp6aoyp-L<i d/cavOoySrji; eariv 
avTov, fcai to (f)vX\oi> TTcipoixoiov Tal<i irTep- 
icTLV OTav he ti<; ciyjrrjTat tojv kXwvlwv, oxjirep 
a(f)avaiv6/jL6va ra (f)vWa (yvpuTmrTeLv (paalv ecTa 
peTo. Tiva y^povov ava^iooaKecrOaL ttuXlv Ka\ 
OdWeiv. Kal to. p^ev iSia Tr]<; ')(o)pa^,. ocra 7' 

av hevhpa rt? ?; 6dp,i'0v<i cittol, rd y iirKpave- 
araTa ravT icTTL. ire pi yap tcov ev T(o iroTap^ui 
Kal T0t9 eXecTLv vaTepov ipovp.€v, oTav KaX Trepl 
TMV dWoov evvhpwv. 

[" AiravTa Be ev Trj %w/3a to, BevSpa to, TOiavTa 
fieydXa Kal roi? p-y'-jKeau Kal' toI<^ Trdyeatv ev 
yovv ^\ep.(^ihL TrfXiKOVTO hevBpov elvai XeyeTai 
TO 7rdyo<;, Tpel^ dv6pe<^ ou hvvavTai TrepiXap^/Sd- 
vetv. eaTL Be Kal Tp.7]0ev to ^vXov KaXov ttvkvov 
re yap a(f)6Bpa Kal to) ypodpLaTL XwroetSe?.] 

III. 'E^* Al^vt] Be \&)To? TrXelaTOf; Kal koX- 
XiaTO^ Kal 6 TTaXiovpo'^ Kal ev tl<jl ptepeai ttj t€ 
^aaap,(i)viKfj Kal irap* "' Kpipnovi Kal aXXoi<; 6 
(^olvL^' ev Be Trj Kvpr^vata KvirdpLa(TO<; Kal eXdai 
re KoXXtcTTaL kov eXaiov irXelaTOV. IBicoTaTov 
Be TrdvTcov to aLX(f)ioi'' €TL KpoKov ttoXvv 77 %a)/3a 
<f)epeL Kal euocrp.ov. eaTi Be tou Xwtov to p.ev 
oXov BevBpov IBiov evp.eye6e^ tjXlkov a7rLo<; 7) 
pLiKpov eXaTTov (pvXXov Be ivT0fj.d<; e')(^ov Kal 
irpLvoiBe'^' TO p.ev ^vXov pLeXav yevq Be avTov 
TrXeLO) BLa(^opa<; eyovTa tol<; KapTTol's' 6 Be KapTTo^ 

1 Ttdeos : cf. 1. 1. 1 n. 

^ cf. Schol. ad Nic. Ther. 683 of a sensitive plant called 
<TKopir'iovt}os or Itrx^ovffa. a<pavaa'6ueya conj, Seal. ; a<pav\iy6- 
^eya UMVP^Ald. 



shoots and general form, but in the strange property ^ 
which belongs to it. Its appearance is spinous and 
the leaf is like ferns, but, when one touches tlie twigs, 
they say that the leaves as it were wither up ^ and 
collapse and then after a time come to life again and 
flourish. Such are the most conspicuous things 

peculiar to the country, to speak only of trees or 
shrubs. For we will speak later of the things which 
grow in the river and the marshes, when we come to 
speak of the other water plants. 

3 All the trees of this kind in that country are 
large, both in height and stoutness ; thus at Memphis 
there is said to be a tree of such girth that three 
men cannot embrace it. The wood too, when split, 
is good, being of extremely close grain and in colour 
like the nettle-tree. 

Of the trees and shrubs special to Libya. 

III. ^ In Libya the lotos is most abundant and 
fairest ; so also is the Christ's thorn, and in some 
parts, such as the Nasamonian district and near the 
temple of Zeus iVmmon, the date-palm. In the 
Cyrenaica the cypress grows and the olives are fairest 
and the oil most abundant. Most special of all to 
this district is the silphium, and the land also bears 
abundant fragrant saffron-crocus. As to the lotos — 
the whole tree is peculiar, of good stature, as tall as 
a pear-tree, or nearly so ; the leaf is divided and like 
that of the kermes-oak, and the wood is black. There 
are several sorts, which differ in their fruits ; the fruit 

3 This section is evidently out of place ; its probable place 
is at the end of § 10, so that the description will belong to 
the ' Egvptian plum.' 

< See "Index. Plin. 13. 104-106. 


r)\LKO<; Kvaiio<;, TreiraiveTai he, uiarrep ol iBorpve^;, 
fiera^dWcov ra? 'X^poid^;' <j)V6TaL Se, KaOdirep ra 
fMvpra, Trap' dX\y\a 7rvKv6<; eVl rwi' (BXaaToyv 
icrOiofiei'O'; S' o iv rol<; Acorocj) ay oi<; Ka\ov/j,evoi<; 
<y\vKu<; KoX rjSv^ koX daivrj^i fcal en Trpo? t7ji> 
KoCklav dyaOo^i' rjSicov S* 6 dirvprjvo'^, eari yap 
Kal TOLOVTov Tt yipos' TTOiovai, Be Kal olvov e^ 

2 rioXi' he TO BepSpov Kal TToXvKapirov' to y 
ovv 'OcjieWov aTpaTOirehov, yvi/ca e(3dBi^ev eh 
Kapxv^ova, Kal tovtm ^aal Tpa^rjvai TrXeiov^ 
r}/iiepa^ eTTLkiTrovTcov tow eiTLTy^heUov. ecTTc fiev 
ovv Kai iv TTj vrj(7(p ttj AcoTocpayLTiBi KaXovfiev-q 
TToXu?' avTT) K eiTLKeLTai Kal dizeyei puKpov oh 
IJbr)V ovOev ye /jL€po<; dWa ttoWm TrXelov iv ttj 
rjireipfp' irXelaTOv yap 6Xo)<; iv tj} Ai^vrj, KaOdirep 
etprjTaL, tovto Kal 6 iraXiovpo'^ iaTiv iv yap 
KveaTTepLCTL tovtol<; KavcrL/jLOL<; ')(pa)PTa(. BiacpepeL 
Be ouTO? 6 XcoTo? Tov Trapd rot? AcoTO(})dyoi<i. 

3 'O Be iraXiovpo^ 6afiva)BeaT€po<? tov Xcotov' 
(})vXXov Be Trapofioiov e^^et tw ivTovOa, tov Be 
KapiTov Bid(l)opov ov yap irXaTvv dXXd GTpoyyv- 
Xov Kal ipvOpov, /jLeyedo<; Be jjXlkov t/}? KeBpov t) 
fjLiKpo) fjcel^ov irvpriva Be e^^i ov avvea-diofievov 
KaOdirep Tal<^ poai<;' rjBvv Be tov Kapirov Kal idv 
Tt9 olvov iTTLX^rj Kal avTOV tjBlco yiveaOai (fjaat 
Kal TOV olvov tjBlo) iroietv. 

1 cf. Hdt. 4. 177; Athen. 14. 651; Scyl. Peripl. Lotophagi. 
^ A ruler of Cyrene, who invaded Carthaginian territory in 
conjunction with Agathocles, B.C. 308. 

^ TTJ XcoTOcpayiTl^i conj. W. ; rfj A.a<TO(payia. ^apiZi UMAld. 
* /j.(pos : fielcvv conj. Sch. (non minor G). 


is as large as a bean, and in ri})ening like grapes it 
changes its colour : it grows, like myrtle-berries, 
close together on the shoots ; to eat, that which grows 
among the people called the Lotus-eaters ^ is sweet 
pleasant and harmless, and even good for the stomach ; 
but that which has no stone is pleasanter (for 
there is also such a sort), and they also make wine 
from it. 

The tree is abundant and produces much fruit ; 
thus the army of Ophelias,^ when it was marching 
on Carthage, was fed, they say, on this alone for 
several days, when the provisions ran short. It is 
abundant also in the island called the island of 
the Lotus-eaters ; ^ this lies off the mainland at 
no great distance : it grows however in no less 
quantity,^ but even more abundantly ^ on the main- 
land ; for, as has been said,^ this tree is common in 
Libya generally as well as the Christ's thorn ; for in 
the islands called Euesperides "^ they use these trees 
as fuel. However this lotos ^ differs from that found 
in the land of the Lotus-eaters. 

^ The (Egyptian) ' Christ's thorn ' is more shrubby 
than the lotos ; it has a leaf like the tree of the same 
name of our country, but the fruit is different ; for 
it is not flat, but round and red, and in size as large 
as the fruit of the prickly cedar or a little larger ; 
it has a stone which is not eaten with the fruit, as in 
the case of the pomegranate, but the fruit is sweet, 
and, if one pours wine over it, they say that it 
becomes sweeter and that it makes the wine sweeter 

5 TrAeroJ' U ; ? TrAefwi/ with MV. 
« 4. 3. 1. 7 cf. Hdt. 4. 191. 

8 cf. Hdt. 2. 96. 
"See Index. Plia. 13. 111. 


"EviOL Be TO rod Xcotov hevhpov 6afxvo)he^ elvai 
Kol TToXvKXaSoi', T(p (n€\€)(€i Se ev7ra^6<;' top he 
KapiTOv ^e'ya to Kupvov e-^ecv to 8' 6a:to9 ov 
<7apKa)Se<i aWa hepfiaTwheai-epov iaOiofiepov Be 
ov^ ovTO) yXvKVP CO? euarofxov kol top olvov ov 
i^ avTOu TToiovaiv ov Biap-eveiv a\V rj Suo y 
T/36i9 7]/jLepa^ elr o^vveiv. i)hiw fiev ovv top 
KapTTov Tov ev T0t9 AcoTO(f)dyoi<;, ^vXov Be 
KoXkiov TO ev K.vpi]vaLa' Oep/xoTepai^ Be elvai 
TYjV 'X^copav T-i)v TOiv Aa)TO(f)d'yu)V' tov ^vXov Be 
Ti]V pl^av elvciL /leXavTepav fiev ttoXu ttvkvijv Be 
riTTOV Kal et? iXuTTco ')(p7]cnpyv' et? yap tcl 
iyX^ipiBia Kal tcl i7nKoXX/]paTa ■)(py']odai, tu> 
^vXo) Be €69 Te Tou(; avXov<i Kal et? ciXXa rrXeLOi. 

'Ei^ Be TTj /JL7J vo/jLevrj tt}? AtySv?;? dXXa Te TrXelco 
(fiveaOat Kal (f)0LviKa<s [leydXov^ Kal KaXov<i' ov 
firjv aX.V OTTOf fiev (f)0LVL^ dX/ivplBa Te elvat Kal 
€(f)vBpov TOV TOTTOv, ovK iv TToXXo) Be ^dOet dXXd 
fidXicTTa eV opyvlat^ Tpiaiv. to S' vBwp evOa 
fiev yXvKv crcpuBpa ev9a Be dXvKov TrXtjatov optcov 
dXX'^XoL<;' 077 ov Be tcl dXXa (pverac ^)]pov Kal 
dvvBpov evia\ov Be Kal Ta (ppeara elvai eKaTov 
opyvLMV, wcrre vTro^vyloi^ dnb Tpo')(TfKi.a^ dvifiav 
Bi o Kal 6 av p.aaTOP ttw? ttotg 6ipv-)(6ii TTjXiKavTa 

^dOrj' TO 6' ovv TMV vBdTCDV TMV VTTO TOU? 

^OLViKa<; Kal ev "AfifiCL>po<i elvai, Bia(popdv e)(^ov 
T'i]v €lpr]fiev)]v. (pvecrOaL Be ev tt} fiij vofievrj to 
OvfLOV ttoXv Kal dXXa iBcd Te Kal TrXelco yipeaOat 

* Sell, after Seal, places this section before § 3, making tlie 
iccount of tin's tree consecutive. ^ Plin. 13. 17. 104-100. 

^ ff^TToxes conj. li. Const.; ciiffTaxe's U; «£?o-tox«i MPgAld. 

* cf. Hdt. 2. 90. 



^ Some say that the lotos- is shrubby and much 
branched, tliough it has a stout ^ stem; and that the 
stone in the fruit is large, while the outside is not 
fleshy but somewhat leathery ; and that to eat it is not 
so much sweet as palatable ; and that the wine which 
they make out of it does not keep more than two 
or three days, after which it gets sour ; and so that 
the fruit ■* found in the Lotus-eaters' country is 
sweeter, while the wood in the Cyrenaica is better ; 
and that the country of the Lotus-eaters is hotter ; 
and that the root is much blacker than the wood, 
but of less close grain, and of use for fewer purposes ; 
for they use it only for dagger-handles and tessellated 
work/ while the wood is used for pipes and many 
other things. 

In the })art of Libya where no rain falls they say 
that, besides many other trees, there grow tall and 
fine date-palms ; however they add that, where the 
date-palm is found, the soil "^ is salt and contains 
water, and that at no great dc})th, not more than 
three fathoms. They say also that the water is in 
some places quite sweet, but in others quite close 
by it is brackish ; that where however other things 
grow, the soil is dry and waterless ; and that in 
places even the wells are a hundred fathoms deep, 
so that they draw water by means of a windlass 
worked by beasts. Wherefore it is wonderful how 
at any time digging to such depths was carried out. 
Such, they say, is the special character of the w^ater 
supply which feeds the date-palms in the district 
also of the temple of Zeus Amnion. Further it is 
said that in the land where no rain falls thyme "^ is 

^ iTTiKoW-nnaTa: lit. 'pieces glued on'; cf. Plin. I.e. 

6 cf. Hdt. 3. 183. 

' e/i/xov niBas.H.; edixvoy UMV^Ald. cf. 6. 2. 3. 


epravOa, koX irrMKa /cal Sop/cdSa koI arpovOov 

6 Kol erepa tcov Oi-jpioyv. uXkci Tavra fxev a8)]\ov 
el eKTOTri^eL irov irioixeva- (Sia yap to rd')(o<^ 
hvvajaL p^arcpdv re koI Ta')(y TrapayepiaOac), 
ttWoj? T€ /eel Bl i)ixep6}v tlvcov Trivovai, KaOdirep 
/cal rd i]/jLepa irapd rpiryju r} rerdpTrjv TroTL^eraL 
ravra- to 8e twv dX\coi> ^wcoi', olov o(f)e(oi> 
aavpcov kol tmv roiourcov, (^avepov on aTTora. 
T0v<; Be At/Sfa? Xeyeiv otl tov ovov eaOlei Tavra 
09 KOL Trap" i) yiveTai, iroXyTTOvv re koX pLeXav 
avaireipooixevov et? eavTO' tovtov he iroXvv re 
yiveaOai acpoBpa /cal vypov Trjv (j)vatv elvau. 

7 Apoaov Be del TTLTrreip ev rfj jmy vofievr) iroWr'jv, 
ware BrfKov otl tov [xev (poLVL/ca /cal et re dWo 
(Pverai ev dvvBpoi^; to Te e/c t tj^; yT]<; dviov eKTpe^eL 
Kal TT/OO? TOVTU) 7] Bpoao^i. i/cav)] yap co? /card 
fieyeOr] Kal ttjv (pvcriv avrwv ^rjpdv ovaav Kal €k 
TOLOVTcov avveaTTjKviav. Kal Bei'Bpa fiev ravTa 
TrXelaTa Kal IBicoTaTa. irepl Be rod atXcplov 
XeKTeov vcTTepov ttolov tl T'z-jv ^vaiv. 

IV. 'Ei^ Be TTj ^Aala Trap' eKddTOL^ lBl drTa 
Tvy')(^dveL' rd fiev yap (j)€povaLV al ')(oypai rd S' 

^ Lepus Aegyptiacus. cf. Arist. H.A. 8. 28. 
'^ ij Kara conj. Seal, from G ; fitrxe rk Ald.H. 



abundant, and that there are various other peculiar 
plants there, and that there are found the hare ^ 
gazelle ostrich and other animals. However it is 
uncertain whether these do not migrate in order to 
find drink somewhere, (for by reason of their fleet- 
ness they are able to appear at a distant place in a 
short space of time), especially if they can go for 
several days without drinking, even as these animals, 
when domesticated, are only given drink every third 
or fourth day. While as to other animals, such as 
snakes lizards and the like, it is plain that they go 
without drink. And we are told that according to 
the Libyans, these animals eat the wood-louse, which 
is of the same kind that is found also in our 
country, being black, with many feet, and rolling 
itself into a ball ; this, they say, is extremely common 
and is juicy by nature. 

They say also that dew always falls abundantly 
in the land in which no rain falls, so that it is plain 
that the date-palm, as well as anything else which 
grows in waterless places, is kept alive by the 
moisture which rises from the ground, and also by 
the dew. For the latter is sufficient, considering ^ the 
size of such trees and their natural character, which 
is dry and formed of dry components. And trees of 
that character are most abundant in, and most 
specially belong to such country. The character 

of the silphium we must discuss later. 

Of the trees and herbs sjoecial to Asia. 

IV. In different parts of Asia also there are 
special trees, for the soil of the various regions 
produces some but not others. ^Thus they say that 
» Plin. 16. 144. 


ov (pvouaiv olov klttov zeal eXdav ou (paaiv elvai 
T/}? ' Acrla^ iv roL<=; avco t?}? Sfpta? cnro 0a\drTri<^ 
irev6' r)/jLepct)V' dX-V ev 'Ii^Soi? (^avrfvat kltt6i> 
iv T(h opei Tw ]\I>/pa) Kakovfievfo, 66ev hr] koX top 
L^Lovvaov elvai /xuOoXoyouai. Bl o kol ^AXe^av- 
Bpo'i dir e^ohia^ Xeyerat dmrnv €crT€(f)ava>/iei>o<; 
KLTTfp elvai Kal avTO<; kol t) arpaTid' roiv he 
dWdiV ev ^h^Bia fiovov TrepLicXeieLV yap avrr] 
BoKel KoX avvdrrTeiv itco<^ tw Wovtco. kultol je 
Bi€(j)i\oTi/jL7]d7] " ApnaXo^; iv roU TrapaBeiaoL^ Tot9 
TTcpl Vta^vXwva (pureixov TToWa/ct? fcal irpay- 
/iaT€v6p,€V0<;, aXk' ovBev iiroUL irXeov ov yap 
iBuvaro ^7]v coairep raWa to, iK rr}? 'EXXaSo?. 
Tovro fiev ovv ov Beyerai rj %ot)/3a Bia ryjv rov 
dipo^ Kpaaiv dvayKaio.)<; Be Bex^erat kol ttv^ov 
Kal (fiiXvpav Kal yap vrepl ravra rrovovaiv ol iv 
Tol<i TrapaBeiaoL'^. erepa Be iBia (^epei Kal BevBpa 
2 Kal vXyfiaTa' Kal eoiKev oXw? o totto? o irpc^; 
dvaro\a<i Kal iie(Ti]p.^piav wairep Kal ^wa Kal 
<f)VTa (pepeiv tBia irapd tou? aWov<i' olov rj re 
Mi]Bia %co/3a Kal TlepaU ciWa re e;^et ifkeia) Kal 
TO fJLr}\ov TO MijBiKov Tj TO IlcpaLKOv KaXovfievoi'. 
€^61 Be TO Bei'Bpov tovto (f)vX\ov fiev 6/xolov Ka\ 
a)(eBbv I'crov tw t>5? dvBpd)(X')]<;, dKdv6a<; Be om? 
aTTiO'i rj 6^vdKav6o<^, \eia<^ Be Kal o^eia^ a<p6Bpa 
Kal la')(ypd'i' to Be p,r}Xov ovk iaOieTai fiev, 

^ i\dau conj. Spr.; AaTTjf MSS. cf. Hdt, 1. 193; Xen. 
Anab. 4. 4. 13 ; Air. Ind. 40. 

•^ luTrhv conj. W. , cf. Air. Anab. 5. 1.6; Kai tV UMV; 
Kal tQ AUl.H. 8 Kiy^rai add. W. 

^ i^oUas UMVP; 'Ivhias W. with Aid. 

' Ki.TT(f eivai conj.W.; ilra jxuvai U; eZra ^ir] ilvai MVPAld. 



ivy and olive ^ do not grow in Asia in the parts of 
Syria which are five days' journey from the sea ; but 
that in India ivy 2 appears on the mountain called 
Meros, whence, according to the tale, Dionysus 
came. Wherefore it is said^ that Alexander, when 
he came back from an expedition/ was crowned 
with ivy,^ himself and his army. But elsewhere in 
Asia it is said to grow only in Media, for that country 
seems in a way to surround and join on to the Euxine 
Sea.*^ However/ when Harpalus took great pains 
over and over again to plant it in the gardens of 
Babylon, and made a special point of it, he failed: 
since it could not live like the other things intro- 
duced from Hellas. The country then does not ^ 
admit this plant on account of the climate, and it 
grudgingly admits the box and the lime ; for even 
these give much trouble to those engaged in the 
gardens. It also produces some peculiar trees and 
shrubs. And in general the lands of the East and 
South appear to have peculiar plants, as they have 
peculiar animals ; for instance, Media and Persia have, 
among many others, that which is called the 
' Median ' or ' Persian apple ' (citron).^ This tree ^^ 
has a leaf like to and almost identical with that of 
the andrachne, but it has thorns like those of the 
pear 11 or white-thorn, which however are smooth 
and very sharp and strong. The ' apple ' is not 

^ i.e. and so Greek plants may be expected to grow there. 
But the text is probably defective ; cf. the citation of this 
passage, Plut. Qiiaest. Conv. 3. 2. 1, 

^ Kairoi ye. This sentence does not connect properly with 
the preceding. " ov add. Sch. 

" Plin. 12. 15 and 16; cited also Athen. 3. 26. 

»» cf. Verg. O. 2. 131-135. 

" Hirios: ? here=oxf>as R. Const, cf. G.P. 1. 15. 2. 


evocTfxop Be ttclvv koI to ^vXkov tov SevSpov Kav 
et? IfJLCLTLa reOrj to /ifjXov ciKoira SLarrjpel. XP^~ 
(TLfioi' S' eireLhav T\)~)(rj <Ti?> ireirwKod'^ (pap/iaKov 
<9avdaL/xov Sodev 'yap iv olpm BtaKOTnet tt]V 
KOiXiav Kol i^dyei, to (^dpiiaKov> koI TTyoo? ctto- 
/jLaTO<; evoihiav eav '^/dp tl<; e'^jr/jar] iv ^(o/jlo), rj ev 
aXkw TLv\ TO eawOev tov firfKov iKiriear) et? to 
aTOjxa Kul KaTapo(f>/]ar), iroiel rrjv oafxr^v rjBelap. 

3 aireiperaL Se tov rjpo^ et? 7rpa(Tia<; e^aipedev to 
a-TTep/xa Sieipyaa-p.6va<; i7ri/x€\(Ji)<;, ecTa dpSeveTai 
Blol TeTupTT]^ 7/ TrefiTTTT]^ i)p.epa<^' oTav Be dBpov 
rj, BLa(f)VT€veTaL irdXiv tov eapo<; et? 'X^wplov fia- 
XaKov KOI €(j)vBpop KOL ov Xiav XeiTTOv (piXel 
yap tcl ToiavTa. (pipec Be tci p,rjXa iraaav wpav 
TO, jiev yap d(f)ypr)Tat to, Be dvOel tcl Be CKTreTTei. 
TMv Be dv66)v ocra, wairep ecTTOfiev, eyet KaOdirep 
rfXaKdTi^v eK /leaov tip e^ej^ovaav, TavTd ecTTL 
yovLjxa, ocra Be /X7] ayova. ajreipeTaL Be teal et? 
oaTpaKa BiareTprj/ieva, KaOdirep Ka\ ol ^oivLKe<^. 
TOVTO jiev ovv, oicnrep eLprjTat, irepl t7]V UepalBa 
Kal Trjv lSih)Biav eaTiv. 

4 'H Be 'IvBifcr] %copa t/jv tc KaXovjJbev^-jV ex^t- 
(TVKrjVy i) Kadlijaiv e/c tmp KXdBcov to.? pL^a<; dv 
eKaaTov eVo?, wairep elpr^Tai TvpoTepov dcpLijac 
Be ovK €K tS)v vewv aXV eK twv epcov Kal ctl 
iraXaioTepwv avTUL Be awdTTTOvaau tj} yjj 
iroLOvaLv oyairep BpixpaKTOP kvkXw irepl to Bev- 
Bpov, oiGTe yivedOai KaOdirep aKrjvrjV, ov Br] Kal 

' Tis add. W. from Athen. I.e.; eaviciixov . . . <papixaKov 
add. Sch. from Athen. I.e. ^ Plin. 11. 278 ; 12. 16. 

' ahphv jT W. from Athen. I.e., whence Zia<pvrivirai W. etc. 
fur 5jo(;)i/Tei''i7Tai Ald.H. a.bp6v t» UMVAld. 



eaten, but it is very fragrant, as also is the leaf of the 
tree. And if the ' apple ' is placed among clothes, 
it keeps them from being moth-eaten. It is also 
useful when one^ has drunk deadly poison ; for being 
given in wine it upsets the stomach and brings up the 
poison ; also for producing sweetness of breath ; ^ 
for, if one boils the inner part of the ' apple ' in a 
sauce, or squeezes it into the mouth in some other 
medium, and then inhales it, it makes the breath 
sweet. The seed is taken from the fruit and sown 
in spring in carefully tilled beds, and is then watered 
every fourth or fifth day. And, when it is growing 
vigorously ,2 it is transplanted, also in spring, to a 
soft well-watered place, where the soil is not too 
fine ; for such places it loves. And it bears its ' apples ' 
at all seasons ; for when some have been gathered, 
the flower of others is on the tree and it is ripening 
others. Of the flowers, as we have said,^ those 
which have, as it were, a distaff^ projecting in the 
middle are fertile, while those that have it not are 
infertile. It is also sown, like date-palms, in pots ^ 
with a hole in them. This tree, as has been said, 
grows in Persia and Media. 

'^ The Indian land has its so-called ' fig-tree ' 
(banyan), which drops its roots from its branches 
every year, as has been said above ^ ; and it drops 
them, not from the new branches, but from those 
of last year or even from older ones ; these take 
hold of the earth and make, as it were, a fence 
about the tree, so that it becomes like a tent, in 

* 1. 13. 4. » i.e. the pistil. 

^ Plin. 12. 16, fictilibus in vasis, dato per cavernas radicibus 
spiramento : the object, as Plin. explains, was to export it 
for medical use. 

' Plin. 12. 22 and 23. « 1. 7. 3. 



eloiOacn Biarpi^eLv. etVl Se at pu^ac (pvofievai 
hidhr]\oL 7rpo9 tou? /SXaaroix;' XeuKorepai yap 
Koi Saaecat koI aKoXial /cal acfyvWoi. fc';\^ei 8e 
fcal ri-jv av(o ko/jLtjv ttoWijv, koI to oXov hevhpov 
evKv/cXov Koi tm fieyeOeL /leya acpoSpa' /cal yap 
iirl hvo aTcihia iroielv <^aai rrjv cTKidv fcal to 
7rdxo<i Tov (TTeX€^(ov<; evta irXeiovwv rj e^)]KOVTa 
^tlpbuTcov, TO, he iroXXa reTTapuKOVTa. to Be ye 
^vXXov ovK eXaTTOv e%efc TreXr?^?, Kapirov he 
ofpohpa jxLKpov ijXifcov epe^LvOov o/jLOLov he ctvkm' 
hi o Kal eKiiXovv avTO ol "EXX,?/i'69 avKrjv oXlyov 
he davfiaaTO)^ tov Kapirov ov')(^ on KaTa to tov 
hevhpov /jLeyeOo<^ dXXd Kal to oXov. (pveTai he 
Kal TO hevhpov irepl tov ^ KKeaivrjv iroTajJiov. 
5 "E<jTfc he Kal 6Tepov hevhpov Kal tm fxeyeOet 
fieya Kal rjhvKapirov OavfiacrTcb<; Kal fieyaXo- 
Kapirov Kal y^pMVTai rpo^fi to3V 'Ivhcov ol ao<f)ol 
Kal firj ayLtTT e^o/xez^ot. 

'^F^Tepov he ov to (puXXov ttjv fiev /jLOp<pr]v 
7rp6/j,7]Ke<; rot? twi^ CTTpovOoiv iTTepol'; o/llolov, a 
TrapuTiOevTaL nrapa to, Kpavq, fxrjKO^ he &)? 

"KXXo Te eaTiv ov 6 Kaprro^ p.aKp6<i koI ovk 
ev6v<; dXXa aKoXib<; ea0i6/j,€vo<; he yXvKv<i. ovto<; 
ev TT) KGiX'ia hrjy/iov efnroLel Kal hvaevTepiav, ht 
^AX€^avhpo<i uTreKjjpv^e fir} eaOietv. eaTt he 
Kal cTepov ov 6 Kapirov 6/iolo<; toU KpaveoL<;. 

' oSconj. W.; aTj UMVAld. 

2 a(pv\\ui conj. Dalec. ; 5i(pv\\oi UVAld. ; so also MH., 
omitting koL 

•' ^^^-jKovra . , . TfTTupaKovra MSS.; ef . . TfTTdpuv COnj. 
fc?ali)i. cf. Plin. I.e.; Strabo 15. 1. 21. 


s\ hich ^ men sometimes even live. The roots as they 
grow are easily distinguished from the branches, 
being whiter hairy crooked and leafless. ^ The 
foliage above is also abundant, and the whole tree is 
round and exceedingly large. They say that it 
extends its shade for as much as two furlongs ; and 
the thickness of the stem is in some instances more 
than sixty ^ paces, while many specimens are as 
much as forty ^ paces through. The leaf is quite as 
large as a shield,'^ but the fruit is very small,^ o»ly as 
large as a chick-pea, and it resembles a fig. And 
this is why the Greeks^ named this tree a ^ fig-tree.' 
The fruit is curiously scanty, not only relatively to 
the size of the tree, but absolutely. The tree also 
grows near the river Akesines.^ 

There is also another tree^ which is very large 
and has wonderfully sweet and large fruit ; it is 
used for food by the sages of India who wear no 

There is another tree^ whose leaf is oblong in 
shape, like the feathers of the ostrich ; this they 
fasten on to their helmets, and it is about two cubits 

There is also another ^^ whose fruit is long and not 
straight, but crooked, and it is sweet to the taste. 
This causes griping in the stomach and dysentery ; 
wherefore Alexander ordered that it should not be 
eaten. There is also another ^^ whose fruit is like the 
fruit of the cornelian cherry. 

* TTt'XTTj : a small round shield. ^' cf. C. P. 2. 10. 2. 

"" i.e. in Alexander's expedition. ' Ciienab. 

» Jack-fruit. See Index App. (3). Plin. 12. 24. 

■' Banana. See Index App. (4). 
10 Mango. See Index App. (5). Plin. 12. 24. 
" Jujube. See Index App. (6). 


Kal ere pa Be -nXeioi kol SiacfyepovTa rcov ev 
Tol<; "KXXrjcnv d\V avoovvfia. Oavfiaarov h' 
ovBev tt}? tSfOTT^To?* a')(ehov ""/dp, w? 76 87; TLve<; 
(paaiv, ov6ev o\(i)<; rcov hevBpwu ovhe rcov vXr)- 
/jidrcov ovSe tujv ttoicoScov opoiov iari tol<; ev rf] 
'FjWdBi 7r\r]V oXiywv. 

6 "\Biov Be Koi 1) e^evrjTrj^; 'y^Q3pa<^TavTr]<;- ravr^ji; 
Be Bvo yevr], to jucev ev^vXop kol koXov to Be 
(f)av\ov. a-irdvLov Be to koKov ddrepov Be iroXv. 
TTjv Be XP^^^ ^^ Or-jaavpL^ofievT] \a/ji/3dveL tvjv 
evxpovv dX)C evdv<; tj} (pvaei. eari Be to BevBpov 
Oa/jLi'(bBe<;, cocnrep 6 kvtlgo^. 

7 tl^acrl 8' elvai kol TeppavOov, ol B' ofjLotov 

T€pijiLvO(p, O TO fieV (f)vW0V KOL TOU? K\oiVa<^ KOl 

ToXKa TrdvTa ofioLa e%ei ttj Tep/iLpdfp rov Be 
KapiTov Bidcf)opov' opoLov yap Tal<; dp.v<yBaXal<;. 
elvai yap Kal ev BdxTpoL^; tyjv TeppivOov ravrrjv 
Kal Kdpva (jiepeiv rfKiKa dpivyBaXa Blcl to p,r) 
fieydXa' Kal ttj oy^eu Be 7rap6p,oia, ttXtjv to 
KeXvcjiOf; ov Tpa^Vt tj} S* evGTopia Kal rjBovij 
KpeiTTW Twv dpivyBdXcjdV. Bi o Kal ^^/^/Jcr^at tov^ 
eKel p,dXXov. 

8 *E^ a)V Be Ta Ipdria Troiovai to pbev <f)vXXoi' 
opLOLOV e^^ei ttj avKaplvcp, to Be oXov (pvTov Tot? 
KvvopoBoL'^ opoiov. (f)VT€uovaL Be ev tol<=; TreBioL^ 
avTo Kar op^ov^, 3i' o Kal iroppwOev dcpopMai 
dpLTreXoL (^aivovTaL. e^ei Be Kal (poLviKa^i evia 

1 Plin. 12. 25. 

« See Index. Plin. 12. 17-19. 

^ Pistachio-nut. See Index App. (7). Plin. 12. 25. Nic. 
rher. 894. 



There are also many more ^ wliicli are different to 
those found among the Hellenes, but they have no 
names. There is nothing surprising in the fact that 
these trees have so special a character ; indeed, as 
some say, there is hardly a single tree or shrub or 
herbaceous plant, except quite a few, like those in 

The ebony 2 is also peculiar to this country ; of 
this there are two kinds, one with good handsome 
wood, the other inferior. The better sort is rare, but 
the inferior one is common. It does not acquire its 
good colour by being kept, but it is natural to it from 
the first. The tree is bushy, like laburnum. 

Some say that a ' terebinth ' ^ grows there also, 
others that it is a tree like the terebinth ; this in 
leaf twigs and all other respects resembles that 
tree, but the fruit is different, being like almonds. 
In fact they say that this sort of terebinth grows also 
in Bactna and bears nuts only as big as almonds, 
inasmuch as they are not large for the size of the 
tree ^ ; and they closely resemble almonds in appear- 
ance, except that the shell is not rough ; and in 
palatableness and sweetness they are superior to 
almonds ; wherefore the people of the country use 
them in preference to almonds. 

^The trees from which they make their clothes 
have a leaf like the mulberry, but the whole tree 
resembles the wild rose. They plant them in the 
plains in rows, wherefore, when seen from a distance, 
they look like vines. Some parts also have many 

* Zih. . . . fieyaXa : Sch. omits these words, and W. con- 
siders them corrupt ; but G seems to have had them in his 
text. The translation is tentative, 

* Cotton-plant, qf. 4. 7. 7 and 8. Plin. 12. 25. 


^epr) TToXXou?. koX ravra fxev iv SevBpoi 

9 ^^epet Se koI a-Trepfiara tSia, ra fiev roU 
XeBpo7roL<^ ofioia ra Be roi? 7Tvpol<; koI raU 
Kpida2<^. epe(3iv6o'^ pep yap kol (paKo<i kol raXka 
ra Trap* ijplu ov/c eaTLV erepa S' iarlv Mare 
TrapaTrXijcrca iroLelv ra e^jryjpara koI /xy 8ia- 
jLyvdocTfceiv, W9 (paaiv, civ py t£? cLKOvar]. Kpidai 
Be Kol TTupol fcal ciXXo tl y€vo<; aypucov KpiOoiv, 
e^ oiv Kal aprot 'r)Bel<i kol ')(^6vBpo<i KaX6<i. ravra^; 
01 'lttttol iaOlovTe'i to rrpcorov SieipdelpouTO, Kara 
pLiicpov Be ovv e6La0€i>Te<; ev a')(ypoL<^ ovBev 

10 WaKiGTa Be airelpovcn to Kokovpevov opv^ov, 
e^ ov TO eyjrrjpa. rovro Be opoiov tt) ^eid Kai 
irepiirTLaOev olov y^ovopo'^ evTreTrrov Be, Tr)v oyjrir 
Tre^u/co? opoiop tol's aipai<; kol tcv ttoXvp 'xpovov 
ep vBari, uTrox^lTaL Be ovk et? a-Tdy(yp aX>C olov 
c})6/3j]p, Mdirep 6 KeyxP^^ '^^^^ ^ eXfyao?. aWo Be 
o eKoXovp 01 "\LWripe<; c^aKOP' tovto Be opoi'v 
p.ep rfi o-^ei Kal to ^ovicepa<^, Oepi^eTac Be Trepl 
Tl\euiBo<; Buaiv. 

11 AiacpepeL Be Kal avrrj rj %wpa tm ti-jv pev 
(f)epeiP epia rrjv Be pbr] ^epeiP' rj yap opeiprj Ka\ 
apbireXop e;^et Kal ekdap Kal rd dWa aKpoBpva' 
7r\i]P aKapiTOP rrjp eXdap, Kal ax^Bov Kal t;);- 
(pvaLP oiairep piera^u kotlpov Kal eXaa? €o-Tt Kai 

^ cf. 8. 4. 2. Avhence it appears that the original text here 
contained a fuller account. Plin. 18. 71. 

^ ^orrjhiDH halcpense. ^ Sc. of Alexander. 

* The verb seems to have dropped out (W.). 



date-palms. So much for what come under the 

heading of Hrees.' 

These lands bear also peculiar grains, some like 
those of leguminous plants, some like wheat and 
barley. For the chick-pea lentil and other such 
plants found in our country do not occur ; but there 
are others, so that they make similar mashes, and 
one cannot, they say, tell the difference, unless one 
has been told. They have however barley wheat ^ 
and another kind of wild barley,' which makes sweet 
bread and good porridge. VVhen the horses^ ate 
this, at first it proved fatal to them, but by degrees 
tiiey became accustomed to it mixed with bran and 
took no hurt. 

But above all they sow the cereal called rice, of 
which they make their mash. This is like rice-wheat, 
and when bruised makes a sort of porridge, which is 
easily digested ; in its appearance as it grows it is 
like darnel, and for most of its time of growth it is * 
in water ; however it shoots ^ up not into an ear, but 
as it were into a plume,*^ like the millet and Italian 
millet. There was another plant '^ w^hich the Hel- 
lenes ^ called lentil ; this is like in appearance to 
' ox-horn ' (fenugreek), but it is reaped about the 
setting of the Pleiad. 

Moreover this country shews differences in that 
j)art of it bears certain things which another part 
does not ; thus the mountain country has the vine 
and olive and the other fruit-trees ; but the olive is 
barren,^ and in its character it is as it were almost 
between a wild and a cultivated olive, and so it 

« airox^'irai : cf. 8. 8. 1. « cf. 8. 3. 4. 

' Phastolus Muu'jo ; see Index App. (8). 

* i.e. of Alexander's expedition. ^ Plin. 12. 14. 


rrj oXr) /jLop(})f}' Kol to (pvWov rou fiev TrXaTv- 
repov Tov Be ojevoTepov. ravra p.ev ovv Kara 

12 'El' Se Tj} ^ Apia %ft>/?a KaXovpievr) aKavOci iariv, 
i4> ^9 jLveraL Sd/cpvov op-oiov i-fj afxvpvr) koI rfj 
oyjrei, Koi rfj oafif)' tovto he orav iTri\dp,-\lrr) 6 
^Xto? Karappel. iroWa Se kol dXXa irapa rd 
ivravOa koi ev rfj X'^P^ '^^'' ^^ '^^'^^ Trora/iol^ 
ylveTai, ev erepoi^ Be tottol^ earlv aKavOa Xevfcrj 
rpLo^o^, i^ 77? Kal aKvrdXia koX ^aKT7jpLa<; ttol- 
ovaiv 67rd)B7]<; Be Kal fxavrj' ravrijv Be KaXovatv 

"AXXo Be vXy]/jia /iieye6o<; fiev yXcKov pd^avo^, 
TO Be (jyvXXov o/xolou Bdcf)V]] Kal ru) fieyeOeL Kal 
rfj jiopcfifj, TOVTO B' et tl ^dyoL evairoOvrjaKei. 
Bi Kal OTTOV 'iirTTOL TOUTOU? e4>vXaTTov Bid 

13 'Ei; Be TTJ VeBpwala %wpa irecpVKevaL ^aalv ev 
fiev OfjiOLOv Tij Bd(f)vr) ^uXXov e^pv, ov Ta viro^vyta 
Kal oTLovv el cfidyoi fxiKpov eirtayovTa Bie^Qei- 
povTo 'jrapa7rX7]aLco<; BiariOepLeva Kal (nrdifieva 
o/xot&}9 Tot<^ eTnXijTTTOi';. 

"FjTepop Be aKavOdv riva elvar Tavrrjv Be 
(f)vXXov /JL€V ovBev ex^w 'TTe<^vKevai 8' e'/c /zfa? 
pit,r]<;' e(f eKuaTO) Be rcov o^wv aKavOav ex^iv 
o^elav a<j)6Bpa, Kal tovtoov Be KaTayvvpLevcov y) 

7rpoCrTpLj3opL€V(OV OTTOV €Kp6LV TTOXvV, 0? d'TTOTV^Xol 

^ KoX (TxeSbi' . . . lJ-op<p^ conj. W. ; (rxeS^v Se koI t^v (pvaiv 
wrnrfp fifT. kot. Ka\ i\. (<tti 5e tt) '6\t) fJ.op<p^ Ka\ rh (p. Aid. ; so 
also U, omitting tlie Kai. 

"^ Balsamodendroii Mukul ; see Index App. (9). Plin. 12 



is also in its general appearance,^ and the leaf is 
broader than that of the one and narrower than that 
of the other. So much for the Indian land. 

In the country called Aria there is a ' thorn ' ^ 
on which is found a gum resembling myrrh ^ in 
appearance and smell, and this drops wlien the sun 
shines on it. There are also many other plants 
besides those of our land, both in the country and in 
its rivers. In other parts there is a white * thorn '^ 
which branches in three, of which they make batons 
and sticks ; its wood is sappy and of loose texture, 
and they call it the thorn '^of Herakles.' 

There is another shrub ^ as large as a cabbage, 
whose leaf is like that of the bay in size and shape. 
And if any animal should eat this, it is certain to die 
of it. Wherefore, wherever there were horses,^ they 
kept them under control. 

In Gedrosia they say that there grows one tree ^ 
with a leaf like that of the bay, of which if the 
beasts or anything else ate, they very shortly died 
with the same convulsive symptoms as in epilepsy. 

And they say that another tree ^ there is a sort of 
Hhorn' (spurge), and that this has no leaf and grows 
from a single root ; and on each of its branches it has 
a very sharp spine, and if these are broken or bruised 
a quantity of juice flows out, which blinds animals or 

' (Xfivpvri conj. Sch. from 9. 1. 2 ; Plin. I.e.', rp IWvpia Ald.H. 

* See Index. 

* Asafoetida ; see Index App. (10). Plin. 12. 33. 

' i.e. in Alexander's expedition. Probably a verb, such 
as u)(T<ppa.lvovTo, has dropped out after 'litiroi (Sch.). Odort 
equoH invitans Plin. I.e. 

' Nerium odorum ; see Index App. (11). cf. 4. 4. 13 ; Strabo 
15. 2. 7; PHn. I.e. 

8 T'lin. I.e.; Arrian, Anab. 6. 22, 7. 



TciWa ^(ba iravra Kal 7rp09 tol/? avOpaiiTOV^ e/' 
Tf? irpoapaiveiev avrol'^. iv Be roTrot? rial Trecpv- 
Kevat TLi'CL ^oravi^v, icf fj avv6a7r€ipu>iJ.evov<; o<^6i? 
elvuL /jLiJcpov<; acpoSpa' tovtoi<; 3' et Ti? eyUySa? 
'irXy'l'ye'ni 6vi]aKeiv. cirroTn'LyeadaL Se kol utto 

T03V (^OlVLKCdV TOiV COpLMl' €L T£9 cf)dyOL, Kul TOVTO 

varepov KaTapo7]6r]uaL. Tocavrai fiev ovv hvvd- 
pLSi^ Kal ^(jowv koX <^vto)v Tcrci)? kol Trap dWoi^ 

14 JlepLTTorepa he twv ^vopevwv kol TrXecarov 
i^TjWayfieva irpo^ ra dWa rd evoap^a rd irepl 
^Apa^lav Kal %vpiav Kal 'Ii^Sou?, olov 6 re 
\i^avo)T6<; Kal ?/ ajxypva Kal t) Kaala kol to 
OTTO^dXaap.ov Kal rd Kivap^wpiov Kal oaa dXXa 
roLavra- irepl o)v iv dWot-^ eiprjrai Bid 7r\ei6vo}i>. 
ev piev ovv roL<; tt/jo? eo) re Kal pLeafjpil^piav Kal 
ravr tBia Kal erepa Be rovrcov irXeio) earlv. 

V. 'Ei'' Be roL<i 7r/?09 dpKrov ov)(^ op-olco'i' ovOev 
ydp on d^iov \6yov Xeyerac irapd rd KOtvd rcov 
BevBpcov a Kal (piXo^lrvxpa re rvy^uvei Kal eari 
Kal Trap' 7)puv, olov TrevKt] Bpv<i eXdrrj ttu^o? 
BLoa/3dXavo'; <^iXvpa Kal rd dXXa Be rd roiavra' 
a')(eBov ydp ouBev erepov rrapd ravrd iariv, dXXd 
TMV dXXayv vXrjpidrcov evia d rov<; '\\rv)(^pov<; 
fidXXov ^rjrel tottoi;?, KaOdirep Kerravpiov 
dyfrivOcov, en Be rd ^apptaKOiBrj ral^ pl^aL^; Kal 
rol<s oTTol'^, olov eXXej^opo'i iXaryjpiov aKapipLwvLa, 
a^^eBov rrdvra rd pt^oropLovpieva. 

2 '\d pLev ydp ev rw Wovrw Kal rfj @pdKr) yiverai, 

^ TU a,\Aa 5t : ? oin. rck ; St uiii. Sell. 


even a man, if any drops of it should fall on him. 
Also they say that in some parts grows a herb under 
which very small snakes lie coiled up, and that, if 
anyone treads on these and is bitten, he dies. They 
also say that, if anyone should eat of unripe dates, 
he chokes to death, and that this fact was not 
discovered at first. Now it may be that animals and 
plants have such properties elsewhere also. 

Among the plants that grow in Arabia Syria and 
India the aromatic plants are somewhat exceptional 
and distinct from the plants of other lands ; for 
instance, frankincense myrrh cassia balsam of Mecca 
cinnamon and all other such plants, about which we 
have spoken at greater length elsewhere. So in 

the parts towards the east and south there are these 
special plants and many others besides. 

Of the plants special to northern regions. 

V. In the northern regions it is not so, for nothing- 
worthy of record is mentioned except the ordinary 
trees which love the cold and are found also in our 
country, as fir oak silver-fir box chestnut lime, as 
well as other similar trees. There is hardly any 
other 1 besides these ; but of shrubs there are some 
which for choice ^ seek cold regions, as centaury and 
wormwood, and further those that have medicinal 
properties in their roots and juices, such as hellebore 
squirting cucumber scammony, and nearly all those 
whose roots are gathered.^ 

Some of these grow in Pontus and Thrace, some 

2 I have moved fxaWov, which in the MSS. comes before 
7 wv 6,Wwy. 
* i.e. which have medicinal uses. 



TOL Be Trepl rrjv Otrrjv Kal rov Ylapvaaov kol to 
Il7]\iov Kal Ti]v "Oaaap Kal to TeXeOptov Kal iv 
rovTOLf; Se TLve<^ (paai, irXelaTov' ttoWcl Be Kal 
ev rfi ^ KpKaBia Kal ev rfj AaKcoviKj}' ^ap/xaKcoBeL^; 
yap Kal avTac. rcov Be €uu>Bmv ovBev ev raurai.<i, 
ttXtjv JpL<; ev rrj ^IWvplBi Kal Trepl top ^ABpiav 
ravrrj yap %/O'^crT^ Kal ttoXu Biacpepovaa tmp 
aXkcov dXX' ev tol<^ akeeLvol<i Kal Tot? tt/jo? 
/j,ea7]fx^pLav coairep dvTLKei/ieva to, evcoBrj. exovai 
Be Kal KvirdpLTTOv ol ciKeeivol jxaWov, coarrep 
Kprjrrj AvKLa 'Po^o?, KeBpov Be Kal rd SpaKta 
6p7) Kal rd ^pvyia. 

T6)v Be '))/J-epoufievu)V rjKLard <f)aaiv iv tow 

'\^V')(^pol<i V7TO/jL6VeLV Bd(f)V7]V Kal jJLVppivi'jV, Kal 

rovTwv Be tJttov en rrjv fxvppivqv' arjixelov Be 
Xeyovaiv ore iv rw ^OXv/jLirrp Bd^vrj fxev ttoWj], 
p,vppivo(; Be 6X(o<i ovk eariv. iv Be tw TLovto) 
irepl YlavTiKairaLov ovB' erepov Kaiirep airovBa- 
^ovTcov Kal Tvdvra /juy] ■^avco/jLevcov tt/oo? Ta? lepo- 
avva<;' avKal he iroXXal Kal ev/jLeyedei'i Kal 
poial Be TrepiaKeTra^ofievar dinoL Be Kal pufXiai 
TrXeLarat Kal iravroBairdiTaraL Kal y^py^aral- 
avTac 8' iapival ttXtjv el dpa o^^iar t/)? Be 
dypLa<; vXy^; iarl Bpv^ TrreXea fieXia Kal oaa 
TOiavTa' nevKrj Be Kal iXdrt] Kal rrLTV<; ovk earn 
ovBe oXo)? ovBev evBaBov vypd Be avrrj Ka) 
')(eipwv TToXv Tr}? X(VQ)7nKr]<;, wcrr ovBe iroXi 
')(^p(hvTat, avTrj 7rXr)v tt/jo? rd viraiOpia. ravra 

^ Te\edpiov conj. Sch. (in Euboea), cf. 9. 15, 4 ; UeXtdpioi 
UMVP; UapOfPiop Ald.G. 

^ Whose rhizome was used for perfumes; cf. 1. 7. 2; dt 
odor. 22. 23. 28. 32 ; Dykes, The Genus Iris, p. 237, gives an 
interesting account of the modern uses of ' orris-root.' 



about Oeta Parnassus Pelion Ossa and Telethrion,^ 
and in these parts some say that there is great abund- 
ance ; so also is there in Arcadia and Laconia, for 
these districts too produce medicinal plants. But of 
the aromatic plants none grows in these lands, except 
the iris^ in Illyria on the shores of the Adriatic ; for 
here it is excellent and far superior to that which 
grows elsewhere ; but in hot places and those which 
face the south the fragrant plants grow, as if by con- 
trast to the medicinal plants. And the warm places 
have also the cypress in greater abundance ; for in- 
stance, Crete Lycia Rhodes, while the prickly cedar 
grows in the Thracian and the Phrygian mountains. 

Of cultivated plants they say that those least 
able to thrive in cold regions are the bay and 
myrtle, especially the myrtle, and they give for 
proof ^ that on Mount Olympus the bay is abundant, 
but the myrtle does not occur at all. In Pontus 
about Panticapaeum neither grows, though they are 
anxious to grow them and take special pains ^ to do 
so for religious purposes. But there are many well 
grown fig-trees and pomegranates, which are given 
shelter ; pears and apples are abundant in a great 
variety of forms and are excellent. These are spring- 
fruiting trees, except that they may fruit later here 
than elsewhere. Of wild trees there are oak elm 
manna-ash and the like (while there is no fir silver- 
fir nor Aleppo pine, nor indeed any resinous tree). 
But the wood of such trees ^ in this country is damp 
and much inferior to that of Sinope, so that they do 
not much use it except for outdoor purposes. These 

» Plin. 16. 137. 

* Plin., I.e., says that Mithridates made this attempt. 

• t.6. oak, etc. 


/.lev ovv irepl rov Hovtov r} ev riai je T07ro/<» 

'Rv Be rfi YipoTTOVTihi yiverai koX /ivppLvo<; kol 
Bdxjivr} 7r6Wa')(ov iv toI's opeaiv. icr(o<; 8' evia 
KCLi Tcop TOTTcov iBia Oereov eKaaroL yap e^ovaL 
TO, SiacfyepovTa, coairep etprjjai, Kara Ta<; vXa<s ov 
p,6vov TM jSeXTLco Kal 'X,€ip(o Ti-jV avrrjv e-)(eiv aWa 

Koi r(p <f)€p€tV T) yLtr; cf)ep€lV' oloV 6 fl€V T/jLM\o<i 

e')(ei KOL 6 Mucrf09 "OXuyLtTro? ttoXv to Kapvov 
KOL rr]V BiocT^aXavov, en Be afXTreXov kol firfKeav 
fcal poav 7] Be "\By] ra puev ovk ey^u rovrwv ra 
Be cnrdvia' irepl Be MaKeBovtav koI tov UiepiKov 
"OXv/jlttoi' ra fxev ean ra K ovtc eaii rovrcov ev 
Be rfj Eul3oLa kol irepl ri/v ^layvrjaiav ra fxev 
Kv/Soi/ca TToXXd tmv Be dWcov ovOev ovBe By irepl 
TO \le\LOV ovBe ra dXka ra evravOa oprj. 

Bpa^u? B' earl roiro'; o? e^et Kal oA-w? rrju 
vauTrrjy/jcrL/jLOV vXr/v rrj<; /xev yap Et'pcoTr?;? Bo/cel 
ra irepl ri-jv ^laKeBoviav Kal oaa rrj<; &paKr](; Kal 
irepl ^IraXiav rrj<; Be ^Aaia^ rd re ev l^iXtKia 
Kal rh ev Xivcoirr) Kal ^A/iiaay, ere Be 6 Mi/crto? 
"OXuyLtTTO? Kal ?} "IBt] ttXtjv OV TToWrjv T) yap 
'^vpla KeBpov ex^t Kal ravrrj ^P^^'^^^ 7rpo<; rd<; 

'AWa Kal ra (piXvBpa Kal ra TrapaTTord^ta 
ravO^ 6fioi(o<i' ev fiev yap rw W^Bpla irXdravov ov 
(f)aaiv elvai ttXtjv irepl ro Aio/jirjBov<; lepov 
arravlav Be Kal ev 'IraXla irdar}' Kairoi iroXXol 
KOL fieydXoi irora/JLol rrap ajK^olv' dXX^ ovk 

^ See Imlcx. 

^ Kal oaa: text probably defective, but sense clear. IkuI 
iaa TTJs 0. €X«« Kal ra irepl 'I. 



are the trees of Pontus, or at least of certain districts 
of that country. 

In the land of Propontis myrtle and bay are 
found in many places on the mountains. Perhaps 
however some trees should be put down as special 
to particular places. For each district, as has been 
said, has diflerent trees^ differing not only in that the 
same trees occur but of variable quality, but also as 
to producing or not producing some particular tree. 
For instance, Tmolus and the Mysian Olympus have 
the hazel and chestnut ^ in abundance, and also the 
vine apple and pomegranate ; while Mount Ida has 
some of these not at all and others only in small 
(juantity ; and in Macedonia and on the Pierian 
Olympus some of these occur, but not others ; and 
in Euboea and Magnesia the sweet chestnut ^ is com- 
mon, but none of the others is found ; nor yet on 
Pelion or the other mountains of that region. 

Again it is only a narrow extent of country which 
produces wood fit for shipbuilding at all, namely in 
Europe the Macedonian region, and certain parts" 
of Thrace and Italy ; in Asia Cilicia Sinope and 
Amisus, and also the Mysian Olympus, and Mount 
Ida ; but in these parts it is not abundant. For Syria 
has Syrian cedar, and they use this for their galleys. 

The like is true of trees which love water and 
the riverside ; in the Adriatic region they say that 
the plane is not found, except near the Shrine of 
Diomedes,^ and that it is scarce throughout Italy * ; 
yet there are many large rivers in both countries, 
in spite of which the localities do not seem to 

' On one of the islands of I)iomedes, off the coast of 
Apulia ; now called Isole di Treniiti. c/. Plin. 12. 6. 
* cf. 2. 8. 1 n. 



€OiK€ ^epeiv TOTTO?" iv FyjLO) jouv a<; ^lovvaiOH 
7rpea/3vr€po<; 6 rvpavvo<; e^vrevaev iv tw irapa- 
he'iaw, ai elai vvv iv tw jv/ivacrLM, (fiiXoTi/irjOecaat 
ou BeSvvrjvrat Xa^elv fxeyeOo^;. 

"Kvwc Se TrXcLaryv e^ovai irXdravov, oi Be 
ineXeav koX Iriav, ol he fivpLKrjv, (oairep 6 Al/io^. 
ware ra jiev roiavra, KaOdirep iXe^xPrj, rcov tottcov 
iBia Oereov 6/jL0iu><; ev re toI<; dypioif; koI toU 
y/iepoi'i' ov firjv dXXa Ta^ dv ecrj kol tovtcov 
iiri TLVwv ware SiaKoafi'ijOevTayv SvvacrOaL ttjv 
X^p(^^ (pcpeiv, o KOL vvv ^v/j,l3aivov opw/xev Ka\ 
eirl ^(owv ivLCOv kol (j)vrMv. 

VI. MeylaTrjv he 8ia(j)opdv avrrj'; rrj<; (jivaeoy^ 
row hevhpwv koI dirXo)'; tmv vXij/ndrcov vttoXt]- 
TTriov i)v KOI irporepov etirojxev, on rd /lev eyyaia 
rd 5' evvhpa TV<y)(^dv6L, KaOdirep rcov ^cowv, kol rcov 
<f)vrci)v' ov fiovov iv rot? eXeat fcal ral'; Xi/j^vai^ 
fcal roL<; Trora/jLol^ yap dXXa koi iv rfj OaXdrrrj 
<j)verat koI vXrjjxara evia ev re rfj e^co /cat SevSpa' 
iv jiev yap rfj irepl t)fiaf; fiiKpd irdvra rd cf)v6fieva, 
Kal ovSev vTTepe')(ov w^ elirelv rr)<; OaXdrr^j^;' iv 
iKelvr) Be Kal rd roiavra Kal virepexovra, Kal 
ere pa Be yitet^a) BevBpa. 

Ta fiev ovv irepl r]ixd<i icrri rdBe' cpavepwrara 
/lev Kal Koivorara irdaiv ro re <^vko^ kol ro 
fipvov Kal daa dXXa roiavra' (j)av€pd)rara Be Kal 

^ (/)i\oTi^iTj0€?fra( conj. St.; (pt\oTi/^-n9e\s MF>^ ; Plin. 12. 7. 
■^ Pa.\aTT7;y coiij. Seal, from G ; eAarTjs Akl.H. 



produce this tree. At any rate those Avhich King 
Dionysius the Elder planted at Rhegiiim in the park, 
and which are now in the grounds of the wrestling 
school and are thought much of/ have not been able 
to attain any size. 

Some of these regions however have the plane 
in abundance, and others the elm and willow, others 
the tamarisk, such as the district of Mount Haemus. 
Wherefore such trees we must, as was said, take to 
be peculiar to their districts, whether they are Avild 
or cultivated. However it might well be that the 
country should be able to produce some of these 
trees, if they were carefully cultivated : this we do 
in fact find to be the case with some plants, as with 
some animals. 

Of the. aquatic plants of the Mediterranean. 

VI. However the greatest difference in the natural 
character itself of trees and of tree-like plants gener- 
ally we must take to be that mentioned already, 
namely, that of plants, as of animals, some belong 
to the earth, some to water. Not only in swamps, 
lakes and rivers, but even in the sea there are some 
tree-like growths, and in the ocean there are even 
trees. In our own sea all the things that grow are 
small, and hardly any of them rise above the sur- 
face ^ ; but in the ocean we find the same kinds 
rising above the surface, and also other larger 

Those found in our oAvn waters are as follows : 

most conspicuous of those which are of general 

occurrence are seaweed ^ oyster-green and the like ; 

most obvious of those peculiar to certain parts are the 

' Plin. 13. 135. 



ISLcoTara Kara rov<; tottov^; ekdrr) avKrj Bpv<; 
au7T6\o'i (poli'i^. rovrcov Se ra fxev irpoa'yeia 
Tu Se TTOvrta ra S' u/xfpoTepayi/ tmv tottwv kolvcl. 
Kol ra ixev iroXveih?], KaOdirep ro (f>vfco<;, ra Be 
fjLiav iSiav e^ovra. rov yap cf)VKou<; rb fjuev earu 
7r\arv(f)v\\ov rati/ioefSe? ')(pMfia TrowSe? e;^o^', 
o St) fcal TTpdaou KaXovai rLve^, ol he ^coarrjpa' 
pi^av he €)(^et haaelav e^coOev evhoOev Be XeirupLcoBy), 
paicpdv Be eirieLKw^; /cal evnax^) rrapop^olav rol'^ 

3 To Be rpi^o^vWov, codTrep ro pupaOov, ov 
TTOcoSe? aXX' e^co)^pov ovBe e)(ov /cauXov aXX' 
6p66v 7ra>9 ev avrw- (pverat Be rovro iirl roiv 
oarpuKuyv Kal rwv XlOcdv, ovx Mcnrep Odrepov 
7rpo<i rfi fyfj' irpoayeia 8' dpcpo), Kal rb fiev 
r pL-)(^6<^vXXov irpb's avrfj ry <yf/, 7roXXdKL<; Be wairep 
eTTiKXv^erai povov vrrb t/}? 6aXdrri]<^, Odrepov Be 
avoir epo). 

4 Tiverai Be ev p,ev rfj e^o) rfj ire pi 'HpaxXeovi 
(Tr7]Xa<; Oavpaarov n rb p,eyeOo<i, w? cpaaL, Kal rb 
irXdra pLel^ov 6i<^ iraXaiarLalov. cjieperai Be 
rovro 6t9 rrjv eao) SdXarrav dpa ro) pu> rw 
e^wOev Kal KaXovauv avrb irpdaov ev ravrrj B> 
ev rial r6iroL<i war eirdvw rov 6p(paXov. Xeyerai 
Be eirereiov elvau Kal (pueaOai, pev rov r]po<^ 
X7]jovro<;, uKp-d^eiv Be rod 6epov<^, rov pberorrcopov 
Be (f)6iveiv, Kara Be rbv yeipuwva diroXXvaOat Kal 
eKTTLTrreLv. drravra Be Kal rdXXa rd (f)u6peva 
X'^'^P^ K^CLi dp^avpbrepa yiveadat rov x^ipcovof;. 

^ See Index : (tv/ct), Spvs, etc. 

^ raiPioeiSfS conj. Dalec. ; Teraj/oeiSes UP., Aid. H.; t<1 revo- 
fiSfs MV. » c/. Diosc. 4. 99 ; Plin. 136. 


sea-plants called ^ fir ' 'fig' 'oak' 'vine' 'palm.'^ 
Of these some are found close to land_, others 
in the deep sea, others equally in both positions. 
And some have many forms, as seaweed, some but 
one. Thus of seaweed there is the broad-leaved 
kind, riband-like - and green in colour, which some 
call 'green-weed' and others 'girdle-weed.' This 
has a root which on the outside is shaggy, but the 
inner part is made of several coats, and it is fairly 
long and stout, like krojnyogeteion (a kind of onion). 

^ Another kind has hair-like leaves like fennel, 
and is not green but pale yellow ; nor has it a stalk, 
but it is, as it were, erect in itself; this grows on 
oyster-shells and stones, not, like the other, attached 
to the bottom ; but both are plants of the shore, 
and the hair-leaved kind grows close to land, and 
sometimes is merely w^ished over by the sea^ ; while 
the other is found further out. 

Again in the ocean about the pillars of Heracles 
there is a kind ^ of marvellous size, they say, which 
is larger, about a palmsbreadth.** This is carried into 
the inner sea along with the current from the outer 
sea, and they call it ' sea-leek ' (riband-weed) ; 
and in this sea in some parts it grows higher than 
a man's waist. It is said to be annual and to come 
up at the end of spring, and to be at its best in 
summer, and to wither in autumn, while in winter it 
perishes and is thrown up on shore. Also, they say, 
all the other plants of the sea become weaker and 
feebler in winter. These then are, one may say, the 

* i.e. grows above low water mark. 
5 See Index : <pvKos (2). 

" i.e. the 'leaf: the comparison is doubtless with tI 
TTAaru, §2 ; is UMVAld.; % VV. after Sch.'s conj. 


ravra fiev ovv olov irpoayeia irepi ye rr^v 
OdXarrav. ro he ttovtiov (f)VKO<; o ol aTToyyiel^ 
dfaKoXv/x/SMai 7re\(iyiov. 

Kal ev Kp}]TTj Se (pveTai, 7rpo<^ rrj jfj eVt tmv 
irerpcdv irXelaTOv Kal KoXktarov w ^dirrovcnv ov 
I^Lovov Ta<; TaLvia<; dXXa Kal epia Kal i/idrLa' Kal 
e&)? dv 7) 7rp6(T(paTO<; rj /3a^?;, ttoXv KaWicov i) 
XpocL rrjf; 7rop(f)vpa<;' yiverai S' ev ttj Trpoa^oppo) 
Kal irXelov Kal koWiov, coairep at Giroyyial Kal 
dWa Toiavra. 

"AXXo 8' earlv ofioiov rfj dypocxjTef Kal yap to 
(jivWov TrapairXyaiop e^ec Kal rrjv pi^av yova- 
tcoBtj Kal fxaKpav Kal ire^vKvlav irXaylav, Mcnrep 
i) tt}? dypoocFTLho^' e^ec Be Kal KavXov KaXafidihi], 
KaOdirep t) dypw(jTi<i' fieyeOei he eXarrov ttoXv 

TOV (fiVKOV<;. 

"A Wo Be TO ^pvoVy o (pvXXov fiev e;^et TrowSe? 
rfj y^poa, irXaTV Be Kal ouk dpo/xotov rat? OpiBa- 
KLvaL<^, irXr]v pvTLBwBecn-epov Kal Mcrirep avv- 
ecTTTaajievov. KavXov Be ovk e%et, dXX^ diro /jLid<; 
dpYi}<i TrXetft) rd roiavTa Kal TrdXiv dir aXXtji;- 
(pveraL Be errl tmv XlOcov rd roiavra irpb^ rfj yfi 
Kal Tcov oaTpuKcov. Kal rd fieu eXdrTco a)(^eB6v 

lavT eariv. 

'fl Be Bpv<i Kal 7) eXdrr] irapdyeLOi fiev dfi^xo' 
(^vovrai S' eirl XlOol^ Kal ocrrpaKOLf; pL^a<; fiev ovk 
exovaai, Tvpoaire^vKvlai Be wcTTrep at XeirdBe<i. 
dp,<p6Tepai ixev olov aapKoc^vXXa' TrpofiTjKeaTepov 
Be TO (f)vXXov TToXv Kal ira'X^vTepov t/}? eXdri]<i 

1 riin. 13. 136, cf. 32. 22; Diosc. 4. 99. 

* litmus ; see Index, (pvKos (5). 

^ Plin. I.e. ; grass-wrack, see Index, <pvKos (G). 



sea-plants which are found near the shore. But the 
' seaweed of ocean/ whicli is dived for by the 
sponge-fishers, belongs to the open sea. 

1 In Crete there is an abundant and luxuriant 
growth 2 on the rocks close to land, with which they 
dye not only their ribbons, but also wool and 
clothes. And, as long as the dye is fresh, the 
colour is far more beautiful than the purple dye ; 
it occurs on the north coast in greater abundance 
and fairer, as do the sponges and other such things. 

2 There is another kind like dog's-tooth grass ; 
the leaf is very like, the root is jointed and long, 
and grows out sideways, like that of that plant ; it 
has also a reedy stalk like the same plant, and in 
size it is much smaller than ordinary seaweed. 

* Another kind is the oyster-green, which has a 
leaf green in colour, but broad and not unlike 
lettuce leaves ; but it is more wrinkled ^ and as it 
were crumpled. It has no stalk, but from a single 
starting-point grow many of the kind, and again 
from another starting-point. These things grow on 
stones close to land and on oyster-shells. These 

are about all the smaller kinds. 

^ The ' sea-oak ' and ^sea-fir' both belong to the 
sliore ; they grow on stones and oyster-shells, having 
no roots, but being attached to them like limpets.^ 
Both have more or less fleshy leaves ; but the leaf 
of the ' fir ' grows much longer and stouter, and is ^ 

* Plin. 13. 137 ; 27. 56 ; fipiov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. 
I.e.; fioTpvov UAld.H. 

5 pvTtSu^iaTepou conj. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e.; xpfO'^^Se- 
aTepov Aid.; ^uctwSeVrepoy mBas. 

8 Plin. I.e. ' A€7ro5€s Aid.; XoiraSes W. with UMV. 

^ TrpofirjKfffTepov . . . ire<pvKe koI conj. W. ; irpofj,, 5e rb (pvWov 
naxv Koi iraxvTepov ttjs eXarTjy iroAu 5e /col Aid. 



7re<^VK6 Kol ovK. avofiOLov roL<; rcou oairpiwv \o/3ol<;, 
KolXov K evhoOev kol ovhev e')(ov ev avTol<i' to he 
rf;? hpv6<^ XeiTTOV koX [iv pLKwhearepov ')(pM/xa 8' 
iimTopc^vpov cifMcfiOiv. t) he 6\rj /xopcpr) tt)? /j.€v 
eXcLTii^ opOi] Koi avTr}<^ kol tmv uKpefjLovcov, t/}? he 
hpv6<; aKoXiwrepa koi fidWov e^ovaa 7r\dro<;' 
jLveraL he dficpco kol iroXvKavXa kol </iiov6Kav\a,> 
fxovoKavXoTepov he i) ixdrr)- ra? ^e dKpep.opL/cd<i 
diTo^vaeL'^ rj fiev iXuTrj /iaKpa<i e^ei kol evdela^ 
KoX jiavd'^, r) he hpv<i /3pax^'T€pa<; fcai (jKoXiwrepa^ 
Kol 7ru/cvoTepa<i. to 8' oXop fxeyedo^; dpLc^OTepwv 
o)<i TTvycovLalov i) puKpov virepalpov, fiet^ov he a)9 
ttTrXw? eiTTelv to tt}? eXdrt'j'i. ')(p7]aifxov he ?; hpv'^ 
€t? ^a(j)r)v eptcov tol^ ^vvai^iv. eVl jiev rcov 
aKpefiovoiV TrpoaijpTijfieua tmv oarpaKohepficdv 
^oowv evia' kol /cdrco he irpo<; avTU> t5> KavXo) 
TrepiTrecpVKOTCov tivcov y oXo), ev rovroL'i hehvKore^i 
ovivvoi re kol aXV aTTa fcal to ojxolov TroXvirohi. 

Tavra fxev ovv irpdd'^eia KaX pahia dewprjdrivar 
(jiaal he Tive<; kol ciXXifv hpvv elvac TTOvriav i) kol 
KapiTtv (pepei, Koi, i) ^dXavo^ avT7]<; ')(prjaL/i'i]- 
Tou? he aKivOov^ kol KoXvfji^riTa<; Xeyetv otl kol 
€T€pai fieydXat Tive<i roL<; fieyeOeaiv elrjaav. 

'H he dfi7reXo<; dfKporepwae jiperar koX yap 
Trpo? TTj yfj KOL TTovria' fiei^w 8' e^^ei Kal to, 
(PvXXa Kal TO, KXy/xara Kal tov Kapirov t) 

*PI he (tvkP] d(puXXo<i fiev tu> he fieyeOei ov 
jjieydXr], '^pcj/JLa he tov (f)\oLov (fyoiviKovv. 

^ avroLS Ald.H. ; aur^ conj. W, 
' I have inserted /xoroVauAa. 



not unlike the pods of pulses, but is hollow inside 
and contains nothing in the 'pods.'^ 'Jhat of the 
' oak ' is slender and more like the tamarisk ; the 
colour of both is purplish. The whole shape of the 
^ fir ' is erect, both as to the stem and the branches, 
but that of the ' oak ' is less straight and the plant is 
broader, l^oth are found both with many stems and 
with one,2 but the ' fir ' is more apt to have a single 
stem. The branchlike outgrowths in the ^fir' are 
long straight and spreading, while in the 'oak' they 
are shorter less straight and closer. The whole size 
of either is about a cubit or rather more, but in 
general that of the 'fir* is the longer. The 'oak' 
is useful to women for dyeing wool. To the branches 
are attached certain creatures with shells, and below 
they are also found attached to the stem itself, which 
in some cases they completely cover ; ^ and among 
these are found millepedes and other such creatures, 
including the one which resembles a cuttlefish. 

These plants occur close to land and are easy to 
observe ; but some report * that there is another ' sea 
oak' which even bears fruit and has a useful 'acorn,' 
and that the sponge fishers ^ and divers told them 
that there were other large kinds. 

^The 'sea-vine' grows under both conditions, both 
close to land and in the deep sea ; but the deep sea 
form has larger leaves branches and fruit. 

7 The ' sea-fig ' is leafless and not of large size, and 
the colour of the bark is red. 

3 rivwv 7' '6Xa) conj. W. ; tivS)v HXcov Aid.; rivSiv ye '6\(i}v U; 
text uncertain : the next clause has no connecting particle. 

■• Plin. 13. 137. 

* (TKivdovs, a vox nihili : perhaps conceals a proper name, 
t.g. liiceXiKovs ; CTToyYets conj. St. 

'« Plin. 13. 138. » Plin. U, 



10 'O Be (f)OLi'i^ ean y.ev iruvriov ^paxvareXey^e^ 
Be acfioSpa, koI cx^ehov evOelai at €K(f)V(T€i^ roiv 
pdjShMV KOi KuTwOev ou KVK\rp avrai, KaOdirep 
TMV pd^Scov al iiKpep^ovei;, dW axrap iv TrXdret 
/card fiiav Gvve)(e'i';, oXiyay^ov he koX diraX- 
Xdrrovaai. rcov he pd^hwv rj tmv dirocpvaecov 
Tovrcov ofiola rpoirov rivd 7/ (f)vaL<i TOt"? tcov 
uKavOcov (f)vXXoi<; t6)v uKaviKMV, olov croyKOii; 
KOi rot? TOiovrcL'i, irXrjV opdal kol ou;^, cocnrep 
eKelva, TrepL/ceKXaap-evaL kol to (pvXXov e)(ov(TaL 
hia/Se/Spcopevov vtto T)]<; dXpir)<;' eirel to 76 hi 
oXov rjKeiv tov piecrov ye KavXov Kal t) uXXt] o'-v/r^? 
7rapa7rX^](jLa. to he ')(pct)pa /cat tovtcov kol tcop 
KavXoiv Kal oXov tov (fiVTOv e^epvOpov re cr(p6Spa 

Kal (pOll'lKOVl'. 

Kal Ta pev iv TrjSe tj} OaXaTTrj ToaavTd ecTTLV. 
T) <ydp anoyyid Kat at dirXvaiai KaXovpevai Kal 
el TL TOLOvTov eTepav e;^et ^vcnv. 

VII. *Er he TTj e^co T]] irepl 'HpaKXeov<; crT?;Xa9 
TO Te TTpdcrov, wcnrep e\'py]Tai, cjiveTai Kal Ta 
diroXiOovpeva TavTa, olov dvpa Kal Ta hac^voeihP) 
Kal Ta dXXa. tT;? he epvOpd<; KaXovp€inj<; iv TJj 
'Apa/3ta piKpov iirdvco Kotttov iv p,ev ttj yfj 

* Ka.T<»9ev . . , airaWaTT ova at probably beyond certain re- 
storation : I have added koX before KaTwdiv (from G), altered 
KVKXwQfv to kvk\ci), put a stop before kuI KaruOev, and restored 
a-iraWdrrovaai (Ald.H.). ^ cf. 6. 4. 8 ; 7. 8. 3. 

^ irepiKfKXaaixfva, i.e. towards the ground, c/. Diosc. 3. 
68 and 69, where Plin. (27. 13) renders {(pvKKa) vnoir(piK\aTai 
ad terrani infracta. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vi. lo-vii. i 

The ' sea-palm ' is a deep-sea plant, but with a 
very short stem, and the branches which spring from 
it are almost straight ; and these under water are 
not set all round the stem, like the twigs which grow 
from the branches, but extend, as it were, quite 
flat in one direction, and are uniform ; though 
occasionally they are irregular.^ The character of 
these branches or outgrowths to some extent re- 
sembles the leaves of thistle-like spinous plants, 
such as the sow-thistles ^ and the like, except that 
they are straight and not bent over ^ like these, 
and have their leaves eaten away by the brine ; in 
the fact that the central stalk ^ at least runs through 
the whole, they resemble these, and so does the 
general appearance. The colour both of the branches 
and of the stalks and of the plant as a whole is a 
deep red or scarlet. 

Such are the plants found in this sea. For sponges 
and what are called aplysiai ^ and such-like growths 
are of a different character. 

Of the aquatic plants of the ' outer sea ' (i.e. Atlantic, Persian 
Gulf etc.). 

VII. In the outer sea near the pillars of Heracles 
grows the ^sea-leek,' as has been said ^ ; also the 
well known '^ plants which turn to stone, as thipna, 
the plants like the bay and others. And in the 
sea called the Red Sea^ a little above Coptos^ 

* i.e. midrib. 

* Some kind of sponge. airXvaiai conj. R. Const.; irKvaiai 
UAld. ; irXvcriai M ; irKovalai V, ^ 4. 6. 4. 

7 raCra: c/. 3. 7. 3 ; 3. 18. 11. 

8 Plin. 13. 139. 

3 Ko-KTov conj. Seal.; K6irov MV; kSktvou UAld.; Capto G 
and Plin. I.e. 



(^^a'Spoi' ovctv (f)VtT(U 7r\))i' rTyv oKui'Otjs tt/v^ 
ci\lr<i<'(>^ /I'rtXoi'/uD/s" rnr(ti'ia oe k(h avT)] dm ra 
Kdi'fuiTd Kal T)ji' uvvcpiav ovy^ vei yap aW^ i) 

6/ tT(i)V TtTT(t prOV i] TTtl'TC KCU TUTG \(lfjp(i)\; KCXl 
eiT ()\iyOJ' ■^f)UVO]'. 

'!'>;' (^t' if] 0(i\((TT)/ (pvtrat, KCiXovrri o avra 
C(nj)V}jv Km tiXitai'. t(TTi Ct >/ pti' ('((cjji')} OfiOLa 
T)j (ipia {/ ft tXdti ■-t;/ t\(in ■ Top <.j)vW(i)' Kdprror 
Ci- ty^ti )) eX(i(i 7Tapa7T\)'j(Tioi' rais e\(iai<;- acfyiyjai 
()fc K(U C('iKpi'ov, t'^ ov ot iarpo] (happaKOv h'atpni' 
oin'Tiihacjiv o yu'erai (j(bo<'''f)a ayaOuv. orav he 
voara irXeiO) yemjTdi, pvK)jTts^ (pvovrai Trpix; rp 
0(t\(irT)j K(iT(i run Toiror, ovtol he uiroXiOovvrai 
vTTu rov ))\i()V. p 6e t-^iiXarra (h]pi(oC')]<;- 7r\tL- 
arov-i ()e ep\^ei tol's" KapyapLcf^, cocrre fip eliai 

'E/' ce TU) KoXrrcp tm KdXovpevfp 'Wpcorov, t(/)' uv 
Kaiafjaivovai}' oi e^ AtyvTrrov, (Pverai pei^ Cdcf)!')] 
re Kcil eXaa Kai Ovpor, ov p)]i' \X(opd ye aXXn 
XiOoeiSp ra virepey^ovra r?j<s OaXdm]<;, op.oia he 
h'al Tol'^ (pvXXoi'i Kal roZs" ljXaaro?<; ro2<; y^Xopo?^. 
er Oe rep Ovpcp kg) ro rov dvOoi'^ \po)na CKiOjXor 
('f)(jav fo'/TTdy TtAtY()s' t',^//r^/;A.'o9. /^V-^'V ^t" twi' 
(' ei>hpi'if)L(iU' (KTor e/v rpei<; rr)'/yei<;. 

()i he, ore di'ciTrXoV'i ijv ron' e^ \i'hd)v airoard- 
Xerrcov vrro AXe^avhpov, ra ev rf; OaXdrrp 
(i)V('ipevd, pe)(pi ov per dv p ev ro) v-/p(p, ■ypo)nd 
(Paaiv eyeti' opotov rais^ cPvklov^, oirurav S' e^- 

^ cf. StralK) l(i. 1. 147. - Str IiMlrx. 

» 'i'li<- name- of ;i liv.> scniis (o ]\:\yo ilioppcd ciut : I Iiavo 
iii'--ii till T]] iXda: rf. tcus tAann livlow. JJicl/.l SilLT^csfs (5ea 
fill' a, II. 


in Arabia there grows on the land no tree except 
that called the ^thirsty' acacia, and even this is 
scarce by reason of the heat and the lack of water ; 
for it never rains except at intervals of four or five 
years, and then the rain comes down heavily and is 
soon over. 

1 But there are plants in the sea, which they call 
* bay ' and ^ olive' (white mangrove 2). In foliage 
the ' bay ' is like the aria (holm-oak), the ' olive ' 
like the real olive.^ The latter has a fruit like olives, 
and it also discharges a gum,* from which the 
physicians * compound a drug ^ for stanching blood, 
which is extremely effective. And when there is 
more rain than usual, mushrooms grow in a certain 
place close to the sea, which are turned to stone by 
the sun. The sea is full of beasts, and produces 
sharks ^ in great numbers, so that diving is 

In the gulf called nhe Gulf of the Heroes,' ^ 
to which the Egyptians go down, there grow a ' bay/ 
an ' olive,' and a ' thyme ' ; these however are not 
green, but like stones so far as they project above 
the sea, but in leaves and shoots they are like their 
green namesakes. In the ' thyme ' the colour of the 
flower is also conspicuous, looking as though the 
flower had not yet completely developed. These 
treelike growths are about three cubits in height. 

^ Now some, referring to the occasion when there 
was an expedition of those returning from India sent 
out by Alexander, report that the plants which grow in 
the sea, so long as they are kept damp, have a colour 

* cf. Diosc. 1. 105 and 106. 

6 cf. Athen. 4. 83 ; Plin. 12. 77. 

6 Plin. 13. 139. ' c/. 9. 4. 4. » Plin. 13. 140. 



eveyOevra reOfj 7rpo<; rov i'fK.LOV, ev oXcyrp ')(povo) 
i^ofjLOLovaOai tu) dXl. (^veadau he Koi cr^^otfou? 
XlOLvov^ irap avTrjv rrjv OdXarrav, ou? ovSeU dv 
BiaypoL^] rfj oyjrei irpo^ tou? dXy]Otvov<;. Oav/xa- 
aiMTepov Se ri toutov Xeyovar (jiveaOai yap 
BevSptxpi' drra to fiev y^pwp-a e^ovra o/jlolov 
KepajL ^00^ Tol<; Be o^oi^ rpax^a, fcal dir aKpov 
TTvppd' Taura Be OpaveaOai jxev el avyxXwy] t£9* 
€K Be TOVTcop TTvpl ifi/SaXXo/iei'a, KaOdirep rov 
alBrjpov, Bidirvpa yLvopteva irdXiv orav dTroyjrv- 
-^OLTO KaOia-TacrOat Koi tyjv avrjjv XP^^^ Xafi- 

'Et* Be rat? vr)aoL<; ral<^ viro t>}? TrXrj/jL/jLupiBo'i 
KaTaXa/jL/3avo/j,euaL'; BevBpa [leydXa irecjiVKevaL 
yXiKaL nrXdravoL koi alyetpoL al p^eyiaTar au/i- 
^aivetv Be, '60* rj irX'^fJipLvpl^ iireXOoi, ra /xev dXXa 
KaTaKpvineaOai oXa, tcov Be fieyiarcdv hirepeyeiv 
rov<; KXdBov^;, i^ mv rd 7rpv/j,vr]aia dvaTneiv, elO' 
ore nrdXiv d/xTrcori's yivoiro €k roiv pi^MV. e^^iv 
Be TO BevBpov (pvXXov fiev ofioiov ttj Bdcjyvr), dvdo<i 

Be TOt? t'oi? KOi TOO p^y9c6/XaT£ KoX Tfl 6(T/J,fj, KapiTOV 

Be ijXiKov eXda koI tovtov evcoBi] acjyoBpw Kal Ta 
fiev cpvXXa ovk diro^dXXeLV, to Be dvOo^ kol tov 
KapiTOV dfxa tm cf)6ivo7r(opw yiveaOaL, tov Be eapo^ 

"AXXa 8' ev avTjj ttj OaXdTTrj ire^vKevai, dei- 
cf)vXXa fiev tov Be fcapirov o/jlolov e^eLv rot? 

\lep\ Be Tr)V HepauBa Tr]V KaTa T7]V Kap/iaviav, 
KaO' o T) nX'ij/jifJLVpU y'iveTaL, BevBpa eciTlv eu/ieyeOt] 
6/jLOia Ty dvBpd'xXrj Kal tjj fiop(f)fj Kal rot? (f)vXXoL<;' 
KapiTOV Be e%et ttoXvv ofioiov tw ;\^pftj/i.aTt Tat? 



like sea-weeds, but that when they are taken out and 
put in the sun, they shortly become like salt. They 
also say that rushes of stone grow close to the sea, 
which none could distinguish at sight from real 
rushes. They also report a more marvellous thing 
than this ; they say that there are certain tree-like 
growths which in colour resemble an ox-horn, but 
whose branches are rough, and red at the tip ; these 
break if they are doubled up, and some of them, if 
Ihey are cast on a fire, become red-hot like iron, 
but recover when they cool and assume their original 

^ On the islands which get covered by the tide they 
say that great trees ^ grow, as big as planes or the 
tallest poplars, and that it came to pass that, when 
the tide ^ came up, while the other things were 
entirely buried, the branches of the biggest trees 
projected and they fastened the stern cables to them, 
and then, when the tide ebbed again, fastened them 
to the roots. And that the tree has a leaf like that 
of the bay, and a flower like gilliflowers in colour and 
smell, and a fruit the size of that of the olive, which 
is also very fragrant. And that it does not shed its 
leaves, and that the flower and the fruit form to- 
gether in autumn and are shed in spring. 

^ Also they say there are plants which actually 
grow in the sea, which are evergreen and have a fruit 
like lupins. 

^In Persia in the Carmanian district, where the tide 
is felt, there are trees*' of fair size like the andrachne 
in shape and in leaves ; and they bear much fruit like 

1 Plin. 13. 141. 

^ Mangroves. See Index App. (12). 

3 cf. Arr. Anab. 6. 22. 6. 

* Plin. I.e. Index App. (13). * Plin. 12. 37. 

^ White mangroves. Index App. (14). ^^I 


d/ivySaXai^ e^wOev, to S' €vr6<; avveXiTreTaL 
KaOd-rrep avv^jpTTj/nevov ttcktlv. viroQe^poiTai he 
ravra ra hevhpa ircivra Kara /leaov vtto t>}v 
ddXcLTTr]^ Koi eaTrjKev vrrb tmv pi^wv, oxjirep 
TToXvTTOV^. orav yap rj a/nrrcoTi'^ yevrjTai Oewpelv 

e iariv. vScop Be 6X(o<; ovk eariv ev T(p tottw* Kara- 
XetTTOVTaL Be rive<^ Sicopv)(e<; Bl mv BLaifXeovatv 
avrai 3' elal daXdrrTj^;- rp Koi BPjXov otoinal rive^ 
on rpe^ovrat, ravrrj koI ov toG vBart, irXi^v el ri 
rat? pi^ai^ eK ri}<; yrj<; eXfcovaiv. evXoyov Be koi 
TOvO' dXfiupov elvai' koi yap ovBe Kara ^dOov^ 
at pl^aL. TO Be oXov ev to yevo<; elvai tmv t ev 
Ttj OaXdTTTj (jivop^evcov kol tcov ev Ty yjj vtto t'^*? 
TrXrjfifjLvpiBo<^ KaTaXa/jL^avo/jLei'cov Ka\ to, /xev ev 
TT) OaXaTTrj jjnicpd Kal (puKcoBi] cpaivo/ieva, to, B' 
ev TT) yfj fieydXa Kal ')(Xo)pa Kal dvdo^ evoBfiov 
€)(0VTa, Kap-TTOV Be olov 6eppo<;. 

7 'El/ TvXw Be Ti] vi](j(p, KetTac 5' avTi] ev tm 
^Apa/Siw KoXirrp, tol jxev 7rpo<^ ew toctovto ttXyjOo^ 
elvai <paac BevBpcov 6t eK^aivei rj 7rXri/j./jLvpl<; 
wctt' d7rco')(^vpcba6aL. ndvTa Be Tav-ra fieyeO^] /xev 
ex^iv ifXiKa avKi}, to Be dv6o<; virep^dXXov ttj 
evoiBla, KapTTov Be ajSptoTov 6/jLOiov ttj o-^ei tw 
Oep/JLM. cf)epeLV Be tijv vPjaov Kal to, BevBpa Ta 
ipio(f)6pa TToXXd. Tavra Be (jivXXov fiev e^etv 
napop'Oiov ttj dfiireXM irXrjv p^iKpov, Kapirov Be 
ovBeva ^epetv ev c5 Be to epiov rfXiKov fxrfXov 
eapivov avjji/jLefivKo^' OTav Be oDpalop rj, eKireTdv- 

* Plin. I.e. Sicco litort radicihus nudis polyponnn modo 
cowpfexae, steriles arenas aspectanlur : he appears to have 
had a fuller text. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLAN'i'S, IV. vii. 5-7 

in colour to almonds on the outside, but the inside 
is coiled up as though the kernels were all united. 
^ These trees are all eaten away up to the middle by 
the sea and are held up by their roots, so that they 
look like a cuttle-fish. For one may see this at 
ebb-tide. And there is no rain at all in the district, 
but certain channels are left, along which they sail, 
and which are part of the sea. Which, some think, 
makes it plain that the trees derive nourishment from 
the sea and not from fresh water, except what they 
draw up with their roots from the land. And it is 
reasonable to suppose that this too is brackish ; for 
the roots do not run to any depth. In general they 
say that the trees which grow in the sea and those 
which grow on the land and are overtaken by the 
tide are of the same kind, and that those which grow 
in the sea are small and look like seaweed, while 
those that grow ^ on land are large and green and 
have a fragrant flower and a fruit like a lupin. 

In the island of Tylos,^ which is situated in the 
Arabian gulf,-* they say that on the east side there is 
such a number of trees when the tide goes out that 
they make a regular fence. All these are in size 
as large as a fig-tree, the flower is exceedingly 
fragrant, and the fruit, which is not edible, is like in 
appearance to the lupin. They say that the island 
also produces the ' wool-bearing ' tree (cotton-plant) 
in abundance. This has a leaf like that of the vine, 
but small, and bears no fruit ; but the vessel in which 
the ' wool ' is contained is as large as a spring apple, 

' <pvKw^r} (paiv6ij.ei'a ra 5' iu conj. W. ; (pvK. <pv. S' cj/ MVAld.; 
U has <p(p6iJ.€Pa (?). 
' c/. 5. 4. 6 ; Plin. 12. 38 and 39 ; modern name Bahrein. 
* i.e. Persian Gulf. 



vvadai Kol i^elpeiv to epiov, i^ ov to.? (TivS6va<; 
vcjiaLvovcn, ra? /lev eureXei? ra<; Se TroXureXe- 

TlveTaL Se touto koX iv '1 1/80 1?, coairep eXe;^^/;, 
Kal iv ^Apa/Bla. elvau Se aXXa Sei'Spa to av9o^ 
c^ovTa opoLOV Tft) XevKoiu), 7r\r]v cioBpov Kal rw 
peyiOei TSTpairXdaLOV tmv icov. kol €T€pov Be tl 
SevSpov TToXixpvXXov oicnrep to poSov tovto Se 
TTjV piev vvKTa avp,pveiv cipa he tCo ijXicp aviovTi 
hioiyvvadai, pear/p^^pLa^ Se reXew? hLe'rTTv-)(6ai, 
ttuXlv he T?}? SetX?7? avvdyeaOai KaTCu pn/cpov Kal 
TYjv vvKTa (jvppveiv Xeyeiv Se Kal tou? eVx^' 
pLOV<; OTi KaOevSei. yiveaOai Se Kal (poLVLKa<; iv 
TTj V7](Tq) Kal dpL7TeXov<; Kal TaXXa iiKpohpva Kal 
crvKa^ ov (^vXXoppoovaa^. vhwp he ovpdvLov yive- 
aOai pev, ov pijv y^prjaOai ye 7rpo<; tou? Kap7rov<i' 
aXX' elvai Kpi'jva'^ iv tjj vjjcrcp TroXXa?, «^' ojv 
TvdvTa Ppex^eiv, o Kal avpcpepeiv pdXXov tw wItco 
Kal Tot? hevhpeaiv. he Kal oTav varj tovto eV- 
a(f)ieraL KaOarrepel KaTa7rXvvovTa<; iKelvo. Kal 

Ta pev iv ttj e^co OaXdTTij hevhpa Td ye vvv 
TeOewprjpieva cF-)(ehov ToaavTd idTiv. 

VIII. "Tirep he tmv iv toU iroTapioh Kal toU 
eXecn Kal Tal<^ Xipvai^ p,eTd TavTa XeKTeov. Tpia 
he icTTiv el'hr] tcov iv tovtol<;, Ta pev hevhpa Ta h' 

^ i^fipdv conj. W.; 4^(iaipeiv F^ ; i^alpeiv Aid. ^ 4. 5. 8. 

' T.imarind. See Index App. (15). Plin. 12. 40. 

* ttAV do^noP conj. H. Steph.; TrXeiova oSfxov UMAld. 

^ rcf ;ue7606j Kal I con j. ; Ka\ t^ /xeyiOei UMVP; Kal om. Aid. 

* Tamarind also. See Index App. (16). ' i.e. leaflets. 

* Ficns lacci/era. See Index App. (17). ov (pvWoppooixras 
conj. W., cf. G and Plin. I.e.; ai (pvWoppoovaiv Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vii. 7-viii. 1 

and closed^ but Avhen it is ripe, it unfolds and puts 
forth ^ the ' wool/ of which they weave their fabrics, 
some of which are cheap and some very expensive. 

This tree is also found, as was said,'- in India 
as well as in Arabia. They say that there are other 
trees ^ with a flower like the gilliflower, but scent- 
less"* and in size ^ four times as large as that flower. 
And that there is another tree ^ with many leaves " 
like the rose, and that this closes at night, but opens 
at sunrise, and by noon is completely unfolded ; and 
at evening- again it closes by degrees and remains 
shut at night, and the natives say that it goes to 
sleep. Also that there are date-palms on the island 
and vines and other fruit-trees, including evergreen ^ 
figs. Also that there is water from heaven, but 
that they do not use it for the fruits, but that there 
are many springs on the island, from which they 
water everything, and that this is more beneficial ^ 
to the corn and the trees. Wherefore, even when it 
rains, they let this water over the fields,^'^ as though 
they were washing away the rain water. Such 

are the trees as so far observed which grow in the 
outer sea. 

Of the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, tsperially in Egypt. 

VIII. Next we must speak of plants which live in 
rivers marshes and lakes. Of these there are three 
classes, trees, plants of ' herbaceous ' ^^ character, and 

^ h KoX (TD/.tcpipeii' conj. Sch.; & koI avfKpepei Aid.; U has 

^° c/. G.P. 2. 5. 5, where Androsthenes, one of Alexander's 
admirals, is given as the authority for this statement. 

^^ The term to. iroiuiSr] seems to be given here a narrower 
connotation than usual, in order that to Aoxm^Stj may be 



Mairep ttokoSt) ra 8e Xo^^/ioihr]. Xeyw 8e TrotcoS?/ 
/-Lev olov TO creXwov ro eXeiov kol ocra aWa tol- 
avTW \o)(/icoSij Se KoXafxov Kvireipov 0\eaj (^X^^' 
vov ^ovTOfiop, airep a)(^€hov kolvcl Trdvrwv tmv 


^Kvia')(^ov Be kuI ^droi ical naXiOvpoL kol rd 
dXXa SeuSpa, KaOdirep Irea XevKrj irXdravo^;. rd 
fxev ovv p^ey^pi tov KaTaKpvTTreaOaL, rd Se wcrrc 
fiLKpov viTepe)(eiv, roov he at pev pi^ai kol piKpov 
rov crTeXt'^j^of? iv rw vyp(p, to Se dXXo awpa irdv 
e^o). Tovro jdp kol Irea /cal kXi']6 pa kol irXaTavcp 
Kol (fnXvpa KOL '/Taai. tol^ (f)tXvSpoL<; avp^alvei. 

%),^€Sov Be KOL raura Kowd Travrcov twv TTora- 
p^oiv eariv iirel kol ev tco Net\w 7re(f)v/cev' ov 
prjv iToXKrj ye rj irXdravo^, dXXd airavLwrepa en 
TavT7]<; rj Xevfcrj, TrXetcrr?; Se /xeXua /cat ^oupe\to<i. 
rcov yovv ev AlyvTrroy (fivopevcov to pev oXov 
TToXv 7rXf]06<i eariv tt/oo? to dpiOp,)']aaadai, KaO 
e/cacTTOV' ov prjv aXX' W9 ye d7r\(o<i elirelv diravTa 
iScoBip,a Kal p^v^oi)? €')(ovra yXvKel<;. Sia(f)epetv 
he BoKel Tjj yXvKUTtjTL Kal tw rpoc^Lpa p,d\iaTa 
elvai rpia TavTa, 6 re irdirvpo^ Kal to KaXov- 
pevov adpu Kal TpuTOV o pvdaiov KaXovau. 

^^veTaL Be 6 Trdirvpo^; ovk ev ^dOeu tov vBaTO<; 
dXX' oaov iv Bvo 7r>/%ecrii/, evia^pv Be Kal ev 
eXuTTOVL. TTa^o^ pev ovv Tri<^ pi'^V'^ rjXvKOV Kap- 
TTO? ')(eipo'^ uvBpo^ evpdxTTov, pP]KO<i Be vTcep re- 
Tpdrrt]')(y' (f)veTai, Be virep tt)? y}]<; avTi)<i, irXayia^ 
pi^a<^ et? TOV irrfkov Kadielaa X67rTd<; Kal 7rvKvd<;, 
dvco Be Tou? TraiTvpov^ KaXovp,evov<; rpiycovov^;, 

1 Twi/ yovv K.T.\.: text probably defective; what follows 
appears to relate to rh. ttoiwStj. 


plants growing in clumps. By ' herbaceous ' I mean 
here such plants as the marsh celery and the like ; 
by ^plants growing in clumps' I mean reeds galin- 
gale phleo rush sedge — which are common to almost 
all rivers and such situations. 

And in some such places are found brambles 
Christ's thorn and other trees, such as willow abele 
plane. Some of these are water plants to the extent 
of being submerged, while some project a little from 
the water ; of some again the roots and a small part 
of the stem are under water, but the rest of the 
body is altogether above it. This is the case with 
willow alder plane lime, and all water-loving trees. 

These too are common to almost all rivers, for 
they grow even in the Nile. However the plane is 
not abundant by rivers, while the abele is even more 
scarce, and the manna-ash and ash are commonest. 
At any rate of those ^ that grow in Egypt the list is 
too long to enumerate separately ; however, to speak 
generally, they are all edible and have sweet flavours. 
But they differ in sweetness, and we may distinguish 
also three as the most useful for food, namely the 
papyrus, the plant called sari, and the plant which 
they call mnasion. 

2 The papyrus does not grow in deep water, but 
only in a depth of about two cubits, and sometimes 
shallower. The thickness of the root is that of the 
wrist of a stalwart man, and the length above four 
cubits 2 ; it grows above the ground itself, throwing 
down slender matted roots into the mud, and 
producing above the stalks which give it its name 
' papyrus ' ; these are three-cornered and about ten 

» Plin. 13. 71-73. 

Je'/ca TTTJxfts MSS. See next note. 



fieyeOo^; co? BcKa rrrj-^ei^;, KOfx^iv e^ovTa<; a')(^peiov 
aadevrj Kapirov he oXw? ovBerw rovTOV<; 8' dvaSl- 

4 SuxTL Kara ttoWo, fiepr]. y^ponnai he Ta2<; fxev 
pit,aL<^ dvrl ^vkwv ov fiovov tw Kaetv dWa koI tw 
aKewf dWa iroielv i^ avrcov iravTohaTrd- ttoXv 
<yap e')(€i to ^v\ov Kal koXov. avro'^ Se 6 ird- 
TTvpo'^ TT/^o? TrXelara ')(p)'}cri/jLO<i' koX 'yap rrXola 
TTOiovcnv i^ avTov, kol eK tt}? ^l^Xov laTia re 
ifKeKOvat kol 'ylndOov; /cal eaOfjTa riva kol 
arpcofivd^; kol axotvla re Kal erepa TrXeto). Ka\ 
e/jL(f)avearara Srj rol^; e^co rd ^i/SXla' /jidXicrra Be 
Kal TrXeiari] /SoijOeia Trpo? rr]V rpocprjv di? avrov 
yiverai. /xaawvrai <ydp diravre'^ ol ev rfj %a>pa 
rov TTaTTvpov Kal wfiov Kal €(f)Oov Kal oirrov Kal 
rov [xev ^(yXov KaraTTLPovcri, rb Be fidat-j/ia CK^dX- 
Xovaiv. o fxev ovv irdirvpo'; rowyro<; re Kal rav- 
ra<; rrape')(eraL rd(; ')(^peia<^. yiverac Be Kal ev 
Xvpta irepl ri]v Xlfivijv ev fj Kal 6 KuXa/no^ 6 
€V(t)By]<;' 66ev Kal 'Avriyovo<i et? rd<; vav<; eiroielro 
rd (xxoLvla. 

6 To Be adpi (f)veraL /aev ev rw vBari irepl rd eXy] 
Kal rd TreBua, iireiBdv 6 irorapo^ direXOr], pl^av Be 
ex^L aKXripdv Kal avvearpaju/jLevyjv, Kal e^ avri]<; 
<f)veraL rd aapia KaXovfieva' ravra Be firJKO'^ piev 
o)? Bvo rrrjx^i^y 7ra;^o? Se i)XiKov 6 BdKrvXo<i 6 
p.e'ya^ t>}? x^ipo^' rplycovov Be Kal rovro, KaOdrrep 
6 irdrrvpo^, Kal Kopirjv e^ov TrapaTrXyacov. fia- 
adifievoi Be eK^dXXovai Kal rovro ro /j,dar}fia, rfj 
pil^rj Be ol aLBrjpovpyol ;;^/oa)7'Taf rov yap dvOpaKa 
TTOiel XPV^'^ov Bid ro aKXrjpov elvai, ro ^vXov. 

To Be fivdaiov TroicoSe? eariv, war ovBep-iav 
rrapexerai ;!^/36i'ay rrXijv rtjv et? rpocptjv. 



cubits ^ long, having a plume which is useless and 
weak, and no fruit whatever; and these stalks the 
plant sends up at many points. They use the roots 
instead of wood, not only for burning, but also for 
making a great variety of articles ; for the wood is 
abundant and good. The ^papyrus' itself- is useful 
for many purposes ; for they make boats from it, 
and from the rind they weave sails mats ^ kind of 
raiment coverlets ropes and many other things. 
Most familiar to foreigners are the papyrus-rolls 
made of it ; but above all the plant also is of very 
great use in the way of food.^ For all the natives 
chew the papyrus both raw boiled and roasted ; they 
swallow the juice and spit out the quid. Such is 
the papyrus and such its uses. It grows also in 
Syria about the lake in which grows also sweet- 
flag ; and Antigonus made of it the cables for his 

^ The sari grows in the water in marshes and 
plains, when the river has left them ; it has a hard 
twisted root, and from it grow what they call the 
xaiia^; these are about two cubits long and as 
thick as a man's thumb ; this stalk too is three- 
cornered, like the papyrus, and has similar foliage. 
This also they chew, spitting out the quid ; and 
smiths use the root, for it makes excellent charcoal, 
because the wood is hard. 

Mnasion is herbaceous, so that it has no use except 
for food. 

1 8e/ca vT]xeis : TerpaTrTjxe's MSS. The two numbers seem 
to have changed places (Bartels ap. Sch.). cj. PUn. I.e. 
- i.e. the stalk. 

s cJ. Diod. 1. 80. * Plin. 13. 128. 

* i.e. stalks, like those of the papyrus. 



Kat TO, fjLev y'XvKVTTjTi hia^epovra ravrd eari. 
<f)V€Tac Be Kal erepov ev TOi<i eXeai kol rat's Xtyu- 
vai<i ov avvd-mei rfj yf], ti]v jxev (pvacv ofxoior 
TOL<; Kpivoi<^, 7ro\v(f)v\X6r€poi' Se kol nrap dWifka 
rd (fyvWa KaOc'nrep ev hiaroL^LCi' 'y^poojia he %Xft)- 
pov e)(eL ac^ohpa. ^(^pCiVTai he ol luTpol tt/do? Te 
rd yvvaLKeta avrco kol tt^o? rd Kardjfiara. 

[Tavra he yiperai ev t&> Trora/JLW el /jltj 6 povs 
e^e^epev avfi/SaLvet Be coare Kal dnocpepeaOai' 
ere pa S* drr avrcov TrXeio).] 

'O Be Kvap.o<=; (f)verat fiev ev rot^ eXecrt Kal Xl/x- 
vaL^, KavXo<; Be avrou /j,i}Ko<i fiev 6 /laKporaro^ 
6i? rerrapa<i mjx^c^, 7ra;^09 ^e BaKrv\iaio^\ 
6/iioio<; Be KaXd/j^M /xaXaKcp ayovdrqy. Biacf^vaei^ 
Be evBoOev e^^L Bl oXov Bi€i\7]/ji/jieva<; OfioLa^; roL<i 
Kr)pioL^- irrl rovrw Be ?'/ KwBva, rrapo/jLOLa a^iiKiw 
rrepi^epel, Kal ev eKaarw rtov Kvrrdpcov Kva/xo^ 
jiLKpov vTTepaipcdv avr7]<i, ttXt}^©? Be ol rrXelaroi 
rpiuKovra. ro Be dvOo^ BirrXdcnov rj fjL7JKcovo<;, 
y^poifia Be 6/jlolov puhcp KaraKope^' eirdvco Be rov 
vBaro'^ T) KOiBva. rrapacpveraL Be ^vWa /xeyiiXa 
Trap* GKaarov royv Kvdp,(ov, cov taa rd p.eyeOi] 
rreruao) ^erraXiKrj rov avrov ey^ovra KavXov rep 
ra)v KVupLWV. avvrpL'^jravri B' eKuarov ro)v Kvd- 
fxcov (pavepov earu ro rriKpov avvearpa/iip-erov, e^ 

* Ottelia alismoeides. See Index App. (18). 

* Tavra. . . irXflw conj. W. after 8ch.; I have also trans- 
posed the two sentences, after Sch. Tlie whole passage in [ ] 
(whicli is omitted by G) is apparently eitlier an interpolation 
or defective. arjiu-aiva Se wcrTrep Ka\ airotpfpfadar irepa be aTr' 
avTwv ra TrAeTa- ravra Se yiyfrai iv rep noTa/j.^- el /xt] 6 pois 
(^((fjipfv Aid. ; SO also U, but avruv nXflw. 


Such are the plants wliicli excel in sweetness of 
taste. There is also another plant ^ which grows in 
the marshes and lakes, but which does not take hold 
of the ground ; in character it is like a lily, but it is 
more leafy, and has its leaves op})osite to one 
another, as it were in a double row ; the colour is a 
deep green. Physicians use it for the complaints of 
women and for fractures. 

Now these plants grow in the river, unless the 
stream has thrown them up on land ; it sometimes 
happens that they are borne down the stream, and 
that then other plants grow from them.^ 

^ But the ' Egyptian bean ' grows in the marshes 
and lakes ; the length of its stalk at longest is four 
cubits, it is as thick as a man's finger, and resembles 
a pliant^ reed without joints. Inside it has tubes 
which run distinct from one another right through, 
like a honey-comb : on this is set the ' head,' which 
is like a round wasps' nest, and in each of the cells is 
a 'bean,' which slightly projects from it; at most 
there are thirty of these. The flower is twice as 
large as a poppy's, and the colour is like a rose, of a 
deep shade; the Miead ' is above the water. Large 
leaves grow at the side of each plant, equal ^ in size 
to a Thessalian hat^ ; these have a stalk exactly like 
that '' of the plant. If one of the ' beans ' is crushed, 
you find the bitter substance coiled up, of which the 

» Plin. 18. 121 antl 122. 

* p.a\aK(2 Ald.H.G Plin. I.e. Athen. 3. 2 cites the passage 
with /j.aKp(f). 

5 "((Ta conj. W. ; kuI Aid. 

* irerd(T(j) conj. Sch. from Diosc. 2. 106; iriKw Ald.H. ; ol 
■nhaaoi are mentioned below (§ 9) without explanation. The 
comparison is omitted by G and Plin. I.e. 

' i.t. that which carries the KuSva. 



8 ov fyii>6Tai 6 TTtXo?. ra ^ev ovv irepl top Kapirov 
roiavra. rj Se pi^a 'jra')(yrepa rou KaXdpov rov 
va-^vraTOV kol SiacfyvaeLf; opoia)<; €)(^ovaa tm 
KavXw. eadiovcFi S' avTtjV kol m/jlijv kol ecpOrjv 

KOL OTTTi'lV, fCal OL TTCpl TO. eXr] TOVTM (JtTft) XP^^' 

rai. cf)i>€TaL pev ovv 6 7ro\v<; avr6paro<;' ov pr]v 
aWa Koi fcara/SdWovaiv iv irrfKui cix^pcjoaavre^i 
€v pd\a Trpo? to KaT6re)(9y)vai re kol pelvau Kal 
pi] Biacf)0apfivaL' Kal ovtco KaracrKevd^ovcn tol/? 
Kvapoiva'^' av 5' dwa^ dvTLXd/SrjTai, pevei Bid 
reXof?. la"xi^pd jdp rj pi^a Kal ov Troppco tt)? 
TMV KaXdpcDV ttXtjp eTraKavOl^ovaa' St' o Kal 6 
KpoKoBeiXo^ (f)€vyei prj TrpoaKoyjrr] tw 6(})6aXp(p 
Tw pyj o^v KaOopav yiferaL Se ovro^ Kal ev 
'^vpia Kal Kara KiXiKuav, aXV ovk iKTrerrovaiv 
al yoypai' Kal irepl Topcovrjv tt}? XaX/ctSt/t/)? iv 
\ipvr] TLvl perpia tw peyeOer Kal avrov Trerrerai 
reXeo)? Kal reXeoKaprrei. 

9 'O he XcoTO? KaXovpevo^ (pverat, pev 6 TrXelaTa 
iv TOt? TreStoi?, orav i) x^P^ KaraKXvaOfj. rov- 
Tov Be y pev rov KavXov (f)V(7i<; opo'ia tjj tov 
Kvdpov, Kal ol TreraaoL Be wcraurco?, ttXtjv iXdr- 
T0v<i Kal XeTTTOTepoL. iTTicpveraL Be opoiax; 6 
Kap7r6<; iw rov Kvdpov. rb dvdo<; avrov XevKOv 
ip(f)epe<i rfj arevonin rcov (I)vXXq)v rol<; rov 
KpLvov, TToXXd Be Kal irvKvd iir dXXrjXoL^; (pverai. 
ravra Be orav pev 6 T/Xto? Bvr) avppvec Kal avy- 
KuXvTrrei rr)v K(oBvav, dpu oe rfj dvaroXfj Blol- 

1 6 TT^Kos UMV; T] mKos Ald.H.; t^germen Sch, 

2 c/. Diosc. 2. 107. 

' Koi Kara0. conj. \V. ; Karafi. Aid. ; /caTo)3. 5' UMV. 
* riin. 13. 1U7 aud 108. 



pilos^ is made. So much for the fruit. The root 
is thicker than the thickest reed, and is made up of 
distinct tubes, like the stalk. ^They eat it both 
raw boiled and roasted, and the people of the 
marshes make this their food. It mostly grows of 
its own accord ; however they also sow '-^ it in the 
mud, having first well mixed the seed with chaff, so 
that it may be carried down and remain in the 
ground without being rotted ; and so they prepare 
the ' bean ' fields, and if the plant once takes hold it 
is permanent. For the root is strong and not unlike 
that of reeds, except that it is prickly on the surface. 
Wherefore the crocodile avoids it, lest he may strike 
his eye on it, since he has not sharp sight. This 
plant also grows in Syria and in parts of Cilicia, but 
these countries cannot ripen it; also about Torone in 
Chalcidice in a certain lake of small size ; and this 
lake ripens it perfectly and matures its fruit. 

*The plant called the lotos (Nile water-lily) grows 
chiefly in the plains when the land is inundated. 
The character of the stalk of this plant is like that 
of the * Egyptian bean,' and so are the 'hat-like' 
leaves,^ except that they are smaller and slenderer. 
And the fruit ^ grows on the stalk in the same way 
as that of the ' bean.' The flower is white, resem- 
bling in the narrowness of its petals those of the 
lily,'^ but there are many petals growing close one 
upon another. When the sun sets, these close ^ and 
cover up the ' head,' but with sunrise they open and 

* cf. 4. 8. 7. 

« Kapnhs conj. W.; Xccrhs MSS. Possibly the fruit was 
specially called \wt6s. 

7 cf. Hdt. 2. 92; Diosc. 4. 113. 

^ 5vT?, avix^ivii conj. St.; a-v/x/xvei MV; avfifivT) U; av^ixvri 
(omitting koI) Ald.H. 



<y€7ai Kol virep rov vBaTO<; yiverai. rovro Se 
TTOLel jJi^XP^ ^^ ^7 KcoBva iKTeXewOfj kuI ra avOi] 
iO irepLppvfi. T/}? he KcoBva<i to /ji€yeOo<; tjXCkoi' 
fiiJKcovo'^ t/)? /j,€ylaTr}<i, koI Sie^warai, raif; Kara- 
rofial^ Tov avTOv rpoirov rfj fn'j/crovi' ttXtjv ttvkvo- 
repo's ev TavTaL<; 6 Kapiro^;. ean Be Trapofioio^; 
TU) Key')(p(p. ev Se tw Eu^yoaxT; t^z^ fccoSvav ^aai 
Nral ra avOrj hvveiv koI vrrofcara^abveLV tt}? 6\ffLa<i 
p^XP^ yuecrwz^ vvKTWv Koi tw ^dOei Troppco' ovBe 
yap Kadievra ttjv X^'^P^ \a^elv elvai. pLera Be 
ravra orav 6p6po<; y ttoXlv erravievai kol rrpof; 
rjpepav en pidWov, cipa tw yjXiw (f)avep6v <ov> 
virep rov vBaTO<i koi avoiyetv to avOo<;, dvoix^ev- 
TO? Be en dva^aiveiv avx^'ov Be to vTrepalpov 

11 elvai TO vBcop. rd<; Be KwBva<^ ravra^ ol Alyu- 
TTTtoi avvOevTe<; eh ro avro ar^nrovaLV eirav Be 
(TaTTTJ ro Ke\v(l)0<;, ev rro rrorapw KXv^ovre^; e^ai- 
povai rov Kaprrov, ^7]pdvavre<; Be Kal irrlcravre^ 
aprov<; iroLovaL Kal rovrw ^pcoz^TOt (nrlw. rj Be 
pi^a rov Xcorov KuXelrat pev Kopaiov, earl Be 
arpoyyvXrj, ro peyeOa 7]\Uov pirfKov K.vB(ovtov 
(l)\oi6<; Be rrepLKeLrai rrepl avrrjv /xeXa? ep<^epr}(; 
rCp KaaravaiKM Kapvw' ro Be evro^ \evfc6v, e^Jro- 
pevov Be Kal oTrraypLevov yiverat, \€Ki0coBe<;y rjBv Be 
ev rfj 7rpoa(f)opa' eaOierai Be Kal oopi], dpiarri 
Be ev \rw] vBari e(f)dj] Kal oirrr). Kal ra puev 
ev Tot? vBacFLv ax^Bov ravrd eortv. 

12 'Ei^ Be TOi? dppcoBeai p^&)/9tot?, a ecrrLV oil iroppo) 

1 c/. Diosc. I.e. 2 cf. C.P. 2. 19. 1 ; Tlin. 13. 109. 

' dil/j'as conj. W. from Plin. l.c, ? o\\/ias wpas. 

* <hu> add. W. 

' Ke\v<poi i.e. fruit : KapTr6v i.e. seeds. 



appear above the water. This the plant does until 
the ' head ' is matured and the flowers have fallen off". 
^ The size of the ' head ' is that of the largest poppy, 
and it has grooves all round it in the same way as 
tlie poppy, but the fruit is set closer in these. This 
is like millet. ^ In the Euphrates they say that the 
' head ' and the flowers sink and go under water in 
the evening 3 till midnight, and sink to a consider- 
able depth ; for one can not even reach them by 
plunging one's hand in ; and that after this, when 
dawn comes round, they rise and go on rising towards 
day-break, being * visible above the water when the 
sun appears ; and that then the plant opens its flower, 
and, after it is open, it still rises ; and that it is 
a considerable part which projects above the water. 
These *^ heads' the Egyptians heap together and 
leave to decay, and when the "^pod ' ^ has decayed, they 
wash the ' head ' in the river and take out the ' fruit,' ^ 
and, having dried and pounded ^ it, they make loaves 
of it, which they use for food. The root of the lotos 
is called korsion," and it is round and about the size 
of a quince ; it is enclosed in a black '^bark,' like the 
shell of a chestnut. The inside is white ; but when 
it is boiled or roasted, it becomes of the colour of 
the yolk of an egg and is sweet to taste. The root 
is also eaten raw, though it is best when boiled in 
water or roasted.^ Such are the plants found in 


In sandy places which are not ^ far from the river 

s TTTiVavTes : cf. Hdt. 2. 92. ' cf. Strabo 17. 2. 4. 

8 iaOifTai . . . oirrr) conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. and G ; 4a0. 
be Kal wjxSv apltni] Se iv ro7s vSaffiv avrr] w/xri Aid. ; aplarr] hi 
Kal Tois vdaaiy avr^v UMV, then o/xr} U, ti/tTj V, wfXT] M ; apiaTT] 

he iV T(f USOTI k<p6)l ^ KOi OTTTT) H. 

" ov was apparently not in Pliny's text ; (21. 88.) 



Tov TTora/jLOv, (puerat Kara 77}? Kokelrai fiaXip- 
adaXkr], crrpoyyuXov tw ayji'-jiiaTL /j,eyeOo<; Se 
rjXiKOV fieaTTiXov airvprjvov he (i^Xoiov (f)vWa 
8e d(pL')]aiu aiT avrov o/ioia Kvirelpw' ravra 
avvdyovr€<; ol Kara Ttjv ')(^u>pav e^ovauv ev /3pvra) 
'TM aTTO TMV Kpidoiv KOL yiverai yXvKea a(f)6Spa' 
XP^vTUL Be TTavre^ wairep rpayyjfjLaat, 

13 Toi? Be ^oval KuX toI<^ 7r/3o/3aTOt9 diravra filv 
rd (^vofieva iBcoSif-id eaTiv, ev Be n yevo<; ev raU 
Xifxvai^ Kol TOL<^ eXeat (fyuerai Bia<^epov, kui 
')(Xo)pdv veixovrai koI ^i]paLvovT€<; Trapexovai Kara 
X^t/jLcova TOA? ^ovalv orav epydawvTaL' /cal rd 
aM/iara exovaiv ev oirov dXXo XajJL^dvovTe's 

14 "E(JTt Be KOI dXXo '7rapa(f)v6/i€vov avrofiarov 
ev Tcp cTLTfp' rovTO Be, orav 6 alro'^ 77 Ka6ap6<^, 
v7ro'7TTi(TavTe<; Kara^dXXovat tov ')(,^ip.Mvo<; vy- 
pdv €69 yrjv /SXaaTijaavro^ Be Tefi6vre<; koi 
^7]pdvavr€<; Trapexovcn kol tovto jSoval Kal 

rTTTTOf? Kal To2<; V7T0^VyL0L<; aVV TW KapiTU) TO) €771- 

yivo/iev(p' 6 Be Kap7ro<; ixeye9o<; p,ev ijXiKov ai]- 
aafjLov, (TrpoyyvXo<; Be Kal tw ^/Jco/zaTt ^Xwyao?, 
drya6o<i Be Biacfyepovrco'^. ev Alyvirrw jiev ovv 

rd TrepLTrd a^^Bov ravTa dv ti<; Xd^oL. 

TX. "^KaaToi Be twj> TroTafiMV eoiKacnv IBiov 
Ti (jyepeiv, tocriTep Kal rcov ;^6/3cratft)r. eirel ovBe 
6 rpL/3oXo<i ev diracnv ovBe iravray^ov (^verai, 
dXX' ev TOt? eXd)Be(Tt, tmv Trora/iMV ev fxeyiarw 
Be ^dOei TrevTaTT^JX^t' rj fJiiKpw fiei^ovL, KaOdrcep 

' Plin. I.e. anthalium, whence Salm. conj. avQiWiov. 
- Saccharum hijlorniv. 8ee Index App. (19). 
' «u ffirov &\\o conj. W.; evcriTovi'Ta Aid. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. viii. 12-ix. i 

there grows under ground the thing called malina- 
Ihalle ^ ; this is round in shape and as large as a medlar, 
but has no stone and no bark. It sends out leaves 
like those of galingale. These the people of the 
country collect and boil in beer made from barley, 
and they become extremely sweet, and all men use 
them as sweetmeats. 

All the things that grow in such places may be 
eaten by oxen and sheep, but there is one kind of 
plant ^ which grows in the lakes and marshes which is 
specially good for food : they graze their cattle on it 
when it is green, and also dry it and give it in the 
winter to the oxen after their v/ork ; and these keep 
in good condition when they have no other ^ kind 
of food. 

There is also another plant ^ which comes up of its 
own accord among the corn ; this, when the harvest 
is cleared, they crush slightly ^ and lay during the 
winter on '^ moist ground ; when it shoots, they cut 
and dry it and give this also to the cattle and horses 
and beasts of burden with the fruit which forms on 
it. The fruit in size is as large as sesame, but round 
and green in colour, and exceedingly good. Sucli 

one might take to be specially remarkable plants of 

IX. Every river seems to bear some peculiar plant, 
just as does each part of the dr}^ land. ^ For not even 
the water-chestnut grows in all rivers nor everywhere, 
but only in marshy rivers, and only in those whose 
depth is not more or not much more than five cubits, 

* Corchorus trilocularis. See Index App. (20). 
' G seems to have read viroTriiaavTis {leviter pinsentes) ; 
vnoTtrrjaapres W. with Ald.H. 
8 els conj. W. ; rijv Aid. 
' Plin. 21. 98 ; Diosc. 4. 15. 



irepl Tov ^rpv/ii6va' a)(6hov he iv Toaovrcp kul 
6 Kd\a/jLO<; KOI ra ciWa. virepex^i' he ovOev 
avTov 7r\i]v avra tcl (pvWa Moirep iTTLveovra 
Kol KpviTTOVTa TOV Tpu/Sokov, 6 he T/it/3o\o? ai'ro? 
iv TO) vhart vevcov et? ^vOov. to he (f)vWoy earl 
irXarv 7rpoa€/ii(f)epe<i rw tt)? irre\ea<;, fjula^ov he 

2 e-^eu a(f)6hpa fia/cpov 6 he Kav\o<; i^ ciKpov 
TTa'xyTCLTo^;, 06 ev ra (f)vWa koI 6 Kapiro'^, ra 
he KuTO) XcTTTOTe/Jo? del pey^pi tt)? pi^y]<;' e^^L 
he cLTTOTrec^vKOTa dir avrov TpL-)(oihri ra fxev 
irXeiCTTa irapdW'rfKa ra he kuI rrapaWdrrovra, 
ndrcdOev diro r/y? pi^V^ fieydXa ra he dvco del e\dr- 
TO) rrpoLovaiv, coare rd reXeurala /xL/cpd rrdinrav 
elvai fcal rrjv hia(f)Opdv p.eydXr]v rrjv diro Tr}v 
pL^tj'i 7r/50? rbv Kaprrov. e;^6t he eK rov ei^o? 
KavXov Kal rrapa^Xaaryp-ara rrXeid)' Kal yap 
rpla Kal rerrapa, p^eycarov 3' alel ro TrXTjaiai- 
repov T/}? /Jt'^^;?, elra ro p.erd rovro /cal rd 
ciXXa Kara Xoyov. to he rrapa^Xdarrjpid eariv 
Marrep kuvXo'^ ciXXo^ X€7rrorepo<; /xev rov Trpcorov, 
rd he (fyvXXa Kal rbv Kapnov e')(03V 6p.ol(o<;. 6 
he KapTTO^i p,eXa<; Kal aKXrjpo^; acpohpa. pit,av 
he '))Xlk7]v Kal iroiav e')(ei (iKerrreov. rj pLev ovv 
(f)vaL<; roiavrr}. (pverac piev diro rov Kapirov 
rov 7TL7rrovro<; Kal dcpL^cTL /SXaarov rov r/po<;' 

3 (jiaal he ol pLev elvat eireraov ol he hLapueveiv 
r7]v piev pi^av eh XP^^^^* ^^ V'^ '^^'' '^V^ /SXa- 
arrjcTLv elvat rov KavXov. rovro piev ovv GKe- 
rrreov. ihiov he rrapd rdXXa ro rcov 7rapa(j)vop.evcov 
eK rov KavXov rpcxfohcov ovre yap <^vXXa ravra 
ovre KavX6<;' eirel ro ye rP]<i irapa^Xaar^'jaeoj^ 
KOLvuv KaXu/.LOv Kal dXXcov. 



as tlie Strymon. (In rivers oC sucli a depth grow 
also reeds and other plants.) No part of it projects 
from the water except just the leaves ; these float as 
it were and conceal the ' cliestnut/ which is itself 
under water and bends down towards the bottom. 
The leaf is broad, like that of the elm^ and has a 
very long stalk. The stem is thickest at the top, 
whence spring the leaves and the fruit ; below it gets 
thinner down to the root. It has springing from it 
hair-like growths, most of which are parallel to each 
other, but some are irregular; below, starting from 
the root, they are large, but, as one gets higher up 
the plant, they become smaller, so that tliose at the 
top are quite small and there is a great contrast 
between the root and the top where the fruit grows. 
The plant also has on the same stalk several side- 
growths ; of these there are three or four, and the 
largest is always that which is nearer to the root, 
the next largest is the one next above it, and so on 
in proportion : this sidegrowth is like another stalk, 
but slenderer tlian the original one, though like that 
it has leaves and fruit. The fruit is black and 
extremely hard. The size and character of the root 
are matter for further enquiry. Such is the character 
of this plant. It grows from the fruit which falls, 
and begins to grow in spring. Some say that it is 
annual, others that the root persists for a time, and 
that from it grows the new stalk. This then is 
matter for enquiry. However quite peculiar to this 
plant is the hair-like character of the growths which 
spring from the stalk ; for these are neither leaves 
nor stalk ; though reeds and other things have also 



X. Ta iJiev ovv iSia Oeoiprjreov tSto)? hrjXov on, 
ra Be kolvcl kolvm^. Bcaipelv 8e y^pr] Kal ravra 
Kara tou? tottol'?, olov el ra fiev eXeia ra he 
Xifivala ra Se Trord/xia fidWov rj Kal KOiva irdv- 
T(07' TCxiv TOTrrov Siaipetp Se Kal irola ravra ev tm 
vypo) Kal TO) ^ijpcp (pverac, Kal rrola ev rw v'ypu) 
fiouou, o)? a7rXw9 elirelv irpo^; ra Koivorara elpr]- 
fieva irporepov. 

*Ei; 8' ovv rfj \lfivj] rf] irepX 'Op)(0fievov tciB' 
iarl ra (pvo/xeva SevSpa Kal vXjjfiaTa, Irea 
€\aiayvo<; alSr] KdXa/j.o^ 6 re av\r)TiKo<; Kal 6 
erepc; Kvireipov (^Xeco? tv(})tj, en ye /jL7]vav0o'=; 
Ilk fir] Kal to KaXovpevov lttvov. o yap vpoaayo- 
pevovai \e/j,va tovtov ra TrXetco Kad' vharo^ ean. 
2 Tovrcov Be ra fjcev aWa yvcopifia' 6 3' e\aiayvo<i 
Kal 7) alByj Kal 7) ixrjvavOo^ Kal 7) iKfit] Kal to 
LTTVov Lcra)<; fiev (pveraL Kal erepcoOi, rrpoaayopeve- 
rai 8e aXX.OL<; 6v6/j.aat,' XeKreov Be rrepl avrcov. 
can Be 6 jxev e\aiayvo<i cfyvaet jxev OapuvoiBe^ Kal 
Trapofioiov roL<i dyvoL<i, (f)vWov Be e'xeu too piev 
cxrjpan TrapaTrXyjcTLov pcaXaKov Be, Manep ai 
/irjXeat, Kal ^(yoMBe^. dvOo^ Be ru) Tf;? XevKT]<; 
6/ioLov eXarrov Kapirov Be ovBeva cf)ep€i. (pverai 
Be 6 TrXetcTTo? p.ev eVl rcov rrXodBcov vijo-cov elal 
ydp nve^i Kal evravOa rrXodBe^, Mairep ev AlyvTrro) 

^ TO. 5e Koti'o. Koivws conj. Sch. from G ; ra St koivCos AIJ.H. 
* rav-ra conj. Sell.: ravra Aid. 

^ Trpos Ttt Koiv. (J p. IT p. conj. W. supported by G ; Koiv6rara 
irpoano-qixfva. trporfpov Ald.H, 



Of the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake Copais), 
especially its reeds; and of reeds in general. 

X. Plants peculiar to particular places must be 
considered separately, while a general account may 
be given of those which are generally distributed.^ 
But even the latter must be classified according to 
locality ; thus some belong to marshes, others to 
lakes, others to rivers, or again others may be common 
to all kinds of locality : we must also distinguisli which 
occur alike ^ in wet and in dry ground, and which 
only in wet ground, marking these off in a general 
way from those mentioned above as being most 

Now in the lake near Orchomenos grow the 
following trees and woody plants : willow goat-willow 
water-lily reeds (both that used for making pipes and 
the other kind) galingale phleos bulrush ; and also 
' moon-flower ' duckweed and the plant called 
marestail : as for the plant called water-chickweed 
the greater part of it grows under water.* 

Now of these most are familiar : the goat-willow 
water-lily ' moon-flower ' duckweed and marestail 
probably grow also elsewhere, but are called by 
different names. Of these we must speak. The 
goat-willow is of shrubby habit and like the chaste- 
tree : its leaf resembles that leaf in shape, but it is 
soft like that of the apple,^ and downy. The bloom ^ 
is like that of the abele, but smaller, and it bears no 
fruit. It grows chiefly on the floating islands ; (for 
here too there are floating islands, as in the marshes 

* TovTOv TO. vXeiw KuO' vS. conj. Sch. ; rovro TrAeico to KaQ^ vS. 
UM ; rovTO TrXe'iov rh Kad' v8. Aid. 

* lj.y}\4at perhaps here = quince (yuTjXe'a Kudcvvla). 

* &vdos here = catkin. 



TTcpl TO, eA.7; Kal ev i*^)ecnTpwTihL koX ev a\\aL<; \l/i- 
vaL<;' iXdrTMv he KaO^ vSaro's' o fxev ovv i\aia<yvo<^ 


'H 8e aih) rrjv fikv /jLop(p7]P ecrriv ofioua rrj 
fi/jKcovr Kal yap to dvco /curivwSe<=; rotovrov e^et, 
nrXrjv /lel^ov o)? kuto, \6yov fieyeOei Se 6\o<i 6 
oyKO^ rfKiKOV firjXov ean he ov yvjxvov, aWa v/xeves 
irepl avrrjv XevKoi, Kal iirl rovTOL<^ e^cdOev cf)vWa 
ttomSt) TrapairX'ijcna toZ? tcop poScov orav ev 
KoXv^iV a)ai, rerrapa rov apiOfiov dvoLX^eiaa 
he rov^ k6kkov<; epvOpov^ jxev e')(6i rw (T')(j))i.LaTL 
he ou^ ofjLOLOv^ ral^ puat<; dWaiTepL(\>epel'^ jxiKpov'^ 
he Kal ov ttoWm /aei^ov^ Key)(pov' top he 'X^vXov 
vhaTcohr] TLvd, KaOdirep 6 to)v irvpoiv. dhpvverai 
he rod Oepov^, ix'iay(ov he exec /xaKpov. to he 
av6o<i ofJbOLOV pohou KdXuKC, fxelt^ov he Kal a')(ehov 
hiTrXdcTLov T(p /xeyedeo. tovto /jl€V ovv Kal to 
(pvWou €7rl rov vharo^' jxerd he ravra, orav 
diravOrjar} Kal avarrj to TcepLKapiriov, KaTaKXive- 
aOal (f)acrtv eh to vhcop pdWov, TeXo? he avvdirreiv 
Tjj yf) Kal rov Kapirov eK')(elv. 

K.ap7ro(f)op€iu he tmv ev rjj \ipLvr] tovto Kal to 
^ovTOfjiov Kal Tov (fiXecov. elvac he tov /Sovto/xov 
IxeXava, tm he /leyiOeL TrapaTrXijaiov tw t?}? 
<TLh7)<;. tov he (f)Xeco ttjv KaXovpLevrjv dj'0}]Xt]v, 

^ €\a.TTccv . . . i/'Saros : sense doubtful. G. seems to render 
a different reading. 

'■* i.e. the flower-head, which, as well as tlie plant, was: 
called aiSTj. 


" cf. Athen. 14. 64. 
■' i.e. petals. 



of Egypt, in Thesprotia, and in other lakes). When 
it grows under water, it is small er.^ Such is the 

The Avater-lily2 is in shape like the poppy. ^ For 
the top of it has this character, being shaped like 
the pomegranate flower/ but it is longer in propor- 
tion to the size of the plant. Its size in fact as a 
whole is that of an apple ; but it is not bare, having 
round it white membranes,^ and attached to these 
on the outside are grass-green * leaves,'^ like those 
of roses when they are still in bud, and of these 
there are four ; when it is opened it shews its seeds, 
which are red ; in shape however they are not like 
pomegranate ''^ seeds, but round small and not 
much longer than millet seeds ; the taste is insipid, 
like that of wheat-grains. It ripens in summer and 
has a long stalk. The flower is like a rose-bud, 
but larger, almost twice as large. Now this and the 
leaf float on the water ; but later, when the bloom is 
over and the fruit-case ^ has formed, they say that it 
sinks deeper into the water, and finally reaches the 
bottom and sheds its fruit. 

Of the plants of the lake they say that water-lily 
sedge and •phleos bear fruit, and that that of the 
sedge is black, and in size like that of the water-lily. 
The fruit of phleos is what is called the ' plume,' '-• 

® i.e. sepals. 

' p6ais conj. Bod. from Nic. Ther. 887 and Schol.; pl^ais 

* TTcpiKapiTiov conj. W.; KaTaicdpTTLov MSS. Kara- probably 
due to KaTaK\(peadai. 

^ cf. Diosc. 3, 118. ave-i]Kf]v, sc. Kap-rrhu e'ivai. But Sch. 
suggests that further description of the fruit has dropped 
out, and that the clause | . . . Kovias does not refer to the 


u> 'x^pcovrat irpo<; ra? Kovia^. tovto 5' earlv olov 
7r\aKovvrcoS6<; re /laXaKOV iirlTTvppov. en he 
fcal Tov (p<,€ci> Kol rou ^ovto/llou to fiev Brfkv 
a/capTTOv, ')(^pri(jiiJbov Be tt/jo? tu TrXo/cava, to Se 
appev axp^Lov. 

Hepl Se tt}? ik/jLt]^ kol fi-qvdvOov^ fcal tov ittvov 



dipvWov elvac fcal tw fir) TroXvppL^ov rot? aWoi<; 
6fioL(o<i' €7rel ToXXa ovy^ rjTTOv eh to, kcltw Trjv 
opfxrjv e^ei koI tyjv hvvafxiv ixuXidTa he to 
KVTretpov, axTirep /cat 7) aypo)aTt.<i, Bl kol Bvaoi- 
\edpa KOI TavTa fcal oXw? airav to jevot; to tolov- 
Tov. ■}] Be pi^a TOV Kvirelpov ttoXv tl tmv aWwv 
TrapaWaTTec t^ dvco/jLaXla, tm to fiev elvai Trayy 
Tl Kca aapK(iiBe<i avTrj^ to Be XeirTov koI (vXcoBe^;' 
KaX TTJ /SXaaTTjaei kol t?} yeveaer (pveTac jap 
ttTTO TOV TTpepLVOiBovi CTcpa Xe7rT7] KaTCL irXdyLov, 
euT ev TavTjj avvlaTaTai ttoXlv to crapKcoBe^, ev m 
KOL 6 /9Xa(TT09 a(^' ov 6 fcavXo^' d(f)Lrj<Ti Be koX 
€t9 ^dOo^ TOV avTOv TpoTTOv pL^a<;, Bi* o Kul irdvTWv 
fidXicTTa BvaoSXeOpov kol epyov i^eXelv. 

C^X^Bov Be irapairXriaio}^ cpveTac 77 dypcoaTi^ eK 
Tcbu yovdTwv' at yap pi^ac yovaTci)Bei<;, e^ e/cd- 
GTOV B' d(pL7-}aiv dvw ^XaaTov kqX KdTcoOev 
pl^av. waavTW^ Be Kal rj aKavOa 77 aKavdiBrj^, 
aX,V ov KaXajidiBr)^ ovBe yovard}Br)<; 7) pl^a Tav- 

^ Kovias I ? Kovidaeis (plastering), a conjecture mentioned 
by Sell. 



and it is used as a soap -powder.^ It is something 
like a cake, soft and reddish. Moreover the 'female ' 
plant both of pkleos and sedge is barren, but useful 
for basket-work,2 while the 'male' is useless. 

Duckweed ' moon-flower ' and marestail require 
further investigation. 

Most peculiar of these plants is the bulrush, both 
in being leafless and in not having so many roots as 
the others ; for the others tend downwards quite as 
much as upwards, and shew their strength in that 
direction ; and especially is this true of galingale, and 
also of dog's-tooth grass ; wherefore these plants 
too and all others like them are hard to destroy. 
The root of galingale exceeds all the others in the 
diversity of characters which it shews, in that part 
of it is stout and fleshy, part slender and woody. 
So also is this plant peculiar in its way of shooting 
and originating ; for from the trunk-like stock ^ 
grows another slender roof* sideways, and on this 
again forms the fleshy part which contains the shoot 
from which the stalk springs.^ In like manner it 
also sends out roots downwards ; wherefore of all 
plants it is hardest to kill, and troublesome to get 
rid of. 

(Dog's-tooth grass grows in almost the same way 
from the joints ; for the roots are jointed, and from 
each joint it sends a shoot upwards and a root down- 
wards. The growth of the spinous plant called 
corn -thistle •' is similar, but it is not reedy and its 

2 cf. Hdt. 3. 98. 3 i.e. rhizome. 

* i.e. stolon ; c/. 1. 6. 8. 

' o(^' ov 6 Kav\6s transposed by W, ; in Aid, these words 
come before iv <^. 

* 7) aKavaiSrjs I conj.; Kedvwvos UMV; Kedvccdos Aid.; ^ 
Kedvwdos most edd. ; G omits the word. 


Tr}<;. ravra /lev ovv iirl irXelov Bca rrjv ofioioTyra 

<t>v€Tai 8' ev afx^olv koI iv rrj yfj kol ev 
TO) vSaTL Irea Kd\afio<;, 7r\7]v rod av\r)TiKov, 
Kvireipov TvcpT] (^Xeco? ^ovTo/jio<i' iv Be tm vSan 
[jLovov acSrj. irepl yap t)}? rv(pr]<i afi(f)Lcr07]rovai. 
KaWid) Be Kol /jL€l^(o tmv iv a[i(^olv (pvo/xevcov 
alel ra iv tm vBari yiveaOai (paai. ^veaOau 8' 
evLa TovTwv koX iiri tcdv TrXoaBcov, olov to kv- 
Treipov Koi TO ^ovto/xov kol tov (f)\ecov, waTe irdvTa 
TCL fJiipii TavTa tcaTkyeiv. 

^EBcoBipa 8' ecTTfc TMV iv TJ) Xi/jLvr) TciBe' rj fxev 
(TlBtj kol avTrj koi to, (f)vWa rot? Trpo^/iTOL^, 6 
Be ^XacTTO's TOt? valv, 6 Be KapiTo<^ rot? dvOpcoTrot^;. 
TOV Be (fyXect) kol t?}? TV(f)r]<; koI tov ^ovto/jLOV to 
TT/oo? Tat9 pi^aL<i diraXov, o fidXtaTa iaBieL tcl 
TraiBla. pi^a 8' iBd)BL/jL0<i 7) tov (f)Xe(o povr] tol<; 
l3oaK7]paaLV. OTav B' av)(^po<^ r) kol p,i] yevi-jTai 
TO KaTci K€<paX7]v vBcop, diravTa av)(^/j.eL tcl iv tj} 
XipLvrj, /xdXiaTa Be 6 KdXap,o^, virep ov kuI Xolttov 
elirelv virep yap tcov dXXcov a)/eBov etp^jTai. 

XI. Tov Bt) KaXdpov Bvo (paaiv elvcn 761^77, tov 
T€ avXrjTLKov Kol TOV eTepov ev yap eivac to 
yevo^ tov eTepov, BLa<jiepeLv Be dXXrjXwv 1(T')(^vl 
<Kal Tra')(yTriTL> koi XeiVTOTriTi /cal dadeveia' 
KaXoiKTi Be TOV fiev lax^pov Kal iraxyv yapaKiav 
TOV S' eTepov rrXoKifiov Kal ^veaOat, tov pev 

^ i.e. wo have gone beyond the list of t3-pical plants of 
Orcliomenus giv^en 4. 10. 1, because we have found others of 
whicli much the same may be said. 

2 cj. 4. 10. 2. 

3 avr'r] : cJ. 4. 10. 3 n. 



root is not jointed. We have enlarged on these 
matters^ because of the resemblance.) 

The willow and tlie reed (not however the reed 
used for pipes) galingale bulrush phleos sedge 
grow both on land and in the water, water-lily only 
in the water. (As to bulrush indeed there is a 
difference of opinion.) However they say that those 
plants which grow in the water are always finer and 
larger than those that grow in both positions ; also 
that some of these })lants grow also on the floating 
islands,^ for instance galingale sedge and phleos ; 
thus all parts of the lake contain these plants. 

Of the plants of the lake the parts good for food 
are as follows : of the water-lily both the flower ^ and 
the leaves are good for sheep, the young shoots for 
pigs, and the fruit for men. Of pJiJeos galingale 
and sedge the part next the roots is tender, and is 
mostly eaten by children. The root of phleos is the 
only part which is edible by cattle. When there is 
a drought and there is no water from overhead,* all 
the plants of the lake are dried up, but especially 
the reed ; of this it remains to speak, since we have 
said almost enough about the rest. 

XI. ^ Of the reed there are said to be two kinds, 
the one used for making pipes and the other kind. 
For that of the latter there is only one kind, though 
individual plants differ in being strong and stout,'' or 
on the other hand slender and weak. The strong 
stout one they call the '^ stake-reed,' the other the 
' weaving reed.' The latter they say grows on the 

* Kf<pa\r]v UMVAld.; for the case cf. Xen. Hell. 7. 2. 8 
and 11 ; KfcpaXvs conj. W. 

6 Plin. 16. 168 and 169. 

* /col TTax^TTjTi add. Dalec. from G. 


TrXoKLfiov eVt tmv irXodhwv tov he y^apaKiav eirl 
TOt»> Kcofivaf K(o/jLvOa<i Be KoXovai, ov av rj avv- 
r]Opoia/jievo<=; Kd\a/io<; fcal av/uL7re7r\€y/jLepo<s tol^ 
pL^aL<;' rovjo he yuveraL rcaO' oi)? ap tottov^ 
tt}? \ifxvT]<; evyeiov rj ^copLov yiveaOaL he Trore 
TOV ')(^apaKiav koI ov 6 au\r]TLK6<i, fiaKporepov 
fxev TOV aWov x^paKiov a/ccoXrjKo^pcoTov he. 
TOVTOV fiev ovv TavTa<i Xejovac ra? hia<f)opd<i. 

2 Uepl he TOV avXrjTiKov to jxev (pveaOac hi' ev- 
veaTripiho'^, odairep TLve<i (^aau, koI TavTi^v eiuai 
Ttjv Ta^Lv ovfc dXr]6e<;, dWd to piev 6\ov av^rj- 
6eia7}<; yiveTai T779 Xlp^py'j'i' otl he tovt eho/cei 
(Tvpi^aiveLv ev toI<; irpuTepov ')(^p6voL<i fidXiaTa hi 
€vveaTtipiho<^, KoX ttjv yeveaiv tov KaXdfiov Tav- 
Trjv eiroiovv to avpL^e^i^K0<; o)? Td^iv XapL^dvov- 

3 re?. <yLveTat he OTav eTropLJSpta'^ <yevopLevri<^ epLpceinj 
TO vhwp hv eTTj TovXd^iaTOV, av he TrXeiw Kal 
KaXXicov TOVTOv he pLuXiaTa pLvtipiovevovaL yeyov- 
OTO? Tcov vcTTepov y^povctiv 6t6 avve^t] to, irepl 
^aipdiveiav irpo tovtojv yap e(f)aaav eTij TrXeLO) 
^aOuvOijvai Tr)v Xl/jLI'tjv pcerd he TavTa vcTTepov, 
ft)9 o Xot/jLO<i iyevsTO (j(pohp6<=;, TrXrjaOijvai pbev 
avTrjv, ov pL6ivavT0<; he tov vhaTO<i dXX' cKXiTTov- 
T09 ')(eLpLoyvo^ oil yeveaOai tov KoXapLov (paal yap 
Kal hoKel ^aOvvo/xevr}<; tT^? Xl/jLvrj^ av^dveaOai 
TOV KdXa/jiov el<i /x7]ko<;, /leivavTa he tov eirLovTa 
eviavTov dhpvveaOai' Kal yivecrOaL tov p.ev dhpv- 
OevTa ^evyLTrjv, u> 8' av /jlt) avfiTrapap^elvrj to 

^ KwjJLvffi : lit * bundles.' 

2 5u' ir-n conj. W. ; 5<€t^ UiM VAld. 

3 B.C. 33S. 



Moating islands, the stout form in the ' reed-beds ' ^ ; 
this name they give to the places where there is a 
thick mass of reed with its roots entangled together. 
This occurs in any part of the lake where there is 
rich soil. It is said that the ' stake-reed ' is also 
sometimes found in the same places as the reed used 
for pipes, in which places it is longer than the ^stake- 
reed' found elsewhere, but gets worm-eaten. These 
then are the differences in reeds of which they tell. 

As to the reed used for pipes, it is not true, as some 
say, that it only grows once in nine years and that 
this is its regular rule of growth ; it grows in general 
whenever the lake is full : but, because in former 
days this was supposed to happen generally once in 
nine years, they made the growth of the reed to 
correspond, taking what was really an accident to be 
a regular principle. As a matter of fact it grows 
whenever after a rainy season the water remains in 
the lake for at least two years,^ and it is finer if the 
water remains longer ; this is specially remembered 
to have happened in recent times at the time of the 
battle of Chaeronea.* For before that period they 
told me that the lake was for several years deep * ; 
and, at a time later than that, when there was a 
severe visitation of the plague, it filled up ; but, as 
the water did not remain but failed in winter, the 
reed did not grow ; for they say, apparently with 
good reason, that, when the lake is deep, the reed 
increases in height, and, persisting for the next year, 
matures its growth ; and that the reed which thus 
matures is suitable for making a reed mouthpiece,^ 
while that for which the water has not remained is 

* €T7; irKiioo conj. Seal, from G ; iri irAeiw UMV; eri irKuov 

^ See n. on rb aTo/xa rwu yKuTTuy, § 4. 



vScop ^0/ji^vKiav. rrjv jxev ovv ^eveaiv elvai 

4 Aiacpepeiv Se tcov aXXcov Ka\d/x(ou &)? KaO^ oXov 
Xa^elv evrpocpla tlvI tt}? (jivcrew^;- einrXrjOeaTepov 
yap elvai kol evaapKorepov icai 6\o)<i he Oi]\vv rf/ 
irpoao-^ei. kol yap rb (pvWov irXarvTepov €)(^€tv 
Kal XevKorepop tt]v Be uvOifk'iiv eXdrro) rcoi' 
aXkcdv, rivd<i Be 6\co<; ovk e)(eiv, ov^ Kal irpoa- 
ayopevovaiv evvovyia<^' i^ mv apiara p,ev ^aai 
TLve^ ylvecrdai to, t^evyrf, KaropOovv Be oXiya 
nrapa rrjv epyaaiav. 

Tr/zv Be TOfiyv oypalav elvai irpo ^AvrtyevtBov 
pev, 'i]ViK r\vXovv dTrXdarco'^, vtt^ "ApKTOvpov Bor/- 
BpopiMvo^ p,r}v6<;' tov yap ovto) Tp,r]6epra av)(yol^ 
fxev erecTLv varepov yiveaOaL ')(P'f]cn^pov Kal irpo- 
KaravXrjaecof; BelaOac ttoWt}?, avppLveLv Be ru 
(TTupa Twv yXwTTwVy o TTpo? rrjv BiaKryjpiav elvai 

6 '^p/jcripov. eirel Be ei? rrjv irXdaiv pere/Brjaav, Kal 
i) Top.7) pereKivijOr}' repvovai yap By vvv tov 
'^KLppo(f)opL(x)PO^ Kal 'KKarofi/SaLcovo'i loairep irpo 
TpoTTOiv piKpov i) VTTU T^OTTa?. yiveaOaL Be (paai 
Tpievov re '^^^pyaifxov Kal KaravXyaeco^ ^paxela^; 

^ ^oix^vKiav. In one kind of pipe the performer blew, not 
directly on to the 'reed,' but into a cap in which it was 
enclosed ; this cap, from the resemblance in shape to a 
cocoon, was called ^ou-iiv^. 

' dvai add. W. 

3 Plin. 16. loO 172. ■* September. 

^ i.e. between the free end of the vibrating 'tongue' and 


suitable for making a ^cap.' ^ Such then, it is said, 
is "^ tlie reed's way of growth. 

2 Also it is said to differ from other reeds, to speak 
generally, in a certain luxuriance of growth, being of 
a fuller and more fleshy character, and, one may say, 
' female ' in appearance. For it is said that even the 
leaf is broader and whiter, though the plume is 
smaller than that of other reeds, and some liave no 
plume at all ; these they call ' eunuch-reeds.' From 
these they say that the best mouthpieces are made, 
though many are spoiled in the making. 

Till the time of Antigenidas, before which men 
played the pipe in the simple style, they say that 
the proper season for cutting the reeds was the 
month Boedromion ^ about the rising of Arcturus ; 
for, although the reed so cut did not become fit for 
use for many years after and needed a great deal of 
preliminary playing upon, yet the opening ^ of the 
reed-tongues is well closed, which is a good thing for 
the purpose of accompaniment.*^ But when a change 
was made to the more elaborate style of playing, the 
time of cutting the reeds was also altered ; for in 
our own time they cut them in the months Skirro- 
phorion ^ or Hekatombaion ^ about the solstice or a 
little earlier.^ And they say that the reed becomes 
fit for use in three years and needs but little 
preliminary playing upon, and that the reed-tongues 

the body or ' lay ' of the reed mouthpiece : the instrument 
implied throughout is apparently one with a single vibrating 
' tongue' (reed) like the modern clarinet. 

** hiaKTTjpiav UMV; hiaicropiav Aid. ? irphs rh aKpoarrfptov, 
' for the concert-room ' ; quod erat illis theatrorum moribus 
uliiius riin. I.e. 

' June. 8 July- 

*• uiorirep conj. W. ; wtTTrepel UH.; us vepl MVAld. 


Beladat koI Karaair da jiara ra<; y\a)TTa<; Xa-j^eLV 
Tovro Se avayKalov rot? fxerci 7r\dafiaT0<^ av 
\ovaL. rou fiev ovv ^evyiTOv TavTa<; elvaL ra? 

(Spa? T?}? TO/A/}?. 

'H S' ipyaaia yLverat tovtov tov Tpoirov orav 
avWe^coai, nOeaaiv viraWpLov rod %6t^wj'o? iv 
Tft) XefM/iiarr rod S* ^po<; 'neptKaOdpavre^^ kcll 
eKTpLy^avT6<^ 669 TOV i]\lov eOeaav. tov Oepov^ Se 
/jL€Ta TavTa avpTefi6pTe<i eh to, fiea-oyovdTLa ttoXlv 
vrraiOpiov TideaaL ')(^p6vov tlvu. irpoaXeiirovai 
he T(p fieaoyovaTLOi to tt/jo? tou? ^\aaTOv<! yovv 
TO. Be p.rjKri ra tovtwv ov yiveTai ScTraXaLaTcoi' 
iXuTTco. (^eXriOTa fiev ovv elvai tmv fxeaoyova- 
TLcov Trpo? Ttjv ^evyoTTOuav oXov tov /caXd/iov tu 
jxeaa' /xaXaKcoTaTCi Be la-^etv ^evyr-j ra 7rp6? tov<; 
^XaaT0v<i, aKXt^poTara Be to, tt/jo? tt} pl^r)- av/x- 
(f)a)V€LV Be Ta<; yXcoTTa<i Ta<; e'/c tov avrov jxeaoyo- 
varlov, ra? Be dXXa<; ov av/xcfiaiveLV kol Tt]v jxev 
7rpo<; TYj pL^j] dpiCTTepdv elvat, Trjv Be tt/jo? tou? 
l3XaaTov<i Be^idv. Tpb^fOevTO^ Be BL)(^a tov pteao- 
yovarlov to aTOfia tt}? yXcoTTij^; e/caT6pa<i yive- 
aOuL Kara ttjv tov /caXd/xov to/xtjv edv Be dXXov 
rpoTTOv epyaaOwcnv al yXcoTTai, TavTa<; ov irdvv 
avfKfyayvelv rj /xev ovv epyaaia TOLavrrj. 

^ KaTaffTria-^iaTa : lit. 'convulsions'; i.e. the strong vibra- 
tions of a ' tongue,' the free end of which is kept away from 
tlie body or ' lay ' of the mouthpiece. Such a ' reed ' would 
have the effect of giving to the pipes a fuller and louder tone. 

^ i.e. so as to make a closed end. 


have ample vibration/ which is essential for those 
who play in the elaborate style. Such, they tell us, 
are the proper seasons for cutting the reed used for 
the reed mouthpiece. 

The manufacture is carried out in the following 
manner. Having collected the reed-stems they lay 
them in the open air during the winter, leaving on 
the rind ; in the spring they strip this off, and, 
liaving rubbed the reeds thoroughly_, put them in 
the sun. Later on, in the summer, they cut the 
sections from knot to knot into lengths and again 
put them for some time in the open air. They 
leave the upper knot on this internodal section ^ ; 
and the lengths thus obtained are not less than two 
palmsbreadths long. Now they say that for making 
mouthpieces the best lengths are those of the middle 
of the reed, whereas the lengths towards the upper 
growths make very soft mouthpieces and those next 
to the root very hard ones. They say too that the 
reed-tongues made out of the same length are of the 
same quality, while those made from different lengths 
are not ; also that the one from the length next to 
the root forms a left-hand ^ reed-tongue, and that 
from the length towards the upper growths a right- 
hand^ reed-tongue. Moreover, when the length is 
slit, the opening of the reed-tongues in either case 
is made towards the point at which the reed was 
cut*; and, if the reed-tongues are made in any other 
manner, they are not quite of the same quality. Such 
then is the method of manufacture. 

' i.e. the vibrating 'tongues' (reeds) for the left-hand 
and the right-hand pipe of the Double Pipe respectively. 

* i.e. not at the closed end, but at the end which was 
' lower' when the cane was growing : cf. §6, irpoffXeiirovffi Se 




s ^^verai Se TrXetcrro? fieu /xera^v tov Ky(f)Laov 
Koi TOV MeXai^o?- ovro'^ he 6 totto? Trpoaayo- 
peverat fiev WeXeKavia' Tovrov 8' eornv drra 
KvTpoi KaXoufievoL /3a6va/j.ara r?}? \i/jLVT]<;, ev qI<; 
KaWicrrov c^aai yU'edOac <'yiv6a6ai> he teal KaO' 
rj Ylpo/Sarla KaXovfievt] Kara^eperar tovto S' 
earl iroTaixo<; pecov etc Ae^^aSeta?. /cdWiaTo<; Be 
S0K6L irdvTwv y'lveaOat, irepl Typ 'O^etaz^ koXov- 
ixevyjv K.a/ji7r7]V' 6 Be totto? ol'to? eartv t'/xySoX^ 
TOV Kyipicrov. jeLTVui 8' avTW rrehiov evyetov, 

9 TTpoaayopevovai '\iT7nav. irpuajBoppo^ Be t6tto<^ 
aXko<^ Ti)<i 'O^eta? Ka/X7ri}s" eaTLv, ov koXovctl 
^orjBpiav' (f)veaOaL Be (fyaac Koi KaTCU TavTrjv 
evyevP] tov KoKapov. to Be oXop, ov av y jSaOv- 
yeiov Kol evyetov ')(^o)pLov fcal t'XuwSe? Kal 
K7](f)i(To<i uvapiayeTaL Kal tt/jo? TovTOL<i fSdOuapa 
tt}? \]<=;, /cdWicTTov yiveaOai KoXapov. rrepl 
yap T7)v \)^eLav Kap^rrrjv Kal ti^v lio7]BpLav Truvra 
TavTa vTrdpxeLV. otl Be 6 Kt]cl)icr6<; peyd\y]v e;^et 
poTrtjv eh TO TTOieiv KaXov tov KdXapbOv ar^p.elov 
exovar kuO^ ov yap tottov 6 MeXa? KaXovpevo<; 
i/jb^dXXei ^aOeua^ ova7]<; tt}? XL/jLvr]<; Kal tov 
iBd(bov<; evyeiov kol lXvd>Bov<^, rj oXa)<; p,>) yiveaOai 
rj (pavXov. 7) fxev ovv yeveo-L<i Kal (^v(tl<; tov 
avXi^TLKOv Kal r) KaTepyaaia kol TLva<; ex^i' Bca- 
<j)opd<i 7r/oo9 Tov<; dX\ov(; iKavoi<^ elp/jaOu). 

10 VevTj Be ov TavTa povov dXXd irXelco tov KaXd- 
pov Tvy^dvei (f)avepd<i e^ovTa Ttj alaOi^aet Bia- 
(f)opd<i' 6 p,ev yap irvKvo^; Kal ttj aapKL Kal toZ? 

1 c/. Plut. Sidla, 20. 

2 i.e. the so-called ' Lake ' Copais. 
» «c«l add. W. 



This reed grows in greatest abundance between 
the Kephisos and the Black River ^ ; this district is 
called Pelekania, and in it are certain ' pots/ as they 
are called, which are deep holes in the marsh,^ and 
in these holes they say that it grows fairest ; it is also ^ 
said to be found * where the river called the * Sheep 
River ' comes down, which is a stream that flows from 
Lebadeia. But it appears to grow fairest of all near 
^the Sharp Bend' ; this place is the mouth of the 
Kephisos ; near it is a rich plain called Hippias. 
There is another region north of the Sharp Bend 
called Boedrias ; and here too they say that the reed 
grows fine, and in general that it is fairest wherever 
there is a piece of land with deep rich alluvial soil, 
where also Kephisos mingles ^ his waters with the 
soil, and where there is further a deep hole in the 
marsh ; for that about the Sharp Bend and Boedrias 
all these conditions are found. As })roof that the 
Kephisos has a great effect in producing the reed of 
good quality they have the fact that, where the river 
called the ^ Black River ' flows into the marsh, though 
the marsh is there deep and the bottom of good 
alluvial soil, it either does not grow at all or at best 
but of poor quality. Let this suffice for an account 

of the growth and character of the reed used for 
pipes, of the manufacture, and of its distinctive 
features as compared with other reeds. 

But these are not the only kinds of reed ; there are 
several others *^ with distinctive characters which are 
easily recognised ; there is one that is of compact 
growth in flesh and has its joints close together ; 

* yivicQai add. Sch.; (paar yiveadat Se kuO' t UAJ VP ; so 
Aid., but Kad' hu. 

^ avafxlayeTui : ? ai'afj.iayr]Tai ; cf. Pint. Sull. I.e. 
6 Plin. 16. 164-167 ; Diosc. 1. 85. 



'^ovaaiVy o Se iiav6<i kol 6\Lyoy6vaTO<i' kuI o fxev 
KolXo'i, ov KokovcL Tive<; avpiyyiav, ovhev yap o)? 
elireiv cyei ^v\ov koI aapKo^i' 6 he arepeo^ Kai 
av/jL7r\i]pi]<; /xiKpov. kol 6 fiev ^paxv<s, 6 Be 
evav^T]^ KOL v\fn]\6<; kol 7ra;)^i;?. o he Xeirrcx; kul 
7ro\v(f)vX\o<;, 6 he 6\Lyo(f)vWo<^ kol /xovo(f>vWo^. 
oXo)? he TToXXal TLve<; elat hca(f)opal Kara ra? 
'X^pelat;' eKaaro<i yap irpo'^ eKaara xpw^/^o<;. 

11 ^Ovofiacn he ciWoL dWoL<i irpoaayopevovcn- 
KOLvo-rarov he ttw? 6 hova^, ov Koi Xo^/jicoheaTaTOV 
ye (^aaiv elvai kol p^dXicrra (fiveadac irapd tov^ 
TTOTa/jLOVf; Kal ra? XlpLva'^. hiacpepeiv 3' 6/jLCt)<; 
Trai^Tos* KaXdfiov ttoXv top re ev tw ^VP^ '^'^^ "^ov 
iv TOt? vhacn (pvo/ievov. tSio? he koI 6 to^lk6<;, op 
hr) }^pr]TLK6p TLve^ KaXovaiv 6XLyoy6vaTO<i fiev 
(TapKCDhe(TT6po<; he Trdvrwv Kal fidXiara fcdfiy^Lv 
he')(oiievo^, Kai oXw^ d<yea6aL hvpdfi6vo<; o)? di> 
6eXrj Tt? Oep/iaivo/xevo^. 

12 "E^ovcn, he, wairep iXex^rj, Kal Kara rd (j)vXXa 
/ieydXa<; hia(f)opd<; ov TrXijOet Kal peyeOei pLovov 
dXXd Kal %pota- TTOiKiXo^ yap 6 AaK(0VLK6<i 
KaXovp,evo<^. en he rrj Oeaec Kal irpoai^vaeL' 
Kdrcodev yap evLOi irXelara (fyepovcri rcop (pvXXcop, 
auTO? he Mcrirep eK Odpvov 7r€(f)VK€. ^^(^ehov he 
rive^ (f)acn Kal tmv Xi/xvatcov ravTrjv elvai rrjv 
hia(Popdp, TO 7roXv<pvXXov Kal irapopLOLOv e')(eLv 




another that is of open growth, with few joints \ 
there is the hollow reed called by some the ' tube- 
reed,' 1 inasmuch as it has hardly any wood or 
flesh ; there is another which is solid and almost 
entirely filled with substance ; there is another which 
is short, and another which is of strong growth tall 
and stout ; there is one which is slender and has 
many leaves, another which has few leaves or only 
one. And in general there are many differences in 
natural character and in usefulness, each kind being 
useful for some particular purpose. 

Some distinguish the various kinds by different 
names ; commonest perhaps is the pole-reed, which is 
said to be of very bushy habit, and to grow chiefly 
by rivers and lakes. And it is said that there is a 
wide difference in reeds in general between those 
that grow on dry land and those that grow in the 
water. Quite distinct again is the ' archer's ' reed, 
which some call the ' Cretan ' : this has few joints 
and is fleshier than any of the others ; it can also be 
most freely bent, and in general, when warmed, may 
be turned about as one pleases. 

The various kinds have also, as was said, great 
differences in the leaves, not only in number and 
size, but also in colour. That called the ' Laconian ' 
reed is parti-coloured. They also differ in the 
position and attachment of the leaves ; some have 
most of their leaves low down, and the reed itself 
grows out of a sort of a bush. Indeed some say that 
this may be taken as the distinctive character of 
those which grow in lakes, namely, that these 
have many leaves, and that their foliage in a manner 

^ avpiyyiav conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e., syringiam; cf. Diosc. 
l.c.y Geop. 2. 6. 23. avpiyi U; avpiyyi MV; avpiyya, Ald.H. 



(f)\€(o /cal Opvov Kal ^ovto/xov cjKe'^aaOaL he 
hel rouTO. 
13 reVo9Se Ti KaXdfMOV (jiveraL Kal inlyeiou, o ov/c 
61? opOov dXX! €7rl <yP)<; cKpi^jai top KavXov, wairep 
1] dyp(i)(TTi<;, KoX ourco<; Troielrai, rrjv av^rjaiv. 
e<7TL Se 6 fjiev dpprjv crTeyoeo?, KoXelrai he viro 
TLvwv elXeria^i. . . . 

'O he ^IvhiKo^ ev /leyiaTf] hia(f)opa /cal wairep 
erepov 6X(o<; to y€i'o<;' ecm he 6 fxev dpprjv crrepeo^, 
6 he 6}]\v<; ATotXo?- hiaipoucTL yap Kal tovtov tw 
dppevL Kal O/jXei. (^vovrai 8' e^ evo<^ 7Tvd/jL€vo<; 
TToXXol Kal ov Xoxf^(*^hei<;' ro he (f)vXXov ov /j,aK- 
pov dXX! ofioLov rfi Irea' tm he fieye6ei fieydXoc 
Kal evirayel'^, waTe aKovrloi^; j^prjaOai. (j^vovrai 
he ovroL irepl rou 'AKeaivrjv TTorafiov. dira'^ he 
KdXa/j,o<; eu^wo? Kal T€/jLv6fieuo<; Kal eiriKaLOfievo^; 
KaXXiwv /SXacrrtweL' en he ira^yppil^o'^ Kal iro- 
\vppL^o<^, hi Kal hvaa)Xe6po<i. rj he pi^a yova- 
Tcohr]<i, oiairep rj t/}9 dypcoarlho'^, itXtjv ov Trai^ro? 
6/ioLCL><i. dXXa irepl fiev KaXdficov lKav(o<^ elpijaOco. 
XII. KaraXoLTTOv he elirelv waav e/c tov yevov<i 
TOVTOV Trepl cr^^oLvov Kal yap Kal tovto twv 
evvhpcov OeTeov. eaTi he avTOu Tpia eihrj, Kaddirep 
TLve^ hiaipovcnv, 6 re o^u? Kal dKapiro^, ov hrj 
KaXovcnv dppeva, Kal 6 Kapiri/jLO'^, ov p-eXayKpavlv 

^ epvoi/, a kind of grass (see Index ; cf. Horn. //. 21, 351), 
conj. Soh. ; Bpvoy MSS. ; however Plat. Nat. Quaest. 2 gives 
0pvov along willi Tvcpr] and <p\€u>s in a list of marsh plants, 

^ Se 5eT TOVTO conj.W. ; 5« tovto UMVAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xi. 12-xii. i 

resembles that of galingale phleos thryon ^ and sedge ; 
but this needs ^ furtlier enquiry. 

There is also a kind of reed (bush-grass) which 
grows on land, and which is not erect, but sends out 
its stem over the ground, like the dog's-tooth grass, 
and so makes its growth. The ^male' reed is solid : 
some call it eileiias ^ 

The Indian reed (bamboo) is very distinct, and 
as it were a totally different kind ; the ' male ' is 
solid and the ' female ' hollow (for in this kind too 
they distinguish a ^male' and a ^female' form); a 
number of reeds of this kind grow from one base and 
they do not form a bush ; the leaf is not long, but 
resembles the willow leaf ; these reeds are of great 
size and of good substance, so that they are used for 
javelins. They grow by the river Akesines.^ All 
reeds are tenacious of life, and, if cut or burnt down, 
grow up again more vigorously ; also their roots are 
stout and numerous, so that the plant is hard to 
destroy. The root is jointed, like that of the dog's- 
tooth grass, but this is not equally so in all kinds. 
However let this suffice for an account of reeds. 

Of rushes. 

XII. It remains to speak of the rush,^ as though 
it belonged to this class of plants, inasmuch as we 
must reckon this also among water plants. Of this 
there are three kinds ^ as some distinguish, the 
^ sharp ' rush, whicli is barren and is called the 
'male'; the 'fruiting' kind which we call the ^black- 

^ Sell, marks a lacuna ; there is nothing to correspond to 
6 juev &ppr]v. ^ Chenab. 

5 c/. 1. 5. 3 ; 1. 8. 1 ; Piin. 21. 112-115 ; Diosc. 4. 52. 

'' See Index. 



KuXovfiev Sia to fieXava tov Kapirou e')(eLV, ira'yy- 
T€po<; Be OL'TO? fcal aapfca)heaT€po<;' koI TpcTO<; t(o 
fieyeOeL koI rfj iraxyrrfTL koI evaapKia hia^epwv 
6 Kokov iJL€Vo<; 6\6a')(OLVo<;. 

2 'H ixev ovv /jL€\a<yKpavl<; avT6<i rt? KaO' avrov 6 
5' 6^v<i KoX o\6a')(OLvo<; e/c rov avrov (pvovrar o 
KoX droTTOV (jyaLverac, Kal Oavfiaarou <y -qv ISelv 
0X779 KOiiKjOeiarjf; t?}? a^otvLd<;' ol ttoWol yap 
rjaav aKapiroL 7re(f)VK6r€(; €k tov avrov, KapirLpiOL 
he oXljoi. rovro /xev ovv eTTiaKeTrreov. iXdr- 
TOL'? Be oX&)9 ol KapTTifioL' 7r/309 yap ra ifkeyfiara 
'^(prjaLfjLcorepo*; 6 6\6(7Xoivo<i Blo, ro aapKwBeq /cal 
fxcCKaKov. Kopvva 8' oXw? KapTTi/xof; i^ avrov 
rov ypa/jL/jL(oBov<; e^oiBi^aa^;, Karretra ifcriKret 
KaOdirep oid. rrph<i fjna yap dpXf] ypapLpbOiBei 
e%et Tou? rreptara'xyaiBeL's /ulct'^ov';, ecf)' mv ciKpwv 
rrapairXaylov^ rd<i rSiv dyyeiwv e%et arpoyyvXo- 
TrjTa<; viro'xacrKOvcra^- iv rovroa Be ro airepfid- 
nov aKiBoiBe^; ean jieXav eKdarw rrpoaefKpeph 

3 ru) rov darepiaKov nXrjv dfievijvorepov. pi^av Be 
ex^f' fJLaKpdv Kal rraxyrepav ttoXv rov axoivov 
avrrj B' avaiverai Ka6' eKaarov evLavrov, eW^ 
erepa rrdXiv drro t?}? /ce^aXr}? rod axoLvov KaOle- 
rar rovro Be Kal ev rfj oyjrei (f)av€pov IBelv rd^ 
fiev ava^ rd<; Be %Xa)/3a9 Kadiefieva^' rj Be Ke(j)aXr} 
ofioia rfi r(bi> Kpo/ivcov Kal rfj rcov yrjreiwv, av/x- 

^ 6. 7' ^v ISelv conj. W. from G ; 6. iv y fiSe'iu JJ ; B. ev yt 
lS(7u MVP ; e. ii'iSe:i' Aid. 
^ ol KapTTiiioi conj. R. Const.; ot Kapirol Ald.H. 
^ yap seems meaningless ; G has autem. 
* KopQvq. ; cf. 3. 5. 1. 
^ ypa/jLfiwdti conj. R, Const.; yoa/xfj.a>Sets Ald.H. 



head ' because it has black fruit ; this is stouter and 
fleshier : and third the ' entire rush/ as it is called, 
which is distinguished by its size stoutness and 

Now the ' black-head ' grows by itself, but the 
• sharp ' rush and the ' entire ' rush grow from the 
same stock, which seems extraordinary, and indeed 
it was strange to see it^ when the whole clump of 
rushes was brought before me ; for from the same 
stock there were growing ^ barren ' rushes, which 
were the most numerous, and also a few 'fruiting' 
ones. This then is a matter for further enquiry. 
The * fruiting' '-^ ones are in general scarcer, for^ the 
' entire rush ' is more useful for wicker-work because 
of its fleshiness and pliancy. The ' fruiting ' rush in 
general produces a club-like ^ head which swells 
straight from the wiry stem, and then bears egg-like 
bodies ; for attached to a single wiry ^ base it has its 
very spike-like ^ branches all round it, and on the 
ends of these it has its round vessels borne laterally 
and gaping "^ ; in each of these is the small seed, 
which is pointed and black, and like that of the 
Michaelmas daisy, except that it is less solid. It 
has a long root, which is stouter than that of the 
ordinary rush ; this withers every year, and then 
another strikes down again from the ' head ' ^ of the 
plant. And it is easy to observe that some of the 
roots as they are let down are withered, some green. 
The ' head ' is like that of an onion or long onion, 

^ ■7repio'Toxi"i5€jj seems an impossible word ; ? Trepi avrhv 
Tovs (TTaxvwBets. 

' vTToxacTKovffas con]. Sch.; in iffxc^C^vcas Aid. Jl. 

* i.e. the part above ground ; cf. Plin. I.e. Sch. has dis- 
posed of the idea that kc^oAtj is here a * bulbous ' root. 



'Tre(f>vicvl(i tto)'; lk 7r\ei6i'a)i> £6? ravro Koi irXarela 
KCLTcoOev e)(^ovaa KeXvcfyrj v-rrepvOpa. GVfjb^aiveL K 
ovv lSiov eirX rwv pL^MV el avalvovTai Kar evtavrov 
Kol €K rod avwdev ttoKiv rj yepeai';. rwv jxev 

ovv ayoivwv roiavrr] ri<; (})vai<i. 

Et Be KOL 6 l3dro^ /cal 6 TraKiovpo<; evvhpd ttcoc 
ecTTLV rj TrdpvBpa, KaOdirep ivia^^ov, (pavepal o-^e- 
Bou KOi at TOVTWv Bia(f)opaL' irepl d/ji(f)OLV yap 
el'py]Tai Trporepov. 

[Tcbv Be P7]acov tmv irXodBcDV tmv ev ^Op-^o/xevrp 
rd fiev fieyeOr] TravToBaird Tvyyjdvei, rd Be fie- 
yiGTa avroiv ianv oaov rpiMV crraBicov rrji' Trepl- 
fierpov. iv AlyvTrrco Be fidXtaTa fxeydXa a^oBpa 
(jvvLaraTaL, cocrre koI v<; ev avrati; eyy iveaO at 
TToXXoi)'^, ou? KoX KvvTjyeTovcn Bia^aivovre^.] /cal 
rrepl pcev ivuBpcov ravr elprjaOo). 

XIII. Uepl Be ^paj(yl3L6T7]ro<; ^vrcov Kal Bev- 
Bpcov TMV ivvBpcov eVt roaovrov e^o/jLev &)9 civ Kad' 
oXov Xeyovr€<;, on ^paxvBidirepa rwv 'x^epaaiwv 
earl, KaOdirep Kal rd ^wa. tou? Be KaO' cKaarov 
/3lov<; laroprjcrai Bel tmv ')(^epaaioov. ra jxev ovv 
dypid cf)aaiv ovBe/xlav e^ew o)? elireZv ol opeoTviroL 
Btacf)opdv, dXXd irdvra elvau jxaKpo^ia Kal ovOev 
^pax^^t'OV avTO puev tovto iaco<; dXr]Oe<=; Xeyov- 
re?* diravra yap vTrepTelvei ttoXv rrjv tmv uXXmv 
^MYjv. ov /jLtjv dXX^ o/x&)9 earl rd fxev /xdXXov Ta 
B^ i]TT0v fiaKpoftia, Kaddirep ev tol<; '))[xepoL<^' irola 

1 3. 1^. 3 and 4 ; 4. 8. 1. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xn. 3-xiii. i 

being, as it were, made up of several united together ;. 
it is broad, and underneath it has reddish scales. 
Now it is a peculiar fact about the roots of this plant 
that they wither every year and that the fresh 
growth of roots comes from the part of the plant 
which is above ground. Such is the character of 


Bramble and Christ's thorn may be considered to 
some extent plants of the water or the waterside, 
as they are in some districts ; but the distinctive 
characters of these plants are fairly clear, for we have 
spoken of both already.^ 

The floating islands of Orchomenos ^ are of various 
sizes, the largest being about three furlongs in cir- 
cumference. But in Egypt very large ones form, so 
that even a number of boars are found in them, and 
men go across to the islands to hunt them. Let 

this account of water-plants suffice. 

Of the length or shortness of the life of plants, and the caxises. 

XIIL As to the comparative shortness of life of 
plants and trees of the water we may say thus much 
as a general account, that, like the water-animals, 
they are shorter-lived than those of the dry land. 
But we must enquire into the lives of those of the 
dry land severally. Now the woodmen say that 
the wild kinds are almost '-^ without exception long- 
lived, and none of them is short-lived : so far they 
may be speaking the truth ; all such plants do live 
far longer than others. However, just as in the case 
of cultivated plants, some are longer-lived than other?, 

■^ cf. 4. 10. 2, to which § this note perhaps belongs. 
•* ws eliruif conj. Sell. ; ws etTret U^; is e^irot MV; us tt.p ^Xnoiei' 



Be ravra aKCTrreov. ra Be ■yjfiepa (f)av€pa)<i Bia- 
(f)€peL Tw ra /xev elvai fiaKpo/Sia ra Se ^pa^v^ia- 
ct)9 S' airXoi'^ elTrelv ra dypLa tmv rj/iepcov fiaxpo- 
^Loirepa koX 6\w^ tm <yevei kclI ra avriSirjpr}/i€va 
K.aB'' eKacrrov, olov Korivo^ iXda^ Koi dxpd<; drriov 
iptv€o<; crvKri<s' layyporepa yap kuI irvKvorepa 
Kul dyovcorepa ro2^ TrepLKaprrioL';, 
2 T^i; Be ixafcpo^Lorrjra /laprvpovcriv eirl ye rivoiv 
Kal rjfiepcov Kol dypiwv Kal al irapaBeBopLevai 
(f)7]jjLaL Trapd rwv fivdoXoycov ekdav fiev yap 
\eyov(TL rr)v 'AOijvrjai,, <f)OiviKa Be rov ev ArjXw, 
KorLvov Be rov ev ^OXv/jLTTia, dcf)^ ov 6 crre^avo<^' 
(jiTfyoix; Be rd<; ev ^IXUo rd<i eVt rov "iXou fivrj/xa- 
T09* rive<; Be <paaL Kal rrjv ev AeXc^ot? rrXdravov 
^KyafiefjLVova (pvrevaat Kal rrjv ev Ka(f)vaL<i rrjq 
^KpKaBia^. ravra fiev ovv oirco'^ e^ei rd^^ dv 
erepo^ eirj X6yo<;' ore Be eart /leydXr} Bia<f)opd 
rcov BevBpcov (pavepov ptaKpo^ca p.ev yap rd re 
TrpoeiprjpLeva Kal erepa irXeLO)- ^pa')(y^La Be Kal 
rd roiavra ojioXoyov fiev(o<^, olov poid avKr) /xrjXea, 
Kal rovTCOv r] rjpLvr] fidXkov Kal 77 yXvKeta rrj^s 
6^eia<^, wairep rwv pocov r] diTvpr]vo<;. /Spaxv^ia 
Be Kal dfiTreXcov evia yevrj Kal /idXiara rd ttoXv- 
Kaprra' BoKel Be Kal rd irdpvBpa ^pa'xy^Loorepa 

^ KoX TO. avT. conj. W. ; kotA avr. UMV; ra avr. Ald.H. 

2 iTfpiKapiriois : cf. C. P. 1. 17. 5. 

' On the Acropolis : cf. Hdt. 8. 55 ; ISoph. O.G. 694 foil. 


and we must consider wliich these are. Cultivated 
plants plainly differ as to the length of their lives, 
but, to speak generally, wild plants are longer-lived 
than cultivated ones, both taken as classes, and also 
when one compares ^ the wild and cultivated forms 
of particular plants : thus the wild olive pear and fig- 
are longer-lived than the corresponding cultivated 
trees ; for the wild forms of these are stronger and of 
closer growth, and they do not produce such well- 
developed fruit-pulp.2 

To the long-lived character of some plants, both 
cultivated and wild, witness is borne also by the tales 
handed down in mythology, as of the olive at Athens/ 
the palm in Delos,^ and the wild olive at Olympia, 
from which the wreaths for the games are made ; 
or again of the Valonia oaks at Ilium, planted on the 
tomb of Ilos. Again some say that Agamemnon 
planted the plane at Delphi, and the one at Kaphyai ^ 
in Arcadia. Now how this is may perhaps be 
another story, but anyhow it is plain that there is a 
great difference between trees in this respect ; the 
kinds that have been mentioned, and many others 
besides, are long-lived, while the following are ad- 
mittedly short-lived — pomegranate fig apple : and 
among apples the ' spring ' sort and the ' sweet ' 
apple are shorter-lived than the 'sour' apple, even 
as the ' stoneless ' pomegranate is shorter-lived than 
the other kinds. Also some kinds of vine are short- 
lived, especially those which bear much fruit ; and it 
appears that trees which grow by water are shorter- 

* Under which Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo : c/. 
Paus. 8. 48. 8; Cic. de Leg. 1. 1.; Plin. 16. 238. 
' Its planting is ascribed to Menelaus by Paus. 8. 23. 3. 




Twv fcV TOfc? ^ripoL^ elvat, olov Irea Xevfcrf afci /; 

3 "Evia Be jrjpa(TKec fjbev kol ci'jTrerai rax^w^, 
TTapa^Xaardvei Se ttoXlv i.r. twv avTMv, wairep at 
Bdcjivai Kal ai jxifKeaL re /cal ai poai kol tcop 
(pLkvSpwv rd TToWd' irepl cop kol cr/cei/^atT* dp 
Ti9 TTorepa Tuvrd Set Xeyeiv i) ere pa' KaOdirep et 
Ti<; TO areXexo^i dTroKoyj/a^, coairep Troiovaiv oi 
'yecopyoL, TTokip dpaOeparrevoL rni)^ ^Xaarov^, tj el 
Kal 6\ci)<i eKKoyjreiep d-^^pi tcop pt^ayp Kal iiriKav- 
aeuep' Kal yap TavTa iroLOvaiv, ore Be Kal aTTo 
Tov avTOfidTOV av/x^aipei,- iroTepa By tovto TavTo 
Bel \eyeLV i) eTepop; y /xep yap del rd /Jbeprj ras 
av^7jcreL<i Kal <^6LaeL<^ (palpeTai irapaWuTTOPTa 
Kal 6Ti Td<i BtaKaOdpaei<i ra? utt' avTMP, TavTij 
fiep dp Bo^ete tuvtov eipar tL yap dp eirl tovtwi' 

4 ?} eKeiPCdP Bia<f>epOL; y 8' Mairep ovala Kal (pvais 
TOV BepBpov pd\L(TT dp (^aipoLTO to crreA-e^o?, OTap 
Ix&TaWdTTrj TOVTO, Kap to oXop eTepov v7roXd/3ot 
Tt9, et /JLT) dpa Bid to diro tcjp avTWP dpywp elpat 
TavTo OeiT}- KaiTot TToXXuKif; avfi^aipei Kal ras" 
pi^a^ eTepa^ ehai Kal /leTa/SdXXecp TOiv fiep arjTro- 
fiepcdv Twp B' e^ dpxr]<i BXaaTapovaoip. eVet, edp 
dXr]6h 97, C09 ye Tive^; (jiaai, Ta^ dfiireXovi; fiaKpo- 

^ cf.G.I\'2.U. 5. 

• auadepairevui coiij. W. ; afa6eijaireuei Aid. 

' ^ et Kal '6\ws coiij. W. ; & «» Kal kuAws U; ael Kal KaAt 
JMV; Kal €( KaKws Ald.H. 

* So. and then encourage new growth. 



lived than tliose which live in dry places : this is true 
of willow abele elder and black })o])lar. 

Some trees, though they grow old and decay 
quickly, shoot up again from the same stock,i as 
bay ap})le pomegranate and most of the water- 
loving trees. About these one might enquire 
whether one should call the new growth the same 
tree or a new one ; to take a similar case, if, after 
cutting down the trunk, one should, as the husband- 
men do, encourage - the new shoots to grow again, 
or if^ one should cut the tree right down to the 
roots and burn the stump,^ (for these things are 
commonly done, and they also sometimes occur 
naturally) ; are we then here too, to call the new 
growth the same tree, or another one ? In so far as 
it is always the parts of the tree which appear to 
alternate their })eriods of growth and decay and also 
the prunings which they themselves thus make, so 
far the new and the old growth might seem to be the 
same tree ; for what difference can there be in the 
one as compared witli the other ? ^ On the other 
hand, in so far as the trunk would seem to be above 
all the essential part of the tree, which gives it its 
special character, when this changes, one might 
suppose that the whole tree becomes something 
dilferent — unless indeed one should lay down that to 
have the same starting-point constitutes identity ; 
whereas it often ^ happens that the roots too are 
different and undergo a change, since some decay 
and others grow afresh. ''^ For if it be true, as some 
assert, that the reason why the vine is the longest 

8 i.e. how can the substitution of one set of 'parts' for 
another destroy the identity of the tree as a whole? 
^ TToWoLKts conj. 8ch. from G ; iroWa Ka\ Ald.H. 
' And so the ' starting-point ' too is not constant. 



^LCoTaraf; elvai rw firj (^veiv €T€pa<; a\X' e^ avrm 
aei o'vvavaTrXrjpovadai, yeXotov av tVo)? Sokoltj tol- 
avTT] (TvyKpia-i<; iav <;"'?;> fjievj] rb areXexo'^' avry] 
yap olov vTToOeai^; fcal (f)vai^ BevSpcov. rovro /lev 
ovv OTTorepax; irore XcKTeou ovOev av BieveyKai 

5 7r/309 ra vvv. Taya, S' av etr) fiaKpo^LcoTarov to 
7rai/T6)? Svvd/Mevov avrapKeiv, axrirep rj iXda Ka\ 
TO) areXix^t fcal rrj irapa^Xacrrrjaei kuI tw 
BvdcoXiOpovf; ex^iv Ta? pil^a<;. ho/cel 8e o /9/os' 
T^9 y€ fiLd<s elvai, Ka6' ov to <JTe\exo'^ Bel tj]v 
dpxw TiOevra perpov dvaperpelv rov xpovov, 
paXiara irepl err] BiaKocna. el 5' oirep eirl tcoi^ 
dp.irikwv \eyovai Tive<;, co? irapaipovpevcov ro)v 
pL^cbv Kara /^epo? Bvvarai Biaptveiv to areXexo^i, 
fcal 7} oXr) (^vaL<^ opoia Kal 6p,oio(j)6po<i ottoctovovv 
Xpovov, paKpo^icorarov av eir) irdvjwv. (f)aal B^ 
Belv ovTco TToielv orav yBrj Bokj} KaracfitpeaOai- 
KX'^fiard Te iiri/SaXXeiv Kal KapirovaOaL rov 
ivcavTov perd Be ravra KaraaKd^^avra eVl 
Odrepa t^9 dpireXov irepiKaOdpaL irdaa'^ Ta? 
pl^a^, euT ipTrXijaaL cfypvydvcov /cal eirapi^aaaOai 

8 Tr)v yrjv tovtco pev ovv tw eret KaKa)<; (f)€peii 
a(f)6Bpa, T(p 5' varepw ^eXnov, tw Be rpirw Ka\ 

^ i^ avrwv Aid., 8C. rwv fuC^v ; (k rS>v avrwv conj. W. 

' i.e. such an argument practically assumes the permanence 
of the trunk, which in the case of the vine can hardly be 
considered apart from the root. doKolri roiavTri avyKpiais I 
conj. from G ; ZiKaioTarit] avyKpiais MVAld. ; ZiKaioT(LTj]i 
avyKpiatis U; ioKoiri cJpai r/ avyKpiais conj. Sch.; so W. in 
his earlier edition : in his later editions he emends wildly. 



lived of trees, is that, instead of producing new 
roots, it always renews itself from the existing ones,^ 
such an illustration must surely lead to an absurd con- 
clusion,"^ unless ^ we assume that the stock persists, 
as it must do, since it is, as it were, the fundamental 
and essential part of a tree. However it cannot 
matter much for our present purpose which account 
is the right one. Perhaps we may say that the 
longest-lived tree is that which in all ways is able to 
})ersist,^ as does the olive by its trunk, by its power 
of developing sidegrowth, and by the fact that its 
roots are so hard to destroy. It appears that tnc 
life of the individual olive (in regard to which one 
should make the trunk the essential part and standard^ 
in estimating the time), lasts for about two hundred 
years.^ But if it is true of the vine, as some say, that, 
if the roots are partly removed, the trunk is able to 
survive, and the whole character of the tree remains 
the same and produces like fruits for any period, 
however long, then the vine will be the longest-lived 
of all trees. They say that, when the vine seems to 
be deteriorating, this is what one should do :— one 
should encourage the growth of branches and gather 
the fruit that year ; and after that one should dig on 
one side of the vine and prune away all the roots on 
that side, and then fill the hole with brushwood and 
heap up the soil. In that year, they say, the vine 
bears very badly, but better in the next, while in the 

' I have inserted /irj, which G seems to have read. 

* avTapKcIv U, cf. Ar. Eq. 540 ; avTapKetv Aid. 

* KaQ^ %v tJ) (TTeAexos Sei t)]v apxw TiOevra I conj. ; 80 G ; 
Kad' tp areXexos ^Stj ttjj' apxh^ Ttdeyra /xerpov Ald.H. ; fi 
Set for ^5rj U; nad^ h tov areXexovs SeZ rhv ojkov Tidevra jxirpov 
conj. W. ; Kud' %v rh ar. ^5t7 apxV Koi fitrpov xph conj. Sch. 
c/. end of §4. » Plin. 16. 241. 


TerdpTG) KadidTaadat /cal <f>€peLP ttoXXol/? kul 
Ka\ov<;, ware firjSep Siac^epeiv rj ore riKjia^ev 
eTreihau Be ttoXlv a7ro7rXi]yf}, Odrepov iJLepo<; irapa- 
aKCLTTTeiv Kol OepaireveLV o/^oto)?, koX ovrco^ alel 
Bia/ji€V€LV' iroielv Be rovro fidXiara Bt irMv Beica- 
BC o Kol KOTTreiv ovBeiroTe rov<; rovro iroiovvra'^, 
d\X eirl ryeved^i TroWa? ravrd rd crreXexv Bia- 
fieveiVy ware ixrjBe /jL€fiv7]a6aL rov<; <f)vr€V(Tapra<;' 
rovro fiev ovv Laco<; rcov ireTreipaiJLevcov aKovovra 
Bel TTicrreveiv. rd Be paKpo^ia kol ^pa^v^ia 

Bid roiv elprjiievwv Oewprjreov. 

XIV. Nocn]/iiara Be rol<i /lev dypLOL<; ov ^aai 
^vjjL^aii'eiv vcj)'' wv dvaipovvrai, <^av\w<; Bl Bia- 
rWeaOai koX pdXiara eTriBrjXco^; orav ydXal^oKo- 
TTTjOfj rj ^Xaardveiv fieWovra rj dp'y^o/iieva rj 
dvOovvra, kol orav rj Trvevfia y^rvj^pov rj Oepfiov 
eTTiyevrirai Kard rovrov<; rov<i Katpov^. vrro Be 
rcov wpaiwv 'X^eificovcov ovBe dv v7rep/3dX\ovre<; 
coaiv ovBev 7rd(7X€iv, dXXd kol ^vfjL(f)6peLV rrdcn 
')(eLiJLaa6rjvaL' fir) '^ei/jiaadevra ydp KUKo^Xaaro- 
2 repa yiveaOai. rot<; Be -qfiepoL'i earl TrXeico voarj- 
fiara, kol rd /lev loarrep Koivd rrdaiv rj rol^ 
7rXeL(rrot,<i rd 5' iBia Kard yevrj. KOivd Brj ro re 
(TKcoXrjKovaOai Kal dxrrpo^oXelcrOaL kol 6 <j^a- 
KeXiapLO'i. diravra yap &)? elirelv kol aKcoXrjKa^; 

^ airoTrXTTyfi : airoX'fiyr] conj. Sch. 

« Plin. 17.' 216. * » cf. O.P. 5. 8. 3. 

* Karh yiVT} conj. W.; koI rh. yhi\ UMV; Koi Karh ytpr] Aid. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xiii. 6-xiv. 2 

third and fourth it becomes normal again and bears 
many fair clusters, so that it is quite as good as when 
it was in its prime. And when it goes off again/ 
they say one should dig on the other side and apply 
the same treatment ; and that so treated the tree 
lasts for ever ; and this should be done at intervals of 
about ten years. And this is why those who adopt 
this treatment never cut down the vine, but the same 
stems remain for many generations, so that even 
those who planted the trees cannot remember doing 
so. However perhaps one should enquire of those 
who have had experience before accepting this state- 
ment. These examples may serve for considering 
which trees are long-lived and which short-lived. 

Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions. 

XIV. 2 As to diseases— they say that wild trees 
are not liable to diseases which destroy them, but 
that they get into poor condition, and that most 
obviously when tliey are smitten with hail when 
either they are about to bud or are just budding 
or are in bloom ; also when either a cold or a hot 
wind comes at such seasons : but that from season- 
able storms, even if they be violent, they take no 
hurt,2 but rather that it is good for them all to be 
exposed to weather : for, unless they are, they do 
not grow so well. Cultivated kinds however, they 
say, are subject to various diseases, some of which 
are, one may say, common to all or to most, while 
others are special to particular kinds.* General 
diseases are those ^ of being worm-eaten, of being 
sun-scorched, and rot.^ All trees, it may be said, 

' Koiva d^ t6 re conj. W. ; koivu kuI rS-rf UMV; Koiyd- olov 
to't€ Ald.H. « c/. 8. 10. 1. 


t<7')(ei rrXrjv ra fiev ekdrrov^ ra Be TrXetou?, KaOd- 
vep (TVKri fjLrfkka kol diTio<;. Q)<i Be dirXw^ eiTrelv 
rjKKJTa CTKcoXrjKOVvraL rd hpifxla kol OTTcoBrj, Kai 
darpo/SoXelraL d)(TavT(o<;' fiaXXov 8e rot? veoL<; rj 
TOt? eV aKfifj TOVTO avjjL^aivei, irdvTwv Be fidXiara 
rfj re av/cf] koX rfj dfiirlXoi. 

'H S' iXda 7r/)o? rw tov(; (TK(oXrjKa<i La')(^6iv, o'i 
Bt] Kol T'qv (TVKrjv Biacpdeupovaiv ivTiKTOvre^;, (f)veL 
KOL TjXov ol Be jivKrjra KaXovaiv, evLoi Be XoirdBa- 
TOVTO S* ecTTLV olov 7]Xiov Kavai<;. Bia^delpovTai 
8' evioTe koi al veat iXdat Bid ti]v vTrep^oXrjv tt}? 
TToXvKapTrla^. rj Be -y^wpa kol ol irpoac^voixevoi 
K0')(\.iaL (TVKr)<i elcnv ov iravTaxov Be tovto 
(jvp^jBaiveL tol^ crvKah, dXV eoLKC xal rd 
vocrrjpbaTa yiveaOai KaTd tou<; tottov;, Mcrirep tol<; 
^(ji)ot<i' eVel Trap' €vioL<^ ov yjrcopiwat, KaOdrrep ovBe 
ire pi TTjv Alvetav. 

'AXi(TKeTaL Be (tvkt) fidXiaTa kol a^aKsXiap^w 
Kol KpdBw. KaXeLTUL Be a^aKeXi(Tpi,o<; fiev OTav al 
pL^ai peXavOoiai, KpdBo<; 5' otuv ol KXdBor kol 
ydp KaXovai Ttve<; KpdBov<i, 66ev Kai Tovvojia ttj 
v6a(p- 6 S* epiveo<i ovt€ /cpaBa ovTe acf)aKeXL^€i 
OVTe yjrcopia ovt6 aKoyXrjKovTai Tal<; pi^aL<; 6fj,oia)<^' 
ovBe Brj ra epivd Tive<; aTro^dXXovaiv ovB' edv 
€p(f)VTev0Maiv et? a-v/cijv. 

1 oTTciSr? UMVAld.; evcLS-n H., evidently from Plin. 17. 221. 
cf. a P. 5. 9. 4 and 5. 

"^ \ondda : Plin. 17. 223, patella. The ^\os is an abortive 
bud, called in Italian novolo. 

' ^A./ou /caCo-Js conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. veluti solis exustio : 
so also G; r\\oiavTov U; ^\oi avrhv V; ^\oi avTwv M ; ^Aoi 
avTOfv Aid. whicli W. prints provisionally. 


liave worms, but some less, as fig and apple, some 
more, as pear. Speaking generally, those least liable 
to be worm-eaten are those which have a bitter 
acrid 1 juice, and these are also less liable to sun- 
scorch. Moreover this occurs more commonly in 
young trees than in those which have come to their 
strength, and most of all it occurs in the fig and the 

The olive, in addition to having worms (which 
destroy the fig too by breeding in it), produces i.lso 
a ' knot ' (which some call a fungus, others a bark- 
blister 2), and it resembles the effect of sun-scorch.^ 
Also sometimes young olives are destroyed by exces- 
sive fruitfulness. The fig is also liable to scab, and 
to snails which cling to it. However this does not 
happen to figs everywhere, but it appears that, as 
with animals, diseases are dependent on local con- 
ditions ; for in some parts, as about Aineia,* the figs 
do not get scab. 

The fig is also often a victim to rot and to 
krados. It is called rot when the roots turn black, 
it is called krados when the branches do so ; for 
some call the branches kradoi^ (instead of kladoi), 
whence the name is transferred to the disease. The 
wild fig does not suffer from krados rot or scab, nor 
does it get so worm-eaten in its roots ^ as the culti- 
vated tree ; indeed some wild figs do not even shed 
their early fruit — not even if they are grafted ^ into 
a cultivated tree. 

* cf. 5. 2. 1. 6 Evidently a dialectic form. 

^ plCais PAld. ; avKOLS W. after conj, of Sch. 

" ifKpvTfvOcca-iv conj. Sch.; ^pi (pvr. UMV; euia (pvr. Aid. 
Apparently the object of such grafting was the * caprification ' 
of the cultivated tree {cf. 2. 8. 3) ; but grafting for this 
purpose does not seem to be mentioned elsewhere. 



5 *H Bk "ylrcvpa /idXiara ybperac orav vScop eV) 
YlXeidBi yevrjTac fir] irokv' idv Be ttoXv, dno- 
KKv^erai' avfi/Saivet Be rore fcal ra eptva dirop- 
pelv Koi Tou? 6\vv9ov<;. rwv Be aKOiXrjKwv tmv 
ev raU avfcal^i ol fiev ef avrrj^; jivovTai oi Be 
evTiKTOvraL vtto rov KoXov/jtevov /cepdarov Travre^ 
Be €69 K€pd(TT7]v dTTOKadlaravrar (pOeyjovTat Be 
olov Tpiyybbv. voael Be av/cr} koX eav eTrofi/Spla 
yeprjrar rd re yap Trpo? rrjv pi^av kol avrrj 7) 
pi^a wairep /xaBa' rovro Be Kokovai Xoirdv. 

6 y S* d/i7reXo<; rpaya' rovro Be [idXiara avrij^ 
earu irpo'i tw darpo^oXecaOai, rj orav vtto 
TTvevfidrcov fiXaarofcoTrrjOfj rj orav rn epyacria 
(TVfMTrdOiJ rj rpLrov vTrrla rpLrjOrj. 

'Pua? Be yiverai, o KaXovai riv€<i y^lveaOai, 
orav i7TLVL(f)6f] Kara r^-jv dirdvOriaLV rj orav 
KpeLrroidfj' ro Be irdOo^i earlv ware diroppelv rd<; 
pdya<i fcal ra^ eirLfievovaa^ elvat fiLKpdt;. evLa Be 
Kal ptyooaavra voael, KaOairep 77 dfiTreXo^' dpu- 
^Xovvrai yap ol 6(f)6aX/iol rrj<; Trpcororo/uLOV Kal 
irdXtv vrrepOepjiavOevra- ^rjrel yap Kal rovrcov ryv 
avfijierpiav wairep kol rr}<^ rpo(pi}<;. oXco<i Be rrav 
ro Trapd <f)vaiv eirLKivBvvov. 

1 c/. C.P. 5. 9. 10; Col. 5. 9. 15. 

2 c/. 5. 4. 5 ; C.P. 5. 10. 5 ; Plin. 17. 221. 

' aiiTT) 7] ^((a 1 conj.; avr^v tV plCav U ; om. Aid. 

* cf. a p. 5. 9. 12 ; Plin. 17. 225. 

" i.e. sliedding of the 'bark' of the roots. \oTrav conj. 
Sch., cf. C.P. 5. 9. 9 ; KoniSa Ald.H., cf. 4. 14. 3; but the 
word here points to a diflferent disease. 

• uTTTta TOytiT) 8661113 to ho & technical term for pruning in 
such a way that the growth of the new wood is encouraged 



Scab^ chiefly occurs when there is not much rain 
after the rising of the Pleiad ; if rain is abundant, 
the scab is washed off, and at such times it comes 
to pass that both the spring and the winter figs drop 
off. Of the worms found in fig-trees some have their 
origin in the tree, some are produced in it by the 
creature called the ' horned worm ' ; but they all turn 
into the ' horned worm ' ; ^ and they make a shrill 
noise. The fig also becomes diseased if there is 
heavy rain ; for then the parts towards the root and 
the root itself^ become, as it were, sodden,^ and this 
they call * bark-shedding.' ^ The vine suffers from 
over-luxuriance ; this, as well as sun-scorch, specially 
happens to it either when the young shoots are cut 
by winds, or when it has suffered from bad cultivation, 
or, thirdly, when it has been pruned upwards.*^ 

The vine becomes a 'shedder,''' a condition which 
some call 'casting of the fruit,' if the tree is snowed 
upon at the time when the blossom falls, or else 
when it becomes over lusty; ^ what happens is that the 
unripe grapes drop off, and those that remain on the 
tree are small. Some trees also contract disease 
from frost, for instance the vine ; for then the eyes of 
the vine that was pruned early become abortive ; and 
this also happens from excessive heat, for the vine 
seeks regularity in these conditions too, as in its 
nourishment. And in general anything is dangerous 
which is contrary to the normal course of things. 

and so there is less fruit : exact sense obscure ; ? ' from 
below' (i.e. with the blade of the knife pointing upwards). 
cf. G.P. I.e.; Col. 4. 24. 15 ; Plin. I.e., in supinum axcisis. 

7 c/. C.P. 5. 9. 13. 

® KpfiTTQ}6^ : i.e. the growth is over-luxuriant. The word 
occurs elsewhere only in the parallel passage G.P. I.e., where 
occurs also the subst. Kpeirrwiris, evidently a technical term. 



7 M-eydXa Be ^v^^dWeraL kcu to, Tpavjiara Kal 
al TrXrjyal rcov irepiaKairTovroiv el<i ro /jltj (pepeiv 
Ta9 fi€Ta^oXd<; rj fcavfxaTcop i) 'X^eifKovcov da06ve<i 
yap ov hid rrjv eXKcoaiv kol tov ttovov €V)(^etpa)- 
Torarov ean ral'^ VTrep/BoXalf;. a)(^ehov Be, w? ri,ve<i 
oXovrai, TO. ifKelara rcov vocr^iixdnov diro TrXrjyrj^ 
yiveTar zeal yap rd darpo^XrjTa KaXovfjieva Kal 
rd (rcpaKeXi^oPTa Bed to dTTo TavTrj<; elvai ruiv 
oi^wv TOV TTovov. olovTau Be Kal Bvo ravra^i elvai 
fiova<i voaov^' ov firjv dWa touto y ovk dyav 
ofioXoyovfievov iart. 

[IldvTcov S' dcrOevearaTOV y firjXea y r)pivr] Kal 
rovTwv 77 yXvKelaJ] 

8 "EiVLai Be TrrjpcocreL'; ovk et9 (f>Oopdv yivovTai 
oXcov dXX^ eh dKapTrlav olov edv Tt? r?}? ttltvo'^ 
d^eXr) TO aKpov rj tov <^oiviko^, aKapira ylveaOai 
dp,(f)0) BoKel Kal ov)(^ oA,&)9 dvaipelaOai. 

rivovraL Be voaoL Kal tcjv Kapirwv avroiv, edv 
py Kard Katpov rd irvevpara Kal rd ovpdvia 
yevrfTai' avpL^aivei yap ore pev drro^dXXeiv 
yevopievwv rj pur] yevofievcov vBdrcov, olov ra? avKa^i, 
OTe Be ')(^eipov<^ ylvecrOat. arjiropbevov^ Kal KaraiTViyo- 
p,ei'OV<i 7} rrdXiv dva^7jpaivop,evov<; irapd to Beov. 
X^LpicTTOv Be edv dTravOovai Tiaiv ecpvcrr], KaOdirep 
eXda Kal dpireXw' avvaiToppel yap 6 Kapiro^; BC 

1 Plin. 17. 227. 

' (iix^ipoiroTaTov conj. W. after Lobeck ; ^hx^^p^'^o^fov Aid. 

3 TTovov conj. H. from G ; t6itov MVAld. 

* This sentence is clearly out of place : the plural tovtwv 
has nothing to refer to. cf. 4. 13. 2. It is represented how- 
ever by Plin. I.e. 



1 Moreover the wounds and blows inflicted by men 
who dig about the vines render them less able to bear 
the alternations of heat and cold ; for then the tree is 
weak owing to the wounding and to the strain put 
upon it, and falls an easy prey 2 to excess of heat 
:ind cold. Indeed, as some think, most diseases 
may be said to be due to a blow ; for that even 
llie diseases known as 'sun-scorch' and 'rot' occur 
because the roots have suffered in this way.^ In 
fact they think that there are only these two 
diseases ; but there is not general agreement on this 

The ' spring apple ' and especially the sweet 
form of it, has the weakest constitution.^ 

^ Some mutilations however do not cause destruc- 
tion of the whole ^ tree, but only produce barrenness ; 
for instance, if one takes away the top of the Aleppo 
pine or the date-palm, the tree in both cases appears 
to become barren, but not to be altogether destroyed. 

There are also diseases of the fruits themselves, 
which occur if the winds and rains do not come 
in due season. F'or it comes to pass '' that sometimes 
trees, figs, for example, shed their fruit when rain 
does or does not come, and ^ sometimes the fruit is 
spoilt by being rotted and so choked ofF,^ or again 
by being unduly dried up. It is worst of all for 
some trees, as olive and vine, if rain falls on them as 
they are dropping their blossom ; ^^ for then the fruit, 
having no strength, drops also. 

6 Plin. 17. 228 and 229. 

« '6\oov conj. W.; tivoov PgAld.H. cf. G.P. 5. 17. 3 and 6. 
' cf. G.P. 5. 10. 5. 
sgeadd. Sch. ^cj. G.P. I.e. 

'" airaveovai conj. Sch. from G and Plin. I.e. ; i-navOoviri. Ald.H. 



*Ev Mt\-^T(p Be ra? iXda<;, orav wat, irepl to 
avOeiVy Kafxirai KareaOiovaLV, al fiev ra (f)vWa a'l 
he ra avdrj, erepau tu> yevec, koI ■^iXovai, ra 
BevBpa' 'ylvovrai Be iav y voria kol evSteLvd' eav 
Be eiriXd^r] Kavfiara prjyuuvrai. 

Hepl Be Tdpavra 'Trpo(^aivovaL /xev del iroXvv 
Kapnov, VTTO Be ttjv dirdvOriaLV rd ttoW' diTok- 
\vTai. rd fiev ovv roLUvra rwv roirwv IBia. 

10 TLverai Be koX aX\o voarj/xa irepl rd(; e\da<; 
dpd')(yLov KaXovfievov' (fiveruL yap rovro kol Bia- 
<f)OeLpeL rov Kaprrov. erzLKdei Be Kal Kavfiard 
riva fcal ekdav Kal ^orpvv Kal dWov^ Kapirov^;. 
ol Be Kapirol <t K(o\r]Kovvrai nvwv, olov ekda^ 
diriov firfkea<; fxea'K L\r}<^ p6a<;. Kal 6 ye tt}? e\da<; 
aK(i>krj^ edv fiev vrro rb Bepfia yevr^rau Bia(pdeLpei 
rov KapiTov, edv Be rov Truprjva Biacpdyrj w^eXet. 
KcoXveraL Be viro rw Bep/iarL elvai vBaro<; eV 
^ApKrovpo) yevo/jbevov. yivovrai Be Kal ev rat? 
BpvireTreat crK(oXr]K€<;, atirep Kal ')(^eipov^ eU rr]v 
pvcnv oA.ft)9 Be Kal BoKovaiv elvai aairpai' Bl o 
Kal yivovrai roL<; vorLOL<; Kal /xdXXov ev rot? 
e(f)vBpoi<;. eyyivovrai Be Kal KVLTre^; ev riat rcov 
BevBpcov, wairep ev rfj Bpv't Kal rfj avKfj' Kal 
BoKOvatv €K tt}? vyp6ry]ro<; avvlaraaOai t/}? vtto 
rov (f)Xoiov avviara^evri^' avrr) Be iarc yXvKela 
yevofievoL'i. yivovrai Be Kal ev Xa~^dvoL<i naiv, 

1 c/. C.P. 5. 10. 3. 

" Tarentum : cf. C.P. I.e. 

' a.-K(xvQriaiv conj. W.; ivdrjaiv Aid. 

♦ Plin. 17. 229-2.31. 

• apaxviov cony 8ch. after Meurs. ; aplxt'ioy UP^; iLpxiX"^"" 
MVP ; itpxiviov Aid. cf. C.P. 5. 10. 2. 


1 In Miletus the vines at the time of flowering are 
eaten by caterpillars^ some of Avhich devour the 
flowers, others, a different kind, the leaves ; and they 
strip the tree ; these appear if there is a south wind 
and sunny weather ; if the heat overtakes them, the 
trees split. 

About Taras ^ the olives always shew much fruit, 
but most of it perishes at the time when the blossom 
falls.^ Such are the drawbacks special to par- 
ticular regions. 

■^ There is also another disease incident to the 
olive, which is called cobweb ; ^ for this forms ^ 
on the tree and destroys the fruit. Certain hot "^ 
winds also scorch both olive vine-cluster and other 
fruits. And the fruits of some get worm-eaten,^ as 
olive pear apple medlar pomegranate. Now the 
worm which infests the olive, if it appears below the 
skin, destroys the fruit; but if it devours the stone it 
is beneficial. And it is prevented from appearing 
under the skin if there is rain after ^-^ the rising of 
Arcturus. Worms also occur in the fruit which 
ripens on the tree, and these are more harmful as 
affecting the yield of oil. Indeed these worms seem 
to be altogether rotten ; wherefore thej'^ appear when 
there is a south wind and particularly in damp 
places. The knips^^ also occurs in certain trees, as 
the oak and fig, and it appears that it forms from the 
moisture which collects under the bark, which is 
sweet to the taste. Worms also occur ^^ in some 

^ (pverat Aid.; i/n(pv€Tai conj. Sell, from G.P. I.e., but the 
text is perhaps defective. 

7 cf. G.P. 5. 10. 5. 8 cf. a P. 5. 10. 1. 

» €V conj. Sch., cf. G.P. 5. 10. 1 ; iir'JJ; an' Ald.H. 
" cf. 2. 8. 3. 
^^ The subject of yivovrai is probably aKa)\r]Kes, not Kvlirfs. 



€v6a Se Ka/jLTrai ^la^epovarj^; hrjXov otl t?}? 

11 Kal ra fxev voa-rjiiara a^^Sov ravra kul ev 
rovTOL^ earlv. evia he ttcWtj tmv Kara Ta<; a>pa<; 
Kol Twv Kara tov<; roTrof? jifo/ievcov dvaLpelv 
7re(pvKev, a ovk civ rt? eiiroL voaov^, olov \iyco rrjv 
6K7r7]^iv Kal b KaXovcTL rive<i KavOfiov. aWa Se 
Trap €KdaroL<^ TrecfiVKe irvevpara uTroWyvai /cal 
diroKaeiV' olov ev XaXKiSi t/}9 Et'/Sota? 'OXu/xTr/a? 
orav irvevaji fiVKpov rrpo Tpoirwv rj /xerd rpoTrd^ 
'^ei,/jL6pLvd<; yjruxpo';' diroKaei yap rd BevSpa Kal 
ovTco<; ava iroiel Kal ^rjpd &)? ovS* dv v(f rjXiou 
Ka\ ')(p6vov TToWov yevoLT dv, Bt* o Kal KaXovac 
KavOjiov iyevero Be irporepov TroXXa/ci? ^/St; koI 
eir ^ Ap')(iTnrov Bl ejoiv TerrapdKovTa a(f)oBp6<;. 

12 Uovovat Be fidXiara rcov tottcov ol koIXol Kal 
oi av\a)V€<i Kal octol irepl rot/? Trora/xoi'? Kal 
dirXco^ ol d-TTvevaroTaror tmv BevBpcov Be /ndXiarra 
(TVKrjy Bevrepov Be iXda. eXda<i Be fiaXXov 6 
Kortvo<; eirovrjaev Icryyporepo^ mv, o Kal Oavfiaarov 
rjv at Be dfxvyBaXal to Trdpurav diraOeW drraOeL^ 
Be Kal al /JLrjXeac Kal at dirioL Kal al poai lyevovTO' 
BC o Kal Tovro yv Oavfiaarov. diroKderai Be 
evOv^ eK rov crreXe^ovi, Kal oXco? Be jxdXXov Kal 
irporepov &)? elrrelv dirrerai <rd dva)> rcov Kdrco. 
(f)av€pd Be yiverai rd fiev d/xa irepl rrjv ^Xdarrjaiv, 

1 Plin. 17. 232. 

' TU)P Kara rovs tSitous conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e.; tuv kuO^ 
aura Aid. 
» HKTv-n^iv conj. Sch.; $Kn\r}^iy UMPjAld. cf. G.P. 5. 12. 2, 

* cf. G.P. 5. 12. 4. 


pot-herbs, as also do caterpillars, though the origin 
of these is of course different. 

Such are in general the diseases, and the plants 
in which they occur. Moreover ^ there are certain 
affections due to season or situation 2 which are likely 
to destroy the plant, but which one would not call 
diseases : I mean such affections as freezing ^ and 
what some call ^scorching.' Also^ there are winds 
which blow in particular districts that are likely to 
destroy or scorch ; for instance the ' Olympian ' 
wind of Chalcis in Euboea, when it blows cold a 
little before or after the winter solstice ; for this 
wind scorches up the trees and makes them more 
dry and withered than they would become from the 
sun's heat even in a long period ; wherefore its effect 
is called ^scorching.' In old times it occurred very 
frequently, and it recurred with great violence in 
the time of Archippus, after an interval of forty 

^ The places which suffer most in this way are 
hollow places, valleys, the ground near rivers, and, in 
general, places which are least open to wind ; the 
tree which suffers most is the fig, and next to that 
the olive. The wild olive, being stronger, suffered 
more than the cultivated tree, which was surprising. 
But the almonds were altogether unscathed, as also 
were the apples pears and pomegranates; wherefore 
this too was a surprising fact. The tree gets scorched 
by this wind right down to the trunk, and in general 
the upper are caught more and earlier than the lower 
parts.^ The effects are seen partly at the actual 

» cf. G.P. 5. 12. 7 ; Plin. 17. 232 and 233. 
" Karca UMVP ; ^lvu) W. after Sch.'s conj. : text probably 
defective ; I have added to. &vw. cf. G.P. 6. 12. 5. 



i) Be e\da Sia rb aeic^vWov varepov ocrai fih ovv 
av (pvWojSoXrjacocriv ava^LOiCTKOVTai irakiv, oaat 
5' av /jlt) reXew? airoWvvrai. rnrap ivioi^ Se TLV6<i 
cLTTOKavOelaai kol tmv <^vXK.u>v avavOevrwv ave- 
^Xdaryjaav irakLv avev rov uTTo/SaXelv koI rd 
(f)vWa dve^iwaev. Ivia^ov Se kol TroWa'/ci? 
TOVTO (JVfi^aivei, KaOdirep kol ev ^^iXlttttol^. 

13 Ta 5' iKirayevra, orav /jltj T€Xeco<; diroXr^rai, 
Td')(^LGTa dva/SXaardvet, ware ev9v<i ttju dfiireXov 
KapTTO(^opelv, Mairep iv SerraXta. iv he rw 
Yi6vT(p irepl JlavTiKdiraiov al fiev eK-mq^eL^ 
yiifovrai Si)(^co<;, ore fxev viro '\jrv'^ov<; edv 'X^eifxepLOV 
fj TO eTO<i, ore Be vtto Trdycov edv ye iroXvv y^povov 
Btaixevwcn. ajK^orepa he fidXiara jiyvovraL 
/xerd rpoird^ irepl rd<i rerrapdKovTa. yivovrai 
Be ol /lev TrdyoL rat? aWpiai';, rd Be '^vyv fidXiara 
V(f)* 0)v i) €K7rr]^i<; orav al9pia<; ovaj)<; al XeiriBe'^ 
Kara^epwvTai. ravra B' iarlv warrep rd ^va/iara 
irXrjv irXarvrepa, teal (^epofieva (pavepd ireaovra 
Be ou Bca/jLevei' irepl Be rj]V Spa/crjv eKTryjyvvvraL. 

14 ^AXXd ydp al fiev voaoi iroaai re kol irolat koI 
rlve^; ylvovrai Kal irdXiv al Bl virep/SoXyjv 
X^tp-covo'^ T) Kav/idrcov <p6opal Kal al Bid irvev- 
fidrcov y^rvypoT'^ira r) Oeppiorrjra Bid rovrcov 
Oecopeiadoyaav wv eVta? ovOev dv kwXvol Kal rol<; 
dypLOL'i elvai Koiva<; Kal Kard rrjv oXtjv rwv 
BevBpwv (pOopdv Kal en fiaXXov Kard rr)v tmv 
KapTTcov o Kal av/ji/Salvov opco/xev ovk evKaprrel 

] Plin. 17. 233. 

* (KnayePTU conj. Sch. ; iKir\ay(VTa U ; (KnKjjyfvra Aid. 

' idv yf conj. Sch.; iav 5e U; iav it. x- 5. yt Aid. 



time of budding, but in the olive, because it is 
evergreen, they do not appear till later; those trees 
therefore which have shed their leaves come to life 
again, but those that have not done so are completely 
destroyed. In some places trees have been known, 
after being thus scorched and after their leaves have 
withered, to shoot again without shedding their 
leaves, and the leaves have come to life again. 
Indeed in some places, as at Philippi, this happens 
several times. 

1 Trees which have been frost-bitten,^ when they 
are not completely destroyed, soon shoot again, so 
that the vine immediately bears fruit, for instance 
in Thessaly. In Pontus near Panticapaeum the 
frost-bite occurs in two ways, either just from cold, 
if the season is wintry, or from long^ spells of 
frost ; in either case this generally occurs in the * 
forty days after the winter solstice. The frosts 
occur in fine weather, but the cold spells, which 
cause the frost-bite, chiefly when in fine weather the 
' flakes ' ^ fall ; these are like filings, but broader, 
and can be seen as they fall, but when they have 
fallen, they disappear — though in Thrace they freeze 

Let this suffice for consideration of the diseases, 
their number and nature, including the fatal effects 
of excessive cold and heat or of cold or hot winds. 
And it may well be that certain of these also affect 
wild trees, producing entire destruction of the tree 
and still more that of the fruit. Indeed we see this 
actually happen ; for wild trees also often fail to 

* Trepl conj. Sch., cf. G.P. 5. 12. 4 ; /ueri UMVAld. 
' \enl5(s conj. Seal, from G {aquammtUae) ; (leirlSes Aid. cf. 
Hdt. 4. 31. 



<yap ovB* i/cetva itoWolki^, aXk ov)(^ 6fioiw<; olfiai 

XV. AoLTTov S' elirelv oca irapaipovfievcov 
TLvcdV fiopLcov aTToXkvTai. KOLvrj [lev Bt) iraai 
<f)Oopa Tov (pXoiou irepiaLpedevTo^ kvkXw' irav 
yap &)? elirelv oi/rtw? airoXkyadai hoicel irXrjv 
avhpd-)(\ri' Ka\ avTTj Se idv ri? ttjv adpKa crcpoSpa 
iriearj Ka\ tov p^iXXovra ^Xaarbv hLaKoy^y irXyv 
el dpa cf)eXXov' toutov yap (paai kol evaOevetv 
fidXXov Trepiaipovfievov SijXov ore rod e^o) Kal 
rov Kdrco Trpo? rfj aap/cl, KaOdirep Kal t?)? dvBpd- 
X^V^' fTret Kal rov Kepdcrov irepiaLpeljaL Kal 
rri<; dfiireXou Kal tt;? (f)i.Xvpa<i, i^ ov rd (T')(0LVLa, 
Kal paXd')(r}<; tmv iXarrSvcoi', dXX* ou;^ o Kvpios 
ou5' 7rpwT09, dXX 6 iiTLiToXri^, o? Kal avTO/xaro^; 
ivLore dTTOiriTTTei Sid rrjv virocjivacv Oarepov. 

Kal yap (^Xoioppayrj evia tcov SevSpcov iariv, 
a>(T7r€p Kal rj dvhpd'xXrj Kal rj irXdravo'^. o)? he 
Tiv€<i oiovrai, irdXiv viroc^veTai veo<i, 6 he e^coOev 
dTro^ypalveTai, Kal prjyvvrai Kal avro/xaTO^; 
diroTrLTnei iroXXcov, dXX* ov^ 6/iolco<; eV/ST^Xo?. 
(fyOelpovTaL /JLev ovv, &>? oiovrai, irdvra irepiaLpov- 
/xevov, hiacpepeL he rro Odrrov Kal fipahvrepov Kai 

' Plin. 17. 234; cf. C.P. 5. 15. 1. 

•' cf. 1. 5. 2. 

' PXaoThv conj. Sch. from G ; Kapirlv UAld.H. 

* Plin. 17. 234-236. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xiv. 14-xv. 2 

produce a good crop of fruit ; but, I imagine, they 
liave not been so well observed. 

Of the effects on trees of removing bark, head, heart-wood, 
roots, etc.; of various causes of death. 

XV. 1 Next we must mention what trees perish 
when certain parts are removed. All perish alike, if 
the bark is stripped off all round ; one may say that 
every tree, except the andrachne,^ perishes under 
these circumstances ; and this tree does so also, if 
one does violence to the flesh, and so breaks off the 
new growth ^ which is forming. However one 
should perhaps except the cork-oak; for this, they 
say, is all the stronger if its bark is stripped off, that 
is, the outer bark and also that which lies below it 
next the flesh — as with the andrachne. For the 
bark is also stripped from the bird-cherry the vine 
and the lime (and from this the ropes are made), 
and, among smaller plants, from the mallow ; but in 
these cases it is not the real nor the first bark which 
is taken, but that which grows above that, which 
even of its own accord sometimes falls off because 
fresh bark is forming underneath. 

^ In fact some trees, as andrachne and plane, have 
a bark which cracks.^ As some think, in many cases 
a new bark forms ^ underneath, while the outer bark 
withers and cracks and in many cases falls off of its 
own accord ; but the process is not so obvious as it is 
in the above mentioned cases. Wherefore, as they 
think, all trees are destroyed by stripping the bark, 
though the destruction is not in all cases equally 

* cf. C.P. 3. 18. 3. (pXotoppayrj ^via COnj. Mold.; <p\oiop- 
payia fiia UMV; <pv\\opoyia fiia Aid. 
' vyrocpverat con], W.; vnoipvei Ald.H. 


jjLoXKov Kai r)TTOv. evia >yap irXeloi )(^p6vov Bca- 
/.levei, KaOdirep avKrj koX ^iXvpa koX 8pv<;' ol he 
Kol ^fjv (f)acn ravra, ^rjv he kol irreXeav kol 
(f>oivLKa- tt}? Be (^iXvpa^; kol au/j,(f)veaOai top 
(fyXoiov TrXrjv /iLfcpov- tmv Be aXXwv olov iraypov- 
aOai KOL IBiav tlvcl (pvaiv €-)(€iv. ^orjOelv he 
TreipoivraL hiaTrXuTTOvre'; tttjXw kol irepihovvre^; 
(f)Xotot<; KoX KaXdpoL<; kol roU tolovtol^;, ottco? /it} 
yfrvxV'^ai' A*-^^' dTTO^r^paivrjrai. koI rjhrj <^aai ttov 
ava^vvai, KaOdirep kol ev 'HpuKXeLa rfj Tpa'^ivla, 

3 Ta<; avKa<i. hel he a/ia rfj t?}? ')(^cjL>pa^ dperfj koI 
TTJ rod depot; Kpdaeu kol ra eTnyiyvo/ieva roiavra 
elvai' ')(^>v yap rj icavpdrwv eTTLyivofievcov 
a(f)ohpo)u €v6v<; drroXXvvrar hiacfiepovcrt he koI 
al oipar irepl yap rrjv ^Xdarrjaiv iXdrr]^; rj 
TrevKrjf;, ore fcal Xottwctl, rod SapyrjXicovo^; r) 
^KLppo(^opLMVO<^ av Ti? TTepiiXr), irapaxp^ipa dir- 
oXXvraL. rov he yeipwvo'; irXeiw ')(^p6vov dvr- 
e%et KOL en fidXXov ra laxvporara, KaOdirep irpl- 
vo<; KaX hpv<;' ')(^povL(jorepa yap t) rovrwv (f)Oopd. 

4 hel he KOL rr]v TrepialpeaLV e-^eiv n 7rXdro<i, 
rrdvrwv fiev fidXicrra he r6)V la^vpordrcop' enel 
dv ri<; fiLKpav rravreXo)^ iroLrjcrr), ovOev droirov ro 
fit) drroXXvaOav KairoL (^aat ye rLpe<;, edv ott- 
oaovovVy (JVfi^OeipeaOai irdvrcd';' aW eVt rcov 
daOevearepcdV rovr eiKO'^. evia yap kclv pJr] 
kvkXco TrepiaipeOij (j^OelpeaOai <^acnv, a KaX 

' Koi add. W. (text defective in MSS. except U). 


rapid or complete. Some in fact, as fig lime and oak, 
survive for some time ; indeed some say that these 
recover, and also the elm and date-palm, and 
that the bark even of the lime almost entirely 
closes up again, while in other trees it forms as it 
were a callus and^ acquires a peculiar new character. 
Men try to help the tree by plastering it with mud 
and tying pieces of bark reeds or something of the 
kind about it, so that it may not take cold nor 
become dried up. And they say that the bark has 
been known to grow again ; - for instance that that 
of the fig-trees at the Trachinian Heraclea did so. 
However this does not only depend on the quality of 
the soil and on the climate ; the other circumstances 
which ensue must also be favourable ; for, if great 
cold or heat ensues, the tree perishes at once. The 
season also makes a difference. For if one strips the 
bark of a silver-fir or fir at the time when the buds 
are shooting during Thargelion or Skirrophorion,^ at 
which season it is separable, the tree dies at once. 
If it is done however in winter, the tree holds out 
longer ; and this is especially true of the strongest 
trees, such as kermes-oak and oak ; these it takes 
longer to kill. However the piece stripped off must 
be of a certain breadth to cause the death of the 
tree, especially in the case of the strongest trees ; for, 
if one does it only a little, it is not surprising that 
the tree should not be killed ; though some indeed 
say that, if it is done at all,* the tree certainly dies ; 
this liowever is probably true only of the weaker 
kinds. For some, they say, if they are in bad barren 

^ apa(pvvai conj. Seal, from G ; (pvvai Ald.H. 

2 May-June. 

* b-noffovovv conj. Sch. from G ; oTcwaovv Aid. 



Xvirpav eyei ')((i)pav kcli aTpo<^ov. avr)] fiev 6i], 
KaOdirep eiprjraL, kolvy] cjiOopa Trdvrwv. 

XVI. *^Hi/ ^e KokouaLV iiriKOTrrjv rcov BevBpcop, 
fiovov Trevfcrjf; iXdri]'; ttltvo'^ (f)OLViKo<=;, oi Be kol 
Kehpov KoX KuirapLTTOv (f)aaL ravra yap, eav 
rreptaipeOij Tr)v Kofiriv dvwOev kol eTTCKOTrfj to 
cLKpov, (pOeLperaL iravra koI ov ^Xaarduei, fcaOd- 
TTcp ovh^ iiriKavdevTa ?) irdvTa rj evta. ra 8' 
dWa Trdvra kol TTepLKOTTevra ^Xaardvei, koI 
evtd <ye KaWlco jiverai, KaOdirep r) iXda. Bia- 
^Oeiperai Be rd TroXXd kuv a')(^ia6fi ro crr€X6')(^o<s' 
ovBev yap viropbeveLv Bok€L irXr^v dfiTriXov Ka\ 
crvKrj(; Kal p6a<i fcal prfXea^' evia Be Kav eXKcoOfj 
Kol fjuel^ov Kal (Badvrepov d'woXXvraL. rd t 
ovBev Trda'^ei, KaOdirep r) TrevKrj BaBoupyov/ievrj, 
fcal e^ o)v Bt) to.? py]TLva<; avXXeyovcnv, olov eXd- 
tt;? T€p/JLLv6ou' Kal yap Brj tovtcov eh /SdOo'i i) 
rpwcrt? Kal eXK(oai^. Kal yap e^ d(f)6p(ov (popaBc's 
yipovrai Kal e^ oXtyo^opwv 7roXv<j)6poi. 

Td Be Kal ireXeKrja-Lv viropevei Kal 6p0d Kal 
ireaovra viro irveu/iaro^, Mare ttoXlv dvlaTaaOai 
Kal ^Yjv KOL ^XacrrdpeLP, olop Irea Kal irXdrapo^. 
oirep (JVPejBri Kal ev ^AprdpBpco Kal iv ^iXiiriroLi;' 
€KTTeaovar)<i ydp <w? direKos^av tou? aKpepopa^ 
Kal €7reXeKr]aap, dpecpvi] pvKTcop rj 7rXdrapo<^ 
KOVcpLaOeccra rod /3dpov<; Kal dpe^lw Kal 6 (pXoio<; 
7r€pi€(f)U irdXip. irapaTreireXeKri pepr) 8' eTvyyapep 
eK TMv Bvo pepoiP' rjp Be rb BepBpov peya /x?}a:09 

1 Plin. 17. 236 ; cf. 3. 7. 2; C.P. 5. 17. 3. 

2 cf. 3. 9. 5. 

' tvuQiv Koi conj. W, : koL JkvwQfv Aid. 
* c/. 1. 3. 3; 1. 14. 2. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xv. 4-xvi. 2 

soil, die even if the bark is not stripped all round. 
This then, as has been said, is a universal cause of 

XVI. ^ The process which is called topping of 
trees is fatal only to fir silver-fir Aleppo pine^ and date- 
palm, though some add prickly cedar and cypress. 
These, if they are stripped of their foliage at the 
top ' and the crovv^n is cut off, perish wholly and do 
not shoot again, as is the case with some, if not with 
all, if they are burnt. But all other trees shoot 
again after being lopped, and some, such as the 
olive,^ become all the fairer. However most trees 
perish if the stem is split ;^ for no tree seems able to 
stand this, except vine fig pomegranate and apple ; 
and some perish even if they are wounded severely 
and deeply. Some however take no harm ^ from 
this, as the fir when it is cut for tar, and those trees 
from which the resins are collected, as silver-fir and 
terebinth ; though these trees are in fact then deeply 
wounded and mangled. Indeed they actually become 
fruitfuU instead of barren, or are made to bear 
plentifully instead of scantily. 

Some trees again submit to being hewn both 
when they are standing and when they have been 
blown down, so that they rise up again and live and 
shoot, for instance the willow and the plane. ^ This 
was known to happen in Antandros and at Philippi ; 
a plane in Antandros having fallen and had its boughs 
lopped off and the axe applied to its trunk, grew 
again in the night when thus relieved of the weight, 
and the bark grew about it again. It happened that 
it had been hewn two thirds of the way round ; it 

5 c/. G.P. 5. 16. 4 ; Plin. 17. 238. « c/. C.P. 5. 16. 2. 
' (popaZes conj. Sell.; <popihis Aid. « Plin. 16. 1.33. 



/lev fiel^ov rj heKdm^')(y, rrd')(^o<^ 5' wcrre firf pahiw^ 
av irepLXalBeiV Terrapa^; avhpa<^. t) he ev ^lTutt- 
TTOi^ Irea TrepLe/coTrr) fiev tou9 ciKpeixova^;, ov pLrjv 
irap€7re\€Ki]dr]. fxavri.^ he Ti? eTreiaev avTOV^ 
Ova lav re iroielaOaL kol rr/pelv ro SevSpov &)<? 
cTTj/ieLov dyaObv yeyovo';. dvearr) Be kol ev 
'ZrayebpoL^i ev tm /xovaeLM Xev/cri rt? eKireaovaa. 

Tt}? he fjLijTpw^ €^aipoufjLevyj<i ovOev &)? elirelv 
(^OeipeTai hevhpov. arj/jLelov he on iroWa KoTXa 
Tcov /.ceyeOo<; e^ovTcov hevhpcov eariv. ol he irepl 
^ kpicahiav (jyaal /lexpt tlvo<; filv ^rjv to hevhpov, 
re\ew? he e^ ciTravro^ e^aLpe6eLari<; kol 7revKip> 
(pOeipeaOai kol eXarrjv Koi aXXo irav. 

KoLvr] he (^Oopd irdvTCdv Kav al pit^ai irepL- 
KOTTUicnv rj irdaaL rj at irXelaraL kol fieyiaTat 
KOL fcupKOTarai rov t^rjv. avTat jxev ovv e^ 


'H 8' viro Tou eXaiov irpoaOeaet rivl /idWov i) 
d(j)aip€aeL' TroXe/iLov yap hrj kol tovto ttuctl' /cai 
eXaiov eTTix^ovai toI^ viroXei/u/iaaL rcov pi^cov. 
la^vei he fidXXov to eXatov ev toZ? i^eot? kol ctpri 
(f)vo/jievoi<;' daOevearepa ydp, St' o /cal dirrecrOai 

^dopaX he Kol vn dXXijXcov elal ra> Trapat- 
pelaOai Ta? Tpo^a? kcu ev T0L<i dXXoi<; epLTrohi^eLv. 
')(^aXe7ro<; he koL 6 ArtTTO? 'Trapa(pv6pevo<;, ;^aXe7ro9 
he Koi 6 KVTLao<^' drroXXvaL ydp jrdvO' oo? elireZv 

^ rivhs (i\v ^r\v tJ) S. conj. W, ; rivo^ Vj.v (corrected) rov Stf^pov 
U; Tivos f^vpfdv ToG 5. MVAld. 

2 cf. Plin. 17. 234 ; C.P. 5. 15. 6. 

' -nafff Kal t\aiov inixeovffi COnj. Sch.; nuffLV eAojov inix^'^- 
ovjLV UMPaAld. 



was a large tree, more than ten cubits high, and ol 
such girth that four men could not easily have 
encircled it. The willow at Philippi which grew 
again had had its branches lopped off, but the trunk 
had not been hewn. A certain seer persuaded the 
people to offer sacrifice and take care of the tree, 
since what had occurred was a good omen. Also at 
Stageira an abele in the school gardens which had 
fallen got up again. 

Hardly any tree is destroyed by taking out the 
core ; a proof of which is the fact that many large 
trees are hollow. The people of Arcadia say that 
the tree under these circumstances lives for a time,i 
but that, if the tree is entirely deprived of its core, 
Hr or silver-fir or any other tree perishes. 

All trees alike are destroyed when the roots are cut 
off, whether all or most of them, if those removed are 
the largest and the most essential to life. Such 

then are the causes of death which come from the 
removal of a part of the tree. 

On the other hand the destruction which oil 2 
causes is due rather to a kind of addition than to 
removal ; for oil is hostile to all trees, and ^ so men 
pour it ^ over what remains of the roots. However 
oil is more potent with young trees which are just 
growing; for then they are weaker; wherefore men 
do not allow them to be touched at that time. 

° Again trees may destroy one another, by robbing 
them of nourishment and hindering them in other 
ways. Again an overgrowth of ivy ^ is dangerous,'^ 
and so is tree-medick, for this destroys almost any- 

* i.e. to complete the destruction of a tree. cf. Plut. 
Quaest. Conv. 2. 6. 2. 
» Plin. 17. 239 and 240. « cf. O.P. 5. 15. 4. 

' X"^*""^* Se Kol Aid.; xa^^^rbs 5' iarlv conj. W. 



layypoTepov h\ rovrov to aXifiov airoXkvaL 'yap 
rov KVTLaov. 

"Y^via Ze ov (f)OeipeL pcev X^^P^ ^^ Troiet rah 
Svvdfieai tmv x^Xmv kol rdv oapioiv, olov i) 
pd(^avo<; Kal rj Sd(})V7] ttjv ap^irekov. oac^paiveaOaL 
yap (f>acrt, Kal €\k€iv. Sl o Kal orav 6 /SXacrro? 
ir\r]aiov jevy]rai, ttoXlv dvaarpei^eLv Kal dcpopdv 
CO? TToXeyLtta? ovcrr)<i tt}? oo-jjufj^;. 'AvSpoKv8r]<; Be 
Kal TrapaSeiy/jLart tovtw KaTexpricrcLTO 7rpo<; rrjv 
l3oi]6eiav Tr]V diro rr]<^ pa<^dvov yivopbkvqv 7rpo<; 
rov olvov, CO? e^eXavvovaav rr]V /xeOijv (f)6vyecv 
yap Br) Kal ^Mcrav rr]V dpureXov rrjv oGpi]V. a'l 

pev ovv (f)Oopal ttw? re yivovrai Kal iroaai Kal 
7rocraxM<; (pavepov €K rcov Trpoeiprjfievoiv. 

^ e\Kei : lit. 'draws it in'; cf. €\K€iP aepa, fMedv, etc. 

2 cf. G.P. 2. 18. 4. 6 BXaarhs ^r^r]alov conj. Dalec. from G ; 

6 irA-qaiov ^Ka<TT6s Ald.H. 



thing. But halimon is more potent even than this, 
tor it destroys tree-medick. 

Again some things, thougli they do not cause 
death, enfeeble the tree as to the production of 
flavours and scents; thus cabbage and sweet bay have 
this effect on the vine. For they say that the vine 
scents the cabbage and is infected ^ by it. Wherefore 
the vine-shoot,2 whenever it comes near this plant, 
turns back and looks away,^ as though the smell 
were hostile to it. Indeed Androkydes** used this 
fact as an example to demonstrate the use of cabbage 
against wine, to expel the fumes of drunkenness 
for,^ said he, even when it is alive, the vine avoids the 
smell. It is now clear from what has been said 

how the death of a tree may be caused, how many 
are the causes of death, and in what several ways they 

^ acpopav conj. Sch.; eixpopeiu U; a(popfiv Aid.; averti G; 
recedere Plin. I.e.; ^KX^^p^'iv conj. W. 

* A medical man who preached temperance to Alexander ; 
cj. Plin. 14. 58 ; 17. 2-10. 

' yap St] Kal conj. Dalec. from G ; yap Sel /col Aid. 




I. Tlepi Be tt)? i/Xt;?, iroia re iazLv eKaarrj, 
KoX iToO^ wpala re/LiveaOaL, koX 7rpo<; irola royv 
epyoiv ^(^prjaiixi), koi irola Svaepyo^; rj euepyo<;, kol 
el Tt dWo tt}? TOLavTr]'^ laTopla^ ex^Tai, ireipa- 
reov 6/jLOlco^ eiTrelv. 

'flpala Srj refivecrdat tmv ^vXcov ra jiev ovv 
arpoyyvXa Koi ocra tt/^o? (f)\oLa/xov orav ^Xa- 
aravrj' Tore yap evTrepialpero^ 6 ^\oi6<;, o Bij 
fcaXovaL Xoirav, Bia rr)V vypoTtjra rrjv vnoyivo- 
fjievr)v avTM. jjLera Be ravra BvairepiaLpero^i koi 
TO ^vXov fxeXav yiverai kol Bva6iBe<;. ra Be 
rerpdycova fiera top XoTnjrow d<^aLpelTaL yap 
7) TreXeKTjai^ rrjv BvaeiBeLav. oXw^ Trap 7r/?o? 
l(j')(yp copaiorarov ov popop TreTravfiepop ttjs 
^XaaTi](Te(o<; dXX' ere fiaXXop eKireirapap top 
Kapirop. dXXa Bia top (f)XoL(T/iop dcopoif; ovaip 
wpaloL^ avpL^alpeu yipeaOai toI<; aTpoyyvXoL<;, 
u)(TT€ ipapTLat at wpai kuto, crvpL^e^r^Ko^. ev- 

» Plin. 16. 188. 2 cf. 3. 5. 1. 

' Sva-nepiaiperSs con]. Sell.; SvaireptKcidapTos Aid, 



Of the Timber of various Trees and its Uses. 

I. In like manner we must endeavour to speak of 
timber, saying of what nature is that of each tree, 
what is the right season for cutting it, which kinds 
are hard or easy to work, and anything else that 
belongs to such an enquiry. 

Of the seasons of cutting. 

^Now these are the right seasons for cutting 
timber : — for ' round ' timber and that whose bark is 
to be stripped the time is when the tree is coming 
into leaf. For then the bark is easily stripped 
(which process they call ' peeling ' 2) because of the 
moisture which forms beneath it. At a later time it 
is hard to strip,^ and the timber obtained is black 
and uncomely. However square logs can be cut 
after the time of peeling, since trimming with the 
axe removes the uncomeliness. In general any wood 
is at the best season as to strength when it has not 
merely ceased coming into leaf, but has even ripened 
its fruit ; however on account of the bark-stripping 
it comes to pass that ' round ' timber is in season * 
when it is cut before it is ripe, so that, as it happens, 
the seasons are here reversed. Moreover the wood 

* i.t. in practice the timber is cut before the ideally 
proper time. 



y^povarepa 8e tcl iXdrtva yiuerai Kara tov 
irpoiTOV XoTTyrov. 

2 'Errel he fxaXiaj rj jiovov irepiaipovai, tov 
(})XoLOV eXciTrji; TrevKrji; ttituo?, ravra fiev re/jLverat 
TOV rjpo<;' t6t€ yap ?; l3\d(TT7]o-i<;' tcl Se dWa oTe 
fieif fieTCL TTvpoTOfiiav, oTe Be fiCTa TpvyrjTov Kal 
^ApKTovpop, olov dpia TTTekea a(^evha[ivo^ fieXia 
^vyla o^va (f)i\vpa (f)r)y6<; re Kal oXox; oaa 
KaTopvTT€Tar Bpv<; Be oyp-tauTaTa KaTcu ')(^eifiMva 


T/irjOrj, cnjireTttL Ta^taTa co? elTrelv, edv re ep.- 
<^XoLo^ edv T€ d(f)Xoio<;' kol fidXiaTa p.€v ra ev 
TW irpdiTW XoirriTcp, BevTepa Be Ta ev tm BevTepco, 
TpiTa Be Kal rjKiaTa Ta ev to") TpuTfO' to. Be 
IxeTa Trjv rreiravaiv tmv Kapirwv d^pcoTa BLafievei, 
Kav dXoTTLaTa y irXijv vtto tov <pXoiov vttoBvo- 
/jievoL crKd)XrjKe^ einiroXr}<^ eyypd<povai to crTeXexo's, 
ol? Kal (j^paylai ')(^pcovTai TLve^;' aopalov Be Tjirj- 
Oev TO Bpvivov d(ra7re<; re Kal dO piTn^BeaTaTov 
yiverai Kal aKXrjpov Kal ttukvov cocrirep Kepa<;' 
irav yap ofioiov ecTTiv eyKapBUo' rrXrjV to ye r/}? 
uXk^Xoiov Kal TOTe cpavXov. 

3 ^vfi/SalveL Be Kal tovto virevavTiov, oTav re 
KaTa TTjv ^XdaTTjaiv TefivcovTai Kal oTav fxeTa 
Tou? Kapirov^. Tore jiev yap dva^t^paiveTaL ra 
aTeXexv ^^^^ ou ^XaaTdvei Ta BevBpa' peTa Be 
Tov<; Kap7rov<; TrapajBXaaTdvei. BvaTop,Q)Tepa Be 

' cf. 3. 5. 1. M add. Sch. 

^ (pr]y6s T€ conj. Seal.; nriySs re \J ; (pr]y6a'iv 7€ Y ; irriyoaiv 
T6 MAld. 

* KaTopvTTfrai conj. Sch. from G ; opvTrerai Aid. cf. 6. 4. 3; 
5. 7. 5. » Plin. 16. 189. 



of the silver-fir is of a better colour at the time ^ of 
the first peeling. 

But since they strip the bark of 2 hardly any trees 
except silver-fir fir and pine, these trees are cut in 
the spring; for then is the time of coming into leaf. 
Other trees are cut sometimes after wheat-harvest, 
sometimes after the vintage and the rising of 
Arcturus, as aria (holm-oak) elm maple manna-ash 
zygia beech lime Valonia oak,^ and in general 
all those vi^hose timber is for underground use.^ 
The oak is cut latest of all, in early winter at the end 
of autumn. ^ If it is cut at the time of peeling, it 
rots almost more quickly than at any other time, 
whether it has the bark on or not. This is especially 
so if it is cut during the first peeling, less so during 
the second, and least during the third. What is cut 
after the ripening of the fruit remains untouched by 
worms, even if it has not peeled : however worms get 
in under the bark and mark the surface of the stem, 
and such marked pieces of wood some use as seals.^ 
Oak-wood if cut in the right season does not rot and 
is remarkably free from worms, and its texture is 
hard and close like horn ; for it is like the heart of a 
tree throughout, except that that of the kind called 
sea-bark oak is even at that time of poor quality.'^ 

Again, if the trees are cut at the time of coming 
into leaf, the result is the opposite of that which 
follows when they are cut after fruiting : for in the 
former case the trunks dry up and the trees do not 
sprout into leaf,^ whereas after the time of fruiting 
they sprout at the sides. At this season however 

^ c/. Ar. Thesm. 427 : Qpiv-h^ecrra <r(ppaylSia. 

' c/. 3. 8. 5. 

* ^KaffTaPei M ; TrapaBXaaToivei W. with Aid. 



Slo, Trjv (TKXtjpoTrjra Kara raurrjv rrjv (opav. 
Ke\evov(TL Se kol hehvKvia<^ t^? (Te\r)vr)<; reiiveiv 
o)? (TKkrjpoTepcdv KOL aaairecTTepwv ^ivoyikvwv. 
iirel Be at Trey^rei'^ tmv Kapirwv TrapaWdrTOvai, 
Sr]Xov on KOL at aKfiaX irpo^ ti]v to/xtju irapaX- 
Xdrrovcriv' del yap oxjnaLTepat at tmv oyfriKap- 
TTorepcov. Bt o kol ireipoiVTai Tive^ opl^eiv KaO' 
€Kd(7Tr)P' olov irevKi^v fxev kol e\dTi]v orav viro- 
XoTTwaiv €Ti Be o^vav kol (f)iXvpav koI a<j)ev- 
Ba/xvov KOL ^vyiav Trj<; OTrcopa?* Bpvv Be, wcnrep 
el'prjrai, /Jberd to (^OivoTTwpov, (f)aal Be Tive^ 
TrevKTjv dypaiav elvai tov ypc^, orav ye e^y rrjv 
vaXou/ievrjv xd'X^pvv, kol rrjv iri-rvu orav 6 ^orpv; 
avrrj^; dvOfj. irola puev ovv copala KaO' eKaarov 
y^povov ovTco BiaipovvTai. irdvTwv Be BrjXov on 
ySeXTtct) rd tmv dK/jta^oi'Tcov BevBpwv rj twv vewv 
ko/jllBT] kol yeyrjpaKOTOiV rd fxev yap vBarcoBrjyrd 
Be yecoBr], 

nX6tcrTa9 Be X/oeta? Kal /jLeyLaTa<; 77 iXdrrj Kal 
?; irevKrj irapexovraL, Kal ravra KaXXiara Kal 
\xeyiGTa twv ^vXcop earl. Bia(p€povai Be dXXyXcov 
ev 7roXXoL<;' rj fxev yap irevKi) aapKcoBearepa re 
Kal oXtyolvo^- r) B' eXdrrj Kal ttoXvlvo^ Kal 
daapKO<;, uxrre evavTLa)<; eKarepov e'xeiv tmv 
pepSiv, Ta9 fiev ha<; la-)(ypd<; rrjv Be cdpKa 

* al add. Sch. 

^ inroKoTToixTLV COnj. Sch. ; (I -niKnv fieri U ; vnfKfiyiiaiy MV ; 
VTTt\lV(i)CriV Aid. 

^ ravTT\v conj. St.; koI tV Aid. H. 


the} are harder to cut because the wood is toughei 
It is also recommended to do the cutting when the 
moon has set, since then the wood is harder and 
less likely to rot. But, since the times when the 
fruit ripens are diflferent for different trees, it is 
clear that the right moment for cutting also differs, 
being later for those ^ trees which fruit later. 
Wherefore some try to define the time for the 
cutting of each tree ; for instance for fir and silver- 
fir the time is, they say, when they begin to peel ^ : 
for beech lime maple and zygia in autumn ; for oak,^ 
as has been said, when autumn is past. Some how- 
ever say that the fir is ripe for cutting in spring, 
when it has on it the thing called ' catkin,' ^ and the 
pine when its 'cluster'^ is in bloom. Thus they 
distinguish which trees are ripe for cutting at various 
times ; however it is clear that in all cases the wood 
is better when the tree is in its prime than when it 
is quite young or has grown old, the wood of quite 
young trees being too succulent, and that of old ones 
too full of mineral matter. 

Of the icood of silver-Jlr and fir. 

Silver-fir and fir are the most useful trees and in 
the greatest variety of ways, and their ^ timber is 
the fairest and largest. Yet they differ from one 
another in many respects ; the fir is fleshier and has 
few fibres, while the silver-fir has many fibres and is 
not fleshy, so that in respect of each component it is 
the reverse of the other, having stout fibres '' but soft 

* c/. 1. 1. 2n.; 3. 5. 5. 

* i.e. the male inflorescence. 

*' TavTa conj. Sell, from G ; avra Ald.H. 
' cf. 3. 9. 7 ; Plin. 16. 184. 



fiaXuKi]!/ Kol ^avrjv Be o ro /nev ^dpv to he 
KOV<pov TO fjL€V jap evBaBov to he ahahov, 77 Kal 

6 XevKorepov. e;^6i Be Kal 6^ov<; TrXelov; p.ev r) 
irevKT], aKXr]porepov<; Be r) iXdrrj iroWo), fidWov 
Be Kol aKXrjpordrovfi iravjoiv d/i(f)0) Be 7rvKVov<i 
Kal KepaTOiBeL<; Kal rw ^pcoytiaTt ^av6ov<i Kal 
BaBcoBeL<;. orav Be TfiijdMac, pel Kal eK tcop t;}? 
€\drr]<; Kal eK tmv tt}? 7revKy]<i eVt ttoXvv ')(p6vov 
vyp6r7]<i Kal pdWov eK rcou ttJ^ eXdrr]^;. earc Be 
Kal TToXvXoTTOv 7] ixdr^], KaOdirep Kal to KpopLvov 
del 'yap ex^i- tlvcl viroKdrw rov (paivopevov, Kal 

7 €K TOiovrwv 1] oXrj. Bl" o Kal rd'^; Kco7ra<i ^vovTe^i 
d(j)aipetv ireipcovrai KaO^ eva Kal 6/j.aXa)<;' edv jdp 
outo)? d(f)aipa)cnv, l<T')(ypo<^ 6 Kwirewv, edv Be 
TrapaXXd^waL Kal p,r] KaraaTTcoaLV ofJLoiw<;, daOe- 
vr]<^' TrXrjyj] yap ovrco^, eKeiV(o<^ 6' d(^aipeai<;. eaTc 
Be Kal fiaKporarov rj eXdrrj Kal 6pOo(pveaTaTOp. 
Be' Kal Ta? Kepaia^ Kal TOv<i i(jtov<^ eK ravT7]<i 
rroiovaiv. €)(€l Be Kal Ta? (/)Xey3a9 Kal Ta? Ivwi 

8 e/jL(f)aveaTdra'i TrdvTcov. av^dverai Be Trpcorov 
et? p.rjKO<s, (i')(^pL 01) Brj icPiKTjraL rov rjXlov Kal 
0VT6 6^o<i ovBel<; ovre 7rapa^XdcrT7]ai<i ovre 7ra;^os- 
ylverar pLerd Be ravra et? /3d6o<; Kal Tra;^©?- 
ouTft)? al TOiv o^wv eK^v(TeL<^ Kal Trapa^Xaarrjo-ei^. 

^ rh fifv yap ivS. conj. St. from G ; 4vS. yap Aid. 

•' cf. 3. 9. 7. ^ 

' cf. 3. 9. 7, iJ.6vov ov Siacpavels, whence it appears that the 
epithet refers to colour. 

* Plin. 16. 195. ^ i.e. the annual rings, cf. 1. 5. 2; 5. 5. 8. 

« cf. Horn. Od. 12. 172. 

' KaTafTTTuxTiv conj. W. ; KaTo. itaaiv UMV; Kara nduTa Aid. 

« cf. Plin. I.e. « cf. 1. 2. 1. 

^"^ 4fx<pav((TTaTas COnj. VV. ; ivy^veaTarai Aid. 
'' 56 conj. 8ch.; Koi UAld.H. 


tlesh of open texture. Wherefore the timber of the 
one is heavy, of the other hght, the one^ being 
resinous, the other without resin ; wherefore also it 
is whiter. Moreover tlie fir has more branches, but 
those of the silver-fir are much tougher, or rather 
they are tougher than those of any other tree ; '-^ the 
branches of both however are of close texture, 
liorny,^ and in colour brown and like resin-glutted 
wood. ^ When the branches of either tree are cut, 
;?ap streams from them for a considerable time, but 
especially from those of the silver-fir. Moreover the 
wood of the silver-fir has many layers, like an onion : ^ 
there is always another beneath that which is visible, 
and the wood is composed of such layers throughout. 
Wherefore, when men are shaving this wood to make 
oars,^ they endeavour to take off the several coats one 
by one evenly : for, if they do this, they get a strong 
spar, while if they do the work irregularly and do 
not strip '' off the coats evenly, they get a weak one ; 
for the process in this case is hacking instead of 
stripping. The silver-fir also gives timber of the 
greatest lengths and of the straightest growth ; 
wherefore yard-arms^ and masts are made from it. 
Also the vessels^ and fibre are more clearly 1*^ seen in 
it than in any other tree. At first ^^ it grows in 
lieight only, until it has reached ^" the sunshine ; and 
so far there is no branch nor sidegrowth nor density 
of habit ; but after that the tree proceeds to increase 
in bulk 13 and density of habit, as ^'^ the outgrowing 
branches and sidegrowths develop. 

^^ i^XP* • • • ^<p'^Kt]rai conj. Sell.; ^XP* "^ ^^ KacpiK-qrai U; 
a-Xpts ovK a,(pLKr]Tai MV; &XP'^ "^ dx^^Tyraj Ald.H. 

13 cf. 4. 1. 4. 

^* Lit. ' this being the effect of the outgrowth.' trdxos- 
ouTus Aid.; Trdxos, brav conj. W. 


9 Tavra fxev ovv iBia t^? eXar?;?, to. Be tcoiva Kai 
7revKrj<i Kal eXar?;? Kal tmp dWcov. earL 'yap i) 
/xev T€T pd^oo<i 7] Se Sl^oo<;. KaXovcn he rerpaPoov^i 
fjLev 6aai<; icf)' eKcirepa t^}? ivrepioivrj^ Bvo /crr]- 
Bope^ elalv evavriav e^ovcrai ryjv (f)vaiv' eireira 
/cad' Efcarepav ti^v KTt^Bova iroiovvTai rrjv ireXe- 
KTjaLP evavTia^; Ta<^ TrXrjyaf; Kara KTrjBova (pipop- 
re?, orav e0' e/cdrepa t/)? evrepicopT]^ rj 7re\€Kr]aL<; 
dvaaTp€(f)T}. TovTO yap i^ dpdyKtjf; aufi/SaLvet 
Blo, Trjv (f)vaiv twv KrrjBovcov. Ta<; Be Toiavra^ 
iXdra'^ Kal TvevKa^ rerpa^oov; KaXovcn. elal Be 
Kal 7r/)o? ra<^ epyaaia^ avrat KaXXiarar ttvkvo- 
rara yap exovai to, ^vXa Kal ra? alyiBa^ avrat, 

10 (f)vovaip. al Bl^ool Be KTrjBova /lev e^^^ovai /luau 
ecj)' eKarepa t?)? evrepLcov^^;, TavTa<; Be evavria^ 
dXX7]Xai<i, cocTTe Kal ri-jv ireXeKijaiv elvai BlttXtjp, 
fiiav KaO' eKarepav KTrjBova rat? irXyyaU ivav- 
Ttat?* dTraXcoTara fiev ovv Tavrd (jiaaiv e^^iv 
TO, ^vXa, -^eipLara Be 7rpb<; ra? epyaaia^' Bia- 
arpecjyeTaL yap /xdXiaTa. /ioi'0^6ov<; Be KaXovai 
rd^; eyovaa^^ p.iav fiovov KTrjBova' rrjv Be TreXe- 
Krjaiv avTwv ylveaOai ttjv avrijv e^' CKdrepa 
Tyj<i evTepLOivrj^i' (paal Be fiavoTaTa fiev ex^iv rf) 
(^vaei TCL ^vXa ravTa Trpo? Be Td<; BLaaTpocpd^; 

11 Aia(f)opd<i Be e^pvai tol<; (^XoloI^;, Kad" a^ 
yp(i)pL^ova-iv lB6vT€<i ev0v<i to BevBpov 7re(f)VKb<; 

1 Plin. I.e. 

2 The meaning of * four-cleft' etc. seems to be this : 

(^4-C/ert. (S^2-Cl£Ft: (V)l-C/en. 


These are the characteristics peculiar to the silver- 
fir. Others it shares with the fir and the other trees 
of this class. ^ For instance, sometimes a tree is 
' four-cleft/ sometimes ^two-cleft ' ; it is called ' four- 
cleft' when on either side of the heart-wood there 
are two distinct and diverse lines of fissure : in that 
case the blows of the axe follow these lines in cases 
where the hewing is stopped short on either side of 
the heart-wood. 2 For the nature of the lines of fissure 
compels the hewing to take this course. Silver-firs 
or firs thus formed are said to be ' four-cleft.' And 
these are also the fairest trees for carpentry, their 
wood being the closest and possessing the aigis.^ 
Those which are ' two-cleft ' have one single line of 
fissure on either side of the heart-wood, and the lines 
of fissure do not correspond to each other, so that 
the hewing also is performed by cuts which follow 
the two lines of fissure, so as to reach the two sides 
of the heart-wood at different angles. Now such 
wood, they saj^, is the softest, but the worst for 
carpentry, as it warps most easily. Those trees which 
have only a single^ continuous line of fissure are 
said to be 'one-cleft,' though here too the cutting 
is done from either side of the heart-wood : and such 
wood has, they say, an open^ texture, and yef^ it is 
not at all apt to warp. 

7 There are also differences in the bark, by obser- 
vation of which they can tell at once what the 

3 c/. 3. 9. 3. ■» ^liav conj. W.; ixlav h\ PgAld. 

' yiavirara conj. W. ; (xav6Trira Aid. 

^ TO ^vXa . . . ras conj. Sch. ; to |uAo- Tavra Se irpls rks 
Ald.H. » Plin. 16. 195 and 196. 



TTotov tL ecrrr tmv fiev yap evKTtjBovrov koI 
aarpa^wv kol 6 (pXoio^; Xeto? /cat 6p06<;, rwv 
S' evavrUcv Tpa'X^v'i re koI 8t€(TTpa/jL/jL€vo<;' 6fxoLw<; 
8e Kol eirl tmv Xolttwv. ciW' ecrn rerpd^oa 
fiev oXlya /louo^oa 8e irXeio) tmv aXXo)!^. airaaa 
he 7] vXrj fiet^MV kol opOoTepa kol acFTpa^eaTepa 
KOL (TTL^poTepa KOL o\w<i KokXlMV Kal TrXeiMV 
T) ev TOL<i 7rpoa^opeLOi<;, Mcnrep koI irpoTepov 
eXe^Or]' Kal avTov tov SevSpov Se tcl irpo^ 
^oppav TTVKvoTepa Kal veaviKcoTepa. ocra he 
vTTOTrapd^oppa Kal ev TrepiirvM, TavTa aTpecpei 
Kal TrapaWaTTei irapd piKpov 6 ^opea<f, (oaTe 
elvai 7rapea-TpajuLp.ev^]v ovtmv Ty)v jjbrjTpav Kal 
12 ov KaT opOov. eaTL he 6\a fiev to, ToiavTa 
la')(vpa Tji^-jOevTa he daOevrj hca to 7roWd<; e^eiv 
7rapaXXayd<i. KaXovai he ol TeKTOve^ eiriTopa 
TavTa hia to 7rpo<; ttjv ^(^peiav ovtm Te/iveiv. 
oXft)9 he %et/3&) to, ck tmv e(j)vypMv Kal ev- 
hieivcov Kal iraXiaKLMV Kal avv7]pe(f)Mv Kal Trpo? 
Tr]V TeKTOviKTjv ')(peiav Kal 7r/)09 ttjv irvpev- 
TiKi]v, al jiev ovv TOiavTat hia^opal tt/jo? tov<; 
t6itov<; elalv avrcov tmv opoyevcov co? ye dirXM^; 

II. Aiaipovcri yap TLve<; KaTa ra? ^w/oa?, Kai 
(jiaaiv dpiCTTTjv pev elvai tt}? vX7]<; 7rp6<; Trjv 
T€KT0VLK7]v ')(^peiav T^9 66? T71V ^KXXdha irapa- 
yivopLevr]<^ ttiv MaKehovLK7]v Xeia re yap eVrt 
Kal daTpa^r]^ Kal e^ovaa Ovlov. hevTepav he 


^ TTfcpvKhs : cf. Xen. Cyr. 4. 3. 5. 

' vTTonapd^oppa conj. St.; inrh irapdfioppa Aid.; unSfioppa ^ 
napd^oppa COnj. Sch. 



timber of the tree is like as it stands.^ For if the 
timber has straight and not crooked lines of fissure, 
the bark also is smooth and regular, while if the 
timber has the opposite character, the bark is rough 
and twisted ; and so too is it with other points. 
However few trees are ' four-cleft,' and most of 
those which are not are 'one-cleft.' All wood, as 
was said before, which grows in a position facing 
north, is bigger, more erect, of straighter grain, 
tougher, and in general fairer and more abundant. 
Moreover of an individual tree the wood on the 
northward side is closer and more vigorous. But if 
a tree stands sideways to the north 2 with a draught 
round it, the north wind by degrees twists and con- 
torts 2 it, so that its core becomes twisted instead of 
running straight. The timber of such a tree while 
still in one piece is strong, but, when cut, it is weak, 
because the grain slants across the several pieces 
Carpenters call such wood ' short lengths,' because 
they thus cut it up for use. Again in general wood 
which comes from a moist, sheltered, shady or con- 
fined position is inferior both for carpentry and for 
fuel. Such are the differences, generally * speaking, 
between trees of the same kind as they are affected 
by situation. 

0/ the effects on timber of climate. 

II. ^Someindeed make adistinction between regions 
and say that the best of the timber which comes into 
Hellas for the carpenter's purposes is the Macedonian, 
for it is smooth and of straight grain, and it contains 
resin : second best is that from Pontus, third that 

^ irapaAXaTTej conj. Dalec. ; tiapaKXayeiJ] ; 7rapaX'<J7€i Aid. ; 
irapa\vyi(€i conj. H. Steph. 
* y€ conj. Sch.; Si Aid. » Plin. 16. 197 



rerdpTrjv Be rrjv AlviaviK^v ^etptcrTr^j^ Be r-qv re 
TlapvaaiaKrju fcal rrjv ^v/3oLKr]v koX yap o^coBea 
/cal Tpa')(eia<; kol ra^v ayireadaL. irepl he t^? 
'ApKa8iK7]<; (TKeiTTeov. 

2 ^\a')(yp6TaTa he to)v ^vXwv ecrri to, do^a kul 
Xela' teal rfj o-yjreL he ravra KaWiara. o^cohr] 
he jiveraL ra /caKOTpo(f)r]0euTa koI i]TOi y^eipoiVL 
TTiecrOevTa rj kol dWay tlvl tolovtm' to yap 
o\ov TTjv TToXvo^lav elvai evheiav €vrpo(pLa<;. 
orav he KaKOTpo(^i]aavra avaXd^rj ttoXlv koI ev- 
aOevrjar}, (TV/i/3aLveL KaraiTLPecrOaL tov^ o^ov<; 
VTTO tt}? 7r€pi(j)V(Tew<;- 6VTpocf)OVv yap koI av- 
^avojievov dvaXa/x^dvei kul TroXXdKi^ e^cdOei/ 
fiev Xeiov ro ^vXov hiaLpov/ievov he o^w^e? 
e(f)dvr). hi,* o /cat a/coirovvTai twv ^^(^larcov rd^; 
/jLTjrpa^i' edv yap avTac e-)(waiv o^ov<;, o^cohrj Kal 
rd eKT6<^' Kul ovTOL ')^aX€7r(OTepot rcov €a:to9 Kal 

3 Vivovrat he Kal al air el pat hid '^ei/ji(opa<; re 
Kal KaKOTpo(f)Lav. GiTeipa<; he KoXovaiv orav y 
(jvcTrpo^r) Ti<i tv avrrj pLei^wv kol kvkXol^ rrepi- 
eyo/ievt] TrXeloaiv ov6^ coairep 6 o^o^ aTrXw? ovd^ 
ft)9 T) ovXorrjf; rj ev avrco ro) ^vXo)' hi' oXov yap 
TTOifi avrr) Kal opaXl^ovaa' ')(^aXeir(iirepov he 
Tovro TToXv Kal hvaepyorepov rcov o^cov. eoiKe 
he iraparrXtjcTiw^ Kal w? ev rol<; XiOoi<; eyyiveadai 

^ A river which flows into the Propontis on the Asiatic 

^ Near Mount Oeta. hlviavLKT]v conj. Palm, from Plin. 
I.e.; aiavj^V PaAld.H. 

' ravra KaWiara- o^tiSrj 5e conj. Seal.; ravra Ka\ jx&Kiara 
6(u>S7] yiv. Ald.H. ; ravra fidXtcrra' o^wSr) Se yiv. U. 



from the Rhyndakos^^ fourth that of the country 
of the Ainianes/ worst is that of Parnassus and that 
of Euboea, for it is full of knots and rough and 
quickly rots. As to Arcadian timber the case is 

Of knots and ' coiling ' in timber. 

The strongest wood is that which is without knots 
and smooth, and it is also the fairest in appearance.^ 
Wood becomes knotty when it has been ill nourished 
and has suffered severely whether from winter or 
some such cause ; for in general a knotty habit is 
supposed to indicate lack of nourishment. When 
however, after being ill nourished, the tree recovers 
and becomes vigorous, the result is that the knots 
are absorbed^ by the growth which now covers them ; 
for the tree, being now well fed and growing 
vigorously, recovers, and often the wood is smooth 
outside, though when split it is seen to have knots. 
And this is why they examine the core of wood that 
has been split ; for, if this contains knots, the out- 
ward ^ parts will also be knotty, and these knots are 
harder to deal with than the outer ones, and are 
easily recognised. 

^ ' Coiling ' of the wood is also due to winter or ill 
nourishment. Wood is said to ' coil ' when there is 
in it closer twisting'^ than usual, made up of an 
unusual number of rings : this is not quite like a knot, 
nor is it like the ordinary curling of the wood, which 
runs right through it and is uniform. ' Coiling ' is 
much more troublesome and difficult to deal with than 
knots ; it seems to correspond to the so-called 

* KaraTrlveadai : ? KaTaXajx^aveaQai. cf. below, § 3. 

* i.e. outward in regard to the core. * Plin. 16. 198. 

' ^ t^varpoipi] conj. Seal.; p iv(npo<P'i] U; p ^hrpatpri Aid. etc. 



ra KaXovfieva Kevrpa. ore 3' r) irepicpvcns Kara- 
\a/ji^dv€L Tov^ 6^ov<; (f)av€p(OTaTov i^ avrrj<i t^9 
al(j6i](Te(o<^, ov firjv dWa koI ck tmv ciXXcov 
4 Twv 6/xoLCi)V' 7ro\\dKL<; jdp avTOv rov Sei^Spov 
p.epo<; Ti avve\7](f)0r} viro Oarepov crvp,(f)vov<i j€vo- 
fievov Kol idv Ti? iK<y\v^jra<; dfj \l6ov et? to 
BivBpov Tf Koi dXko TL rocovTov, KaTaKpvTrreTaL 
7r€pL\T](f)0€v vTTo TY)^ irepK^vaew^;' oirep koI irepX 
Tov Konvov (Tvve^rj tov iv Meydpoi^; rov iv ry 
dyopd' ov Koi eKKOTrevro'i Xoyiov rjv dXcovat koI 
Biapnaadijvai rrjv 'tt6\lv' oirep iyivero . . . . 
A7jfi^Tpio<;. iv rovTfp yap BLaa')(^L^Ofiev(p kvt]- 
pblhe<^ evpeOriaav kol aW' aTTa t^? 'Att^/ct}? 
€pyaaia<^ fcpejiaard, tov kotlvov ov dveredij ro 
TTpMTOV iyKOLXav0evTO<;. tovtov B' eru jiLKpov 
TO XoLirov. TToXXaxov Se koi dXXoOi ylvejai. 
irXeiova roiavTa. kol ravra fiev, wairep eiprjrai 
KOiva irXeiovwv, 

III. KaTtt he Ta? tS/a? eKdarov cf)va€i<; ai 
roiavTai elai Biacpopal, olov 7rv/cv6T7]<; /xavoTrjf; 
^apvrrj^ K0V(f)6rr}(; aKXr^port^^ /iaXaK6Tt]<;, waav- 
r(o<; Be kol et Ti? dXXr) roiavrrj' /coival Be o/xoto)? 
avTai Koi twv rj/iepcov kol ra)V dyplcov, Mare irepX 
TrdvTcov XeKTeov. 

1 trt V V conj. W.; 'Sn 5^ UMV; 3tj 8i Aid. 

' cf. KaTa-nivfadai, above, § 2. 

» Plin. 16. 198 and 199. 

* fKy\v\l>as efi conj. W. ; (KXyxpas 6rji U; iK\i6aaBri Ald.H. 

' Text defective, 

' i.e. the bark had grown over these, cf. Plin. Ijc. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. ii. 3-111. 1 

' centres ' which occur in marbles. That ^ vigorous 
growth covers ^ up the knots is plain from simple 
observation of the fact and also from other similar 
instances, ^ For often some part of the tree itself is 
absorbed by the rest of the tree which has grown 
into it ; and again, if one makes a hole in a tree and 
puts* a stone into it or some other such thing, it 
becomes buried, being completely enveloped by the 
wood which grows all round it : this happened with 
the wild olive in the market-place at Megara ; there 
was an oracle that, if this were cut open, the city 
would be taken and plundered, which came to pass 
when Demetrius took it.^ For, when this tree was 
split open, there were found greaves and certain 
other things ^ of Attic workmanship hanging there, 
the hole ^ in the tree having been made at tlie place 
where the things were originally hung on it as offer- 
ings. Of this tree a small part still exists, and in 
many other places further instances have occurred. 
Moreover, as has been said, such occurrences happen 
also with various other trees. 

Of differences in the texture of different woods. 

III. ^ Corresponding to the individual characters of 
the several trees we have the following kinds of 
differences in the wood : — it differs in closeness, 
heaviness, hardness or their opposites, and in other 
similar ways ; and these differences are common to 
cultivated and wild trees. So that we may speak of 
all trees without distinction. 

' ipyafflus Kpffxaara rod kot'ivov ov I conj. from G and 
Plin. I.e. (certain restoration perhaps impossible) ; Kep/xriffTi '6 
fffTiv iv KorlfCf}- o5 U; Aid. has Kepfi-ncrrl, M KpefMaarrl, Y Kep- 
fidffTwv ; St. suggested Kpe/jLUffruu ottXojv aa words of the 
original text. « Plin. 16. 201-207. 


UvfcvoraTa fiev ovv SoKel /cal ^apvTara ttu^o? 
elvat fcal el3evo<;' ovhe 'yap ovK i-Trl tov vSaro^ 
ravT eTTivel. koI ?; fiev ttu^o? oA.r;, tt}? 8e e^evov 
Tj fxrjTpa, ev fj koX tj tov ')(^pa)/xaT6<i iari /leXaUa. 
Toyv 8' aXkwv 6 Xcot6<;. ttvkvov he koI tj t?}? Bpvo'^ 
fi7]Tpa, f)v KoKovaL fieXcivSpvov kol etl ptaWov i) 
TOV KVTLaov TrapopLOLa yap aurrj BoKel rfj i/Sevw 
elvai.' Be a<p6Spa kol ttvkvov to tt)? Tep- 
fiLvOov nepl •yovv 'Zvpuav jieXdvTepov ^aaiv 
elvat tt)? e^evov kol ck tovtov yap kov ra? 
\a^a<i Twv eyx^^P^^^^^ iroielaOai, TopveveaOat 
Be e^ avTOiV Kal Kv\iKa<; %ripLK\eiov<;, coaTe 
fir]Beva av Biayvcovai Trpo? ra? KepapL€a<;' Xafi- 
^dveiv Be to eyKapBiov Belv Be dXelcpeiP to 
^vXov ovTOi yap yiveaOai Kal kuXXlov Kal 

^Ivai Be Kal aXXo tl BevBpov, o djia ttj [leXavia 
Kal iroLKiXiav tlvcl e%et virepvOpov, wcrre elvai 
TTjV 6'^iv oiaav e^evov 7roiKLXr]<;' iroLelaOai B'' e^ 
avTOV Kal KXiva<i Kal Bi(f)pov(i Kal to, dXXa to, 
aTTOvBa^u/ieva. to <Be> BevBpov jJiiya (T<p6Bpa 
Kal KaXocpvXXov elvai 6/jlolov rat? aTrtof?. 

TauTa fiev ovv d/ia ttj fieXavia Kal ttvkvo- 
TrjTa eyei. ttvkvov Be Kal 7) acpevBapivo'i Kal 
7} ^vyla KOL 6X(o<i iravTa to, ovXa' Kal rj iXda 
Be Kal 6 k6tivo<;, dXXa Kpavpa. fiava Be tmv 
fiev dypiwv Kal epe-^ipiwv to, eXdTiva p^dXiaTa, 

1 c/. Arist. Meteor. 4. 7 ad fin. 

2 cf. 1. 6. 1. ' cf. 3. 15. 3. 

•* Probably so called from their resemblance in shape and 



Box and ebony seem to have the closest and 
heaviest wood ; for their wood does not even float on 
water. This applies to the box-tree as a whole, and 
to the core of the ebony, which contains the black 
pigment.^ The nettle-tree also is very close and heavy, 
and so is the core of the oak, which is called ^ heart 
of oak,' and to a still greater degree this is true 
of the core of laburnum 2 ; for this seems to resemble 
the ebony. 

The wood of the terebinth is also very black and 
close-grained ; at least in Syria ^ they say that it is 
blacker than ebony, that in fact they use it for making 
their dagger handles ; and by means of the lathe- 
chisel they also make of it ' Theriklean ' cups,* so 
that no one could ^ distinguish these from cups made 
of pottery ; for this purpose they use, it is said, the 
heart-wood, but the wood has to be oiled, for then 
it becomes comelier and blacker. 

There is also, they say, another tree ^ which, as 
well as the black colour, has a sort of reddish 
variegation, so that it looks like variegated ebony, 
and of it are made beds and couches and other things 
of superior quality. This tree is very large and lias 
handsome leaves and is like the pear. 

These trees then, as well as the black colour, have 
close wood ; so also have maple zygia and in general 
all those that are of compact growth ; so also have 
the olive and the wild olive, but their wood is 
brittle.^ Of wild trees which are used for roof- 
limbers the wood of the silver-fir is the least corn- 
colour to the cups made by Therikles, a famous Corinthian 
potter ; see reff. to comedy in LS. s.v. 

' jxri^eva Uv conj. W. ; ^rj5' hv eva Aid. 

* Sissoo wood. See Index App. (21). 

' aWa Kpavpa conj. Sch.; aWa Ka\ avpa MVAld. 



TOdv 5' aWoiv rh aKTiva koX ra avKiva kcli 
TCL tT;? /.i'}]\€a<; koI ra tt}? 8d(f)pr]<;. aK\y]- 
porara he ra hpvlva koI to, ^ujLva kol to. 
T?}? apia^' Kal <yap v'jro^pe')(ovaL ravra tt/jos 
rrjv rpinrrjaiv /xaXd^ew'i ')(^dpLV. [laXaica Be 
KaG* oXov jiev ra fiava kol ^(avva- rcov Be 
(japKwhCov fidXiara (piXvpa. Bo/cec Be /cal 6ep- 
fiOTUTOv elvai tovto' a-qixelov Be otl /idXiara 
dfi^Xyvei rd aiB/jpiw T-qv jdp /3a(})7jv dvii^cn Bid 
rrjv Oep/xoTTjra. 

4 SepfjLOV Be Kal Ktrro^i Kal BdcpVT] Kal oXw? 
t'f a)V Ttt irvpela ylverar Mevearcop Be (prjai 
Kal (rvKa/jLLvop. '^v')(^p6TaTa Be rd evvBpa Kal 
i)BaT(jL>Bri. Kal yXicr^pa Be rd Ireiua Kal d/x- 
TTeXiva, Bt^ o Kal ra? dairiBa^; eK rovrcov Troiovar 
(TVfi/jiV€L jdp TvXrj'yevTa' Kov(f)6repov Be to rfjs' 
LTea^, jjLavorepov 'ydp, Be o Kal tovtco [idXXov 
'X^pcovTai. TO Be t?}? irXardi'OV yXta'^^^poTrjTa fiev 
ex^i'i (fivaei. Be vyporepov rovro Kal to t/}? tttc- 
Xea?. a-rj/jLetov Be eariv, fierd rrjv TOfirjv 6p6oi> 
orav araOfj, iroXv vBcop dcjii-qai. to Be t?}9 crvKa- 
fjLLVov TTVKVov dfia Kal yXiaxpov. 

5 'Kan Be Kal darpalSeaTaTov to t?}? TTTcXea?, 
Bl o Kal Tou? arpocfiel^ tmp Oupcop iroLovai 
irreXetvov^' edv <ydp ovtol /aevcoai, Kal at Ovpai 
/xevovcrip darpa^el<;, el Be jirj, BiacyrpecjiOVTai. 
TTOiovai 8' avrov<i ejJuraXiv riOevre^; rd ^vXa to 
Te UTTO T?}? pi^'Tj^ Kal TO diro rov (pvXXov 

* u7ro/3pe'xoy(rt conj. Harduin from Plin. 16. 207 ; anoBpiBovai 
Ald.H.; a7ro;8p6'xouo-( niBas. 

- cf. 5. 5. 1, which, referring to this passage, hardly agrees 
with it as now read. 



pact, and among others that of the elder fig apple 
and bay. The hardest woods are those of the oak 
zygia and aria (holm-oak) ; in fact men wet ^ these 
to soften them for boring holes. In general, woods 
which are of open porous texture are soft, and of 
those of fleshy texture the softest is the lime. The 
last-named seems also to be the hottest ; the proof 
of which is that it blunts iron tools more than any 
other ; for they lose their edge 2 by reason of its 

Ivy and bay are also hot woods, and so m general 
are those used for making fire-sticks ; and Menestor^ 
adds the wood of the mulberry. * The coldest woods 
are those which grow in water and are of succulent 
character. The wood again of willow and vine is 
tough ; wherefore men make their shields of these 
woods ; for they close up again after a blow ; but 
that of the willow is lighter, since it is of less com- 
[)act texture ; wherefore they use this for choice. 
The wood of the plane is fairly tough, but it is 
moister in character, as also is that of the elm. A 
proof of this is that, if it is set upright^ after being 
cut, it discharges much water. ^ The wood of the 
mulberry is at once of close grain and tough. 

'^ The wood of the elm is the least likely to warp ; 
wherefore they make the ' hinges ' ^ of doors out of 
elm wood ; for, if these hold, the doors also keep in 
place ; otherwise they get wrenched out of place. 
They make the ' hinges ' by putting wood from the 
root above ^ and wood ^ from the foliage ' below,^ thus 

3 c/. 1. 2. 3 n. " Plin. 16. 209. 

* opQ)iv '6-Ta.v conj. W. : so G ; o^Qhs Itrav MV; Irav op^h. Aid. 
« c/. 5. 1. 6. ' Plin. 16. 210. 

** Sc. an arrangement of cylindrical pivot and socket. 

* i.e. as socket and pivot respectively ; c/. 5. 5. 4. 



KuXovac Be ol re/cTOJ/e? to airo tov (f)v\Xov to 
avw ivapfioaOevTa yap aXXijXoi^ eKciTepov kco- 
Xv€L 7r/309 Tr]v opfiy-jv evavTL(D<; €)(^ov. et Se €K€lto 
KaTa (pvaiv, ovirep 7) poiry] ivTavOa TrdvTwu av 
rjv rj ^opd. 

Ta? Be 6vpa^ ovk €v0v<; avvTeXovcnv, dXXci 
irrj^avTe<; i<p tarda l, /cciTreiTa vaTepco ol Be tw 
rpiTW eT6i avvereXeaav edv fxaXXov airovBd^coaL' 
TOV fMep <yap Oepov^ dva^iipaLvop.evwv Buaravrai, 
TOV Be %et/iwi^o? av/jLfivovaiv. atTiov 8' on, t;')? 
iXuTTjf; rd pcavd koI aapKoyBr) eXxei top uepa 
evLKfiov ovTa. 

'O Be (poLPL^ Kovc^o^ Koi evepyo^; kol fiaXaKo^;, 
ioairep (^eXXo?, /SeXTtcov Be rod 0eX\o£) otl yXl- 
axpo^' eKelvo Be Opavarov. Bid tovto Ta etBcoXa 


7rap)]fcaaL. ra? 2va<; Be ov Bl' oXov e^ei ovB' eirl 
TToXv Kal [xaKpd<^ ovB^ coo-auTco? ttj Oeaei eyKei- 
/jLeva<; Tracra? dXXd TravToBuTTco'^. dva^t^palveTaL 
Be KaX XeaLvofievov Kal Trpio/xevov to ^vXov. 

To Be Ovov, ol Be dvav KaXovai, Trap "A/i/icovl 
re yiveTaL Kal ev Trj KvpijvaLa, Trjv fxev /jLop(f)r]v 
o/iioiov KvirapiTTQ) Kal tol<; KXdBoii^ Kal toU ^uX- 
Xoi? Kal TO) aTeXe-^ei Kal tm Kapirw, fidXXov B' 
wairep KvirdpLTTO^ dypia' iroXv fxev Kal ottov 

^ KuiXvei : Sell, adds Qarepov from G. 

'^ 6/cetTo conj. W.; iKUvo A\<\, 

' i.e. the 'upper' wood in the upper position. 

* -navTuv MSS. (?) ; iravTuis conj. W. 

* i.p. there would be no resistance, -fiv after hv add. Sch. 



reversing the natural position : (by wood ' from the 
foliage ' joiners mean the upper wood). For, when 
these are fitted the one into the other, each counter- 
acts ^ the other, as they naturally tend in opposite 
directions : whereas, if the wood were set - as it 
grows,^ all the parts ^ would give where the strain 

(They do not finish off the doors at once ; but, when 
they have put them together, stand them up, and 
then finish them off the next year, or sometimes the 
next year but one,^ if they are doing specially good 
work. For in summer, as the wood dries, the work 
comes apart, but it closes in winter. The reason is 
that the open fleshy texture of the wood of 
the silver-fir '^ drinks in the air, which is full of 

8 Palm-wood is light easily worked and soft like 
cork-oak, but is superior to that wood, as it is tough, 
while the other is brittle. Wherefore men now make 
their images of palm-wood and have given up the 
wood of cork-oak. However the fibres do not run 
throughout the wood, nor do they run to a good 
length, nor are they all set symmetrically, but run 
in every direction. The wood dries while it is being 
planed and sawn. 

9 Thyon (thyine wood), which some call thya, grows 
near the temple of Zeus Amnion and in the district 
of Cyrene. In appearance the tree is like the 
cypress alike in its branches, its leaves, its stem, and 
its fruit ; or rather it is like a wild cypress.^^ There 

6 c/. Plin. 16. 215. 
' Of which the door itself is made. 
8 PHn. 16. 211. 8 Plin. 13. 100-102. 

^^ KvirdpiTTos aypla conj. Sch. ; Kvirdpiaaoy ayplav MAld. 



vvv r) TToXi^i earl, koI en Sia/xvTjfj,op€vovaij' 
6po(f)d(; riva<; rcov dp-^aucou ovaa<i. daa7re<; yap 
6\ai<; TO ^vXov ovXoTarov he T7]P pi^av iari' Kai 
eK Tavrrj<i ra aTrovSaLorara rroLelrat roiv epycov. 
rd Be dydX/jLara yXv^ovaiv e/c TMvSe, KeBpcov 
KvirapLTTOV XfOTOv TTv^ov rd S' eXdrrco Kal e/c 
TMV eXatvwv pi^cov dppayel^ yap avrat Ka\ 
6/iaX(o<; TTCt)? crapKcoBei'^. ravra pcev ovv IBio- 

rrjTa riva tottcov Kal (hv(Teo)<i Kal XP^^^'^ 

IV. Vtapea Be Kal KOV(f)a BrjXov ct)9 rfj ttvkvo- 
TTjTt, Kal /xavorrjTL Kal vyporrjTi Kal ^rjpoTTjri Kai 
TO) yXoLcoBeu Kal aKXriporr/TL Kal fiaXaKorrjTi 
XrjTTTeov. evLa fiev ovv dfia aKXypd Kal jSapea, 
KaOdirep 7rv^o<^ Kal Bpv^;' oaa Be Kpavpa Kal ry 
^TjpoTTjTi (TKXrjporara, ravr ovk e;^et ^dpo<;. 
dvavra Be rd dypta tcov rjfiepcov Kal rd dppeva 
TMV OrjXeLMV irvKvoTepd re Kal aKXrjporepa Kal 
^apvrepa Kal to oXov laxvporepa, Kaddirep Kal 
TTporepov eXiTOfiev. &>? 8' em to irdv Kal tu 
uKapTTOTepa twv KapTTL/xcov Kal ra %et/3a) tcop 
KaXXiKapiroTepcov el fiy ttov KapTrificoTepop to 
dppev, oiairep dXXa re <^aai Kal t^v KvirdpiTTOv 
Kal TT]V KpdveLav. dXXd tmv ye dixireXcov (pa- 
vepo3<i al oXLyoKapTTOTepai Kal 7rvKvo(f)0a\/j,6T€pai 
Kal aTcpecoTepai' Kal firfXeSiv Be Kal rwz/ dXXcov 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. iii. 7-iv. i 

is abundance of it where now the city stands, and 
men can still recall that some of the roofs in ancient 
times were made of it. For the wood is absolutely 
proof against decay, and the root is of very compact 
texture, and they make of it the most valuable 
articles. Images are carved from these woods, 
prickly cedar cypress nettle-tree box, and the small 
ones also from the roots of the olive, which are 
unbreakable and of a more or less uniformly fleshy 
character. The above facts illustrate certain 

special features of position, natural character and 

Of differences in timber as to hardness and heaviness. 

IV. Difference in weight is clearly to be determined 
by closeness or openness of texture, dampness or 
dryness, degree of glutinousness, hardness or softness. 
Now some woods are both hard and heavy, as box 
and oak, while those that are brittle and hardest 
owing to their dryness, are not heavy. 1 All wood of 
wild trees, as we have said before, is closer harder 
heavier, and in general stronger than that of the 
cultivated forms, and there is the same difference 
between the wood of 'male ' and of 'female ' trees, 
and in general between trees which bear no fruit and 
those which have fruit, and between those which 
bear inferior fruit and those whose fruit is better ; on 
the other hand occasionally the ' male ' tree is the 
more fruitful, for instance, it is said, the cypress the 
cornelian cherry and others. However of vines it is 
clear that those which bear less fruit have also more 
frequent knots and are more solid,^ and so too with 
apples and other cultivated trees. 

1 Pliii. 16. 211. 2 cf. G.P. 3. 11. 1. 



^Kaairr] Se (f)va€i KV7rdpLrro<i Kehpo<; €^evo<^ 
Xa)To? TTv^o^ iXda kotlvo<; iTevKrj evhaho'^ dpia 
Bpu<; Kapva JLv^o'lkj). tovtcov Be y^povLOiTaTa 
hoKel rd KvirapLTTLva elvar rd <yovv iv 'E^ecrw, 
e^ ot)v at dvpat rov veuxTrl veco, redyja-avpLafieva 
Terrapa^ €K6lto <yeved<;. puova he koI o-TtX/SrjSova 
he'xerai, St o koI rd a-novhat^opLeva twv epycov gk 
fjLeTa ra KvirapiTTLva koI Ta OvcoSt] tt^v avKd- 
fiLvov elvai (f)aat, kol layvpov dpia koX evepyov to 
^vXov yiverai he to ^vXoi' [kol] iraXaiovpievov 
piiXav, oiairep Xcot6<;. 

"Et£ he dXXo 7rpo<; dXXo Kal ev dXXw daaire^, 
olov TTTeXea pcev ev tw depc, hpv<=; he KaTopvT- 
Topt^evif Kal ev tw vhan KaTa^pexopLevrj' hoKel 
yap oA-O)? d(Ta7re<i elvar hi o Kal eZ? tol/? iroTa- 
pbov<; Kal et9 ra? XLpiva<^ eK tovtcov vavrrTjyovaiv 
iv he TTj OaXdTTT] a7]7reTai. Ta he dXXa hiapLevei 
pidXXov, oirep Kal evXoyov, TapixevopLeva ttj 

AoK€L he Kal rj o^vrj irpo^i to vhcop daairyi; 
elvai Kal ^eXTUcov yivecrOai ^peyopLevrj. Kal i) 
Kapva he t) ^v/Solkt] dcraTr?;?. cpacrl he Kal ttjv 
TrevKrjv iXuTT)^ pidXXov viro Teprjh6vo<^ ecrOleaOaf 
Ti-jv pLev ycip elvai ^7]pdv, Trjv he 7revKr]v e'X^eiv 
yXvKVTTjTa, Kal ocrco evhahcoTepa, pidXXov' TrdvTa 

1 Plin. 16. 213. 

' Tfdri(Tavpi(TiJ.efa . . . cKeiTO conj. Bentley; TeBrjaavpiafifya 
, . . iKeiPTo Ald.H. ; P has «/c€jto 



Of differences in the keeping quality of timber. 

^ Naturally proof against decay are cypress prickly 
cedar ebony nettle-tree box olive wild olive resinous 
fir aria (holm-oak) oak sweet chestnut. Of these the 
wood of the cypress seems to last longest ; at least 
the cypress-wood at Ephesus, of which the doors 
of the modern temple were made, lay stored up ^ 
for four generations. And this is the only wood 
which takes a fine polish, wherefore they make of it 
valuable articles. Of the others the least liable to 
decay after the wood of the cypress and thyine-w^ood 
is, they say, that of the mulberry, which is also 
strong and easily worked : when it becomes old, this 
wood turns black like that of the nettle-tree. 

3 Again whether a given wood is not liable to 
decay may depend on the purpose to which it is put 
and the conditions to which it is subjected : thus the 
elm does not decay if exposed to the air, nor the oak 
if it is buried or soaked in water ; for it appears to be 
entirely proof against decay : wherefore they build 
vessels of it for use on rivers and on lakes, but in sea- 
water it rots, though other woods last all the 
better ; which is natural, as they become seasoned with 
the brine. 

^ The beech also seems to be proof against decay in 
water and to be improved by being soaked. The 
sweet chestnut under like treatment is also proof 
against decay. They say that the wood of the fir 
is more liable to be eaten by the teredon than that 
of the silver-fir ; for that the latter is dry, while the 
fir has a sweet taste, and that this is more so, the 
more the wood is soaked with resin ^ ; they go on to 

3 Plin. 16. 218. * Plin. 16. 218 and 219. 

5 c/. 3. 9. 4. 



8' eaOUadai TeprjhovL irXrjV kotlvov Kai iXda^- 
ra Se ov, Sid ri-jv TriKpoTtjTa. iaOUrai Se rd fiev 
€v rfj OdXdrrr] atjTrofxeva viro Ti^pi^hovo^, ra 8' iv 
rfj yf] V7T0 (TKwXrjKwv fcal vtto OpnroiV' ov ^yap 
yiveraL reprjScov aW' i) iv tt) OaXdrrr). eari Be 
7] Tep}]S(jov T(p fiev fieyeOeL pmcpov, KCipaXrjv 5' e^et 

6 /iejdXt]v KoX oSovTW^' ol 5e dp'nre'i o/jloloi toU 
(7K(t)Xi]^iv, v(j>^ Mv TLrpaiveraL Kara /xiKpov rd 
^vXa. KoX ecTTi ravra eviaTa- imroKOTrrjOevra 
yap orav eh rrjv OdXarjav eXKuaOjj aTeyer rd 
Be VTTO Twv rep^-jBovwv dvlara. tmv Be aKCdXifKwv 
T(ov iv Tol<; ^uXoi<; ol fiev elaiv iK t^}? oiKeia^ 
arj-^ew^y ol 3' ivriKTovTcov erepwv ivriKTei ydp, 
wairep koI rot? BevBpoL<;, 6 /cepacrT?;? KaXov/jievo<;, 
orav Tirpdvrj /cal KoiXdvr) 7r€pi(7Tpa(j)el<; ajairepel 
avoBoxov. (f)€vy€L Be rd re oapLcoBrj koI iriKpd /cal 
a/cXrjpd Bid ro /jlt) BuvaaOac rirpdvai, KaOdrrep 

rrjv TTV^ov. (f>aal Be Kal rrjv iXdrrjv (^XolaOelaav 
VTTO rrjV ^Xdarrjaiv daairrj Bia/xeveiv iv ray vBarr 
(fyavepbv Be yeveaOai iv ^eveCo rrj^ ^ApKaBlw^, ore 
avrol^ iXi[xv(jL>6i'i ro ireBiov ^pa')(9evro'^ rov ^epe- 
Opov rore ydp ra? ye<f)vp(f<; 7roiovvre<} iXarlva^i 
Kal, orav iTrava^aivrj ro vBcop, dXXrjv fcal dXXyv 
i(f)to-rdvre<;, o)? ippdy)] Kal dirPjXde, irdvra evpe- 
Orjvai rd ^uXa daairrj. rovro /jLev ovv iK av/i- 

1 Plin. 16. 220 and 221. 

' Tirpaiv^Tai conj. Seal, f roru G ; riTpfverai UVo. ; TreTratj'tTai 
MVAld. » cf 4. 14. 5. 

* wa-rrepe) /xvo^Sxoy conj. W. ; Siairep ol fivSxoSoi MSS.; G 
omits. The word fxvo56xos does not occur elsewhere ds a 



say that all woods are eaten by the teredon except 
the olive, wild or cultivated, and that these woods 
escape because of their bitter taste. ^ Now woods 
which deca}'^ in sea-water are eaten by the teredon, 
those which decay on land by the skolex and thrips ; 
for the teredon does not occur except in the sea. 
It is a creature small in size, but has a large head 
and teeth ; the thrips resembles the skolex, and these 
creatures gradually bore through ^ timber. The harm 
that these do is easy to remedy ; for, if the wood is 
smeared with pitch, it does not let in water when it 
is dragged down into the sea ; but the harm done by 
the teredon cannot be undone. Of the skolekes which 
occur in wood some come from the decay of the wood 
itself,some from other skolekes which engender therein. 
For these produce their young in timber, as the worm 
called the ' horned worm ' ^ does in trees, having bored 
and scooped out a sort of mouse-hole ^ by turning 
round and round. But it avoids wood which has a 
strong smell or is bitter or hard, such as boxwood, 
since it is unable to bore through it. They say too 
that the wood of the silver-fir, if barked just before 
the time of budding, remains in water without de- 
caying, and that this was clearly seen at Pheneos 
in Arcadia, when their plain was turned into a lake 
since the outlet was blocked up.^ For at that 
time they made ^ their bridges of this wood, and, 
as the water rose, they placed more and more atop 
of them, and, when the water burst its way through 
and disappeared, all the wood was found to be 
undecayed. This fact then became known by means 
of an accident 

' c/. 3. 1. 2. (ppaxOfvros conj. Sch.; ^pax^vros Ald.H. 
® iroiovvTfs, i<pi(rTdvTfs nom. pendens, 



'Ei^ Tv\fp Be TTJ vi]a(p jfj irepl tt]V ^Apa^iav 
elval rl cfyaaL ^v\ov i^ ov to. irXola vavTrijyovvraL' 
rovro Be ev fiev rf) OaXaTTj] aj(eBov aarjirrov 
eli'ar Biafieuei yap er^] TrXeiO) rj Bt-UKoaia Kara- 
^vOl^6/jL€vov' eav Be e^co, xpoi^^ov jjiev Odrrov Be 
arjireTai. (Oav/iaarov Be Kal erepov Xeyovai, 
ovBev Be Trpo? rrjv arjylriv. elvai yap n BevBpov 
e^ ov Ta9 /3aKTr]pia<; re/jLveaOai, Kal yiveaOai 
Ka\a<; a(p6Bpa TToiKiXlav TLva e-)(ovaa<^ ofioiau tw 
Tov TiypLO^ Bepfiarr ^apv Be acj^oBpa to ^vXov 
TovTO' orav Be rt? pi'^]] irpo'; arepecoTepov roirov, 
KardyvvaOai KaOdirep rd Kepdfiia.) 

Kal TO T?)? /j,vpLKt]<; Be ^vXov ov)(^ wairep 
evravda daOeve^, dXX' Icr'xypov wairep TrpivLvov i) 
Kal dXXo Ti TMV la'xypMV. tovto fiev ovv ci/jta 
fjLr)vvei ')(^d}pa<; re Kal depo<i Bia(f)opd<^ Kal Bvvd/jL€i<;. 
TO)v Be ojxoyevwv ^vXwv, olov Bpvivcov TrevKU'ayv, 
orav TapLxevoivraL — Tapiyevovai yap ovk ev taw 
^dOei Trdvra Buovt€<; rr)? OaXdrrrji;, dXXd rd fiev 
TTpof; avrfi rfj yfj, rd Be fXiKpov dvwrepw, rd B' ev 
irXeLovL ^dOer Trdvrcov Be rd Trpo? rrjv pu^av 
Odrrov BveraL KaO^ vBaro<;, k&v eiTLvfj /idXXor 
pevei Kdro). 

V. "EcTTi Be rd fiev evepya rcov ^vXcov, rd Be 
Bvaepya' evepya fiev rd fiaXaKd, Kal Trdvrcov 

' Plin. 16. 221 ; cf. 4. 7. 7. 

- Teak. See Index App. (22). 

5 Calamander-WQOci, See Index App. (23). 



^ In the island of Tylos off the Arabian coast 
they say that there is a kind of wood ^ of which 
they build their ships, and that in sea-water this 
is almost proof against decay ; for it lasts more 
than 200 years if it is kept under water, while, if 
it is kept out of water, it decays sooner, though 
not for some time. They also tell of another 
strange thing, though it has nothing to do with 
the question of decay : they say that there is a 
certain tree,^ of which they cut their staves, and 
that these are very handsome, having a variegated 
appearance like the tiger's skin ; and that this 
wood is exceedingly heavy, yet when one throws 
it down on hard ground* it breaks in pieces like 

Moreover, the wood of the tamarisk ^ is not 
weak there, as it is in our country, but is as strong 
as kermes-oak or any other strong wood. Now 
this illustrates also the difference in properties 
caused by country and climate. Moreover when wood, 
such as that of oak or fir, is soaked in brine — not 
all being soaked at the same depth in the sea, 
but some of it close to shore, some rather further 
out, and some at a still greater depth — ^ in all cases 
the parts of the tree nearest the root (whichever 
tree it is) sink quicker under water, and even if they 
float, have a greater tendency to sink. 

Which kinds of wood are easy and luhich hard to xoorTc. Of 
the core and its ef 

V. Some wood is easy to work, some difficult. 
Those woods which are soft are easy, and especially 

^ irphs arep. T6nov can hardly be sound : ? ' on something 
liarder than itself.' 
6 See Index, fivp'iKT, (2). « pii^. iq ige. 



/xaXcara (piXvpa- Bvcrepya Se kol rd aKXrjpd Koi 
rd o^coSt] kol ov\a<^ c^oi^Ta crvarpo(j)d^' Bvaepjo- 
rara Be upia Kal Bpv<i, co? Be Kara fxepo^; 6 r?}? 
7r€VK7]<; 6^o<i Kal t^? €\dT7]<;. del Be rcov ofioyevayp 
TO /ucaXaKcorepov rod aKXyjporepov Kpelirov 
aapKcoBearepov yap- Kal evOv aKOTrovvrai ra? 
craviBa^ ol re/CTOi'e? ovT(o<i. rd Be /lo^^drjpd 
aiBi'jpLa BvvaraL re/^ivecv rd crKXtjpd /idWov Ton> 
fxaXaKcbv dvirjai yap ev roL<; /ia\aKOi<;, Mcnrep 
€Xe-)(d7) Trepl t% (f)L\vpa<;, irapaKova Be fidXicTTa 
Ta aKXrjpd' Be o Kal ol aKuroro/ioL iroiovvrai 
Tov<; TTivaKa<i d^pdBo^;. 

Mi]Tpav Be irdvra fiev e')(eLv (f)aorlv ol reKTove^; 
(pavepdp S' eli/aL /j-dXiara ev rfj eXdrr}' (fyalveaOai 
yap olov (f)XoL(oBr] rivd ttjv avvOeaiv avTrf^ rcov 
kvkXwp. ev iXda Be Kal irv^co Kal roL'^ toi,ovtoi<; 
ov')(^ OyLtoto)?* Bi o Kal ov (f)aaL TLve<^ ^X^^^ '^V 
Buvdp^et TTV^ov Kal eXdav ijKicrTa yap eXKecrdai 
ravTa tcou ^vXcov. eari Be to eXKeaOai to av/x- 
irepuaTaaOaL Kivovp.evi]<s tt}? /j,i]Tpa<;. ^y yap 
o)? eoLKev eirl y^povov ttoXvv Bl o iravTa)i^60ev 
/jL€V d/jua fidXiaTa 8' eK twv Ovpcopbdrcov e^aipov- 
(TLV, 07r&)9 daTpa^f] y- Kal Bid tovto axl'^ovatv. 

"Atottov 5' dv Bo^eiev otl ev fiev toI<; ^vXol<^ 
TOt? (TTpoyyvXoi^i aXviro^; r) /iiJTpa Kal dKLvy]T0<;, 
ev Be T0L<i irapaKLvrjOelaiv, edv fi7] 6X(o<; e^aipeOfj, 

' 5. 3. 3. 

'^ TO aK\T]pa conj. Sch, from G (?) ; ravra P^Ald.H. 
' ?Xf'»' conj. Sch.; €X«t^ Ald.H. 
* i\aav conj. Seal, from G ; iKary\v Ald.H. 
' i.e. and this happens less in woods which have little- 
core. * Ojua (? =6noio}s) MSS. ; avrr^v conj. W, 



that of the lime ; those are difficult which arc 
hard and have many knots and a compact and 
twisted grain. The most difficult woods are those 
of aria (holm-oak) and oak, and the knotty parts 
of the fir and silver-fir. The softer part of any 
given tree is always better than the harder, since 
it is fleshier : and carpenters can thus at once mark 
the parts suitable for planks. Inferior iron tools can 
cut hard wood better than soft : for on soft wood 
tools lose their edge, as was said ^ in speaking of the 
lime, while hard woods - actually sharpen it : where- 
fore cobblers make their strops of wild pear. 

Carpenters say that all woods have ^ a core, 
but that it is most plainly seen in the silver-fir, 
in which one can detect a sort of bark-like charac- 
ter in the rings. In olive box and such woods 
this is not so obvious ; wherefore they say that box 
and olive ^ lack this tendency ; for that these woods 
are less apt to ' draw ' than any others. * Drawing ' 
is the closing in of the wood as the core is dis- 
turbed.^ For since the core remains alive, it appears, 
for a long time, it is always removed from any 
article whatever made of this wood,*' but especially 
from doors,^ so that they may not warp ^ : and that 
is why the wood is split.^ 

It might seem strange that in ' round ' ^° timber 
the core does no harm and so is left undisturbed, 
while in wood whose texture has been interfered 
with,^^ unless it is taken out altogether, it causes 

^ dvpcofidruv conj. Sch.; 'yvpwiidrcav Aid. cf. 4. 1. 2; Plin. 
16. 225, ahietem vnl varum paginis aptissimam. 

* acTTpa^rj ^ conj. Dalec; aarpaBrj UMVAld. 

^ i.e. to extract the core. ^^ See below, §5. 

*^ ■napaKivrjee^ffi, i.e. by splitting or eawing. v(\€Kr]6(7ai 
conj. W. 



KLvel Kol 7rapaarpe(f)€L- /jidWov yap cIkos yvfivco- 
Oelaav airoOvrjaKeLV. 6/jlw<; Se oi ye larol Kal 
ai Kepalai i^aLp60eL(77]<; a)(^petot,. tovto Be Kara 
av/j,^el3r]K6<;, on ^^trwi^a? e%6t TrXetou?, I(j')(yp6- 
rarov he Kal XeTrroTarov Be rov ea^^arov, ^ripora- 
Tov yap, Ka\ Tou? aWov^ ava \oyov. orav ovv 

4 ay^Lady, Trepiaipelrai ra ^yjporara. el 8' 77 fijjrpa 
Sia TO ^-yjpov aKeiTTeov. SiaaTpecj^ec he eXKOfievrj 
ra ^v\a kuI ev toU a^iaTOL<; kol irpLcnol'^y orav 
fit) &)? Bel irpiwai' Bel yap 6pO)]v ttjv rrpicriv elvai 
Kal pit] ifKayiav. oXov ovar)<^ r)}<; fi}]Tpa<; e(f)^ tjv 
TO a, prj irapa tyjv jSy repveiv, aWd irapd rrjv 
/3B. (^OelpeaOai yap ovtco (paaiv, eKeivw^; Be ^rjv. 
on, Be irdv ^vXov ex^t piyJTpav €k tovtcov oiovraL' 
(fiavepop yap eari Kal rd per] BoKovvra iravr e^eiv, 
olov iTV^ov Xwrov rrplvov. arjpelov Be- rov^; yap 
(TTp6(^iyya<; tcop Ovpcov twv iroXvTeXoiv iroiovai 
fiev eK TOVTCOV, a-vyypd(j)ovTai, Be ol dp')(^iTeKTOve<; 
ovTco<; <pri> €K pbt']Tpa<^. TavTO Be tovto (rrjpelov 
KOI OTL irdaa pirjTpa eXKCTai, Kal al twv a-KXifpo- 

5 TaTcov, a? B-q TLve^ KapBia^ KaXovai. TravTo^ Be 

' And so cause no trouble. 

2 cf. 5. 1. 6. tr\f lovs conj. Sell, from G ; &\\ovi Ald.H. 

' Text probably defective ; ? insert ^^-ppedrf after ^vphy. 

^ The figure would seem to be 

D C 

A [/ A 




disturbance and warping : it were rather to be 
expected that it would die ^ when exposed. Yet 
it is a fact that masts and yard-arms are useless, 
if it has been removed from the wood of which 
they are made. This is however an accidental ex- 
ception, because the wood in question has several 
coats,2 of which the strongest and also thinnest is 
the outermost, since this is the driest, while 
the other coats are strong and thin in proportion 
to their nearness to the outermost. If therefore 
the wood be split, the driest parts are necessarily 
stripped off. Whether however in the other case 
the object of removing the core is to secure dryness 
is matter for enquiry.^ However, when the core 
' draws,' it twists the wood, whether it has been 
split or sawn, if the sawing is improperly performed : 
the saw-cut should be made straight and not slant- 
wise. ^ Thus, if the core be represented by the 
line A, the cut must be made along the line BD, 
and not along the line BC : for in that case, they 
say, the core will be destroyed, while, if cut in 
the other way, it will live. For this reason men 
think that every wood has a core : for it is clear 
that those which do not seem to possess one never- 
theless have it, as box nettle-tree kermes-oak : a proof 
of this is the fact that men make of these woods the 
pivots^ of expensive doors, and accordingly^ the 
headcraftsmen specify that wood with a core shall 
not'' be used. This is also a proof that any core 
' draws,' even those of the hardest woods, which 
some call the heart. In almost every wood, even 

* cf, 5. 3. 5. aTp6<piy^ here at least probably means * pivot 
and socket.' 

* ovTws Ald.H. ; avTohs conj. W. ' /jlt] add. W. 



ct)9 elirelv ^v\ou a k\i] por drri Ka\ jxavoTCLrr) y 
firjTpa, Koi avT))^ ttj^ iXdrrj^;- ixavordrr) fiev ovv, 
OTL Ta9 Iva^ ex^i' koI Sid ttoWou kol to crapKcoBc'^ 
TO dvd fieaov ttoXv- cr/cX?7^0TaT?; Si, ore kui 
at Ive^ aKkrjpoTaraL koI to aap/ccoSe^i' Sl* o kui 
oi dp-)(^LTeKT0V6<; avyypdcpovTai irapaipelv ra Trpo? 
TYiv /jL7]Tpai>, 07rco9 Xd^wai tou ^v\ov to irvKvoTa- 
Tov Koi fiaXaKcoTaTOv. 

Tcoi^ he ^vXcov Ta fiev ayiGTa ra 5e ireXeKrjTn 
Ta Be (TTpoyyvXa' a^^iaTa /jbiv, oaa BiaipovvT€<; 
/card TO fxeaov Trpi^ovcTL' TreXeKrjTd Be, oacov 
diroTTeXeKOiaL rd e^w aTpoyyvXa Be BfjXov on 
Ta 6Xo)<; dyfraucTTa. tovtcov Be Ta GyjiaTa fiev 
oXco? dppayP] Bid to yvfivoiOelcrav ttjv fxifrpav 
^7]paiv6(Tdai Kal dTrodprjcr/ceLV Ta Be ireXeicrjTd 
Kul rd (TTpoyyvXa pyyvvrar /xaXXov Be ttoXv 
ra aTpoyyvXa Bid to ei'a7reiXrj(p6aL ttjv fir'jTpav' 
ovBev yap otl tmv dirdifTcov ov pi]yvvTaL. tol<; 
Be X(OTLvoL<; Kal rot? dXXoi<; oI? eh tol/? arpu- 
(pcyya^i ')(pa)VTai, Trpo? to /irj pyypvaOat ^oX^ltov 
irepiTrXaTTOvaLV, ottco^ dva^iipavOf] Kal BtaTTveuaOf] 
Kard fiiKpov rj eK r?}? fjL)jrpa<^ vyp6Tr]<;. y fiev ovv 
firfTpa TOLavTTfv e;^et Bvvafiiv. 

VI. Bapo? Be eveyKelv ia)(ypd Kal rj iXdrrj 
Kal t) TcevKY] irXdyLau TiOefievai- ovBev ydp ev- 

' Iv'Kov OKXripOTaTi) conj. Sch. from G ; ^vKov aKXr^poTaTOv 
UMV: so Aid. omitting koI. 

• aTTOTTeAe/cwcrt conj. Sell.; anonKfKcoai UM ; aiToir\«Kovcn 
Aid.; atroire\fKova-i mBas, ^ cf. G.P. 5. 17. 2. 



ill that of the silver-fir, the core is the hardest 
part,! and the part which has the least fibrous 
texture : — it is least fibrous because the fibres are far 
apart and there is a good deal of fleshy matter 
between them, while it is the hardest part because 
the fibres and the fleshy substance are the hardest 
parts. Wherefore the headcraftsmen specify that 
the core and the parts next it are to be removed, 
that they may secure the closest and softest part 
of the wood. 

Timber is either ' cleft,' ' hewn,' or ^ round' : it is 
called ' cleft,' when in making division they saw it 
down the middle, ' hewn ' when they hew off '^ the 
outer parts, while ' round ' clearly signifies wood which 
has not been touched at all. Of these, ' cleft ' wood ^ 
is not at all liable to split, because the core when 
exposed dries and dies : but ' hewn ' and * round ' 
wood are apt to split, and especially ' round ' wood, 
because the core is included in it : no kind of timber 
indeed is altogether incapable of splitting. The 
wood of the nettle-tree and other kinds which are 
used for making pivots for doors are smeared ^ 
with cow-dung to prevent their splitting : the object 
lieing that the moisture due to the core may be 
gradually dried up^ and evaporated. Such are the 
natural properties of the core. 

Which ivoods can best support weight. 
VI. 6 For bearing weight silver-fir and fir are strong 
woods, when set slantwise "^ : for they do not give like 

* TT€pnr\aTTov(n conj. Sch. from G ; ircpLirdTTovaiv Ald.H. 
Plin. 16. 222. * ava^r]pav6^ conj. Sch.; ava^TjpalpTj Ald.H. 

« Plin. 16. 222-224. 

' e.g. as a strut, irhdyiai conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e.; aira\a\ 


hihoaaiv, MGirep rj Bpv<{ Koi rci yecoSri, dX)C avrw- 
Oovcrr ayj/ielov Be otl ouSeTTOTe prjyvvvraL, KaOdirep 
iXda KoX Spv^, dWd irporepov arjirovrau kol 
aXXo)? dTTavScjaLV. ia'yrupov Be koX 6 <f)OLvi^- 
avdrroKiv yap 7) KdfiyfrL<; rj tol<; dX\.oi<; yiV6Tar 
Ta fiev yap et? rd Kdrco KapLTTTerai, 6 he (f>oiPi^ 
el<s rd dvoi. (fyaal Se fcal Tr)v Trev/ctjv fcal rrjv 
ekdriiv uvrcodelv. to he t?}9 ^v^olKrj^ Kapva<;, 
yiverai yap fieya kuI ')(^pMvrai 7rpo<i tt]V epeyjrLV, 
orav /xeXXj] pr)yvvadaL ■\^o(^elv wcrre irpoaiaddv- 
eaOai irporepov oirep kuI ev ' Kvrdvopw avve- 
ireaev ev tw ^aXavelw kuI Trai^re? e^em]hriaav. 
la-)(vpov he Koi to t?}? avK)]<: 7r\7]v et? 6p96v. 

'H he eXdrrj fidXiara (i)<; elirelv l(j')(yp6v. tt/jo? 
he Ta9 TOiv TCKTovwv ;\^peta? i^eKoXkov fiev /id- 
Xiara rj 7reuK7] hid re ttjv fiavoTrjra kuI rrjp 
evOvTTopiav' ovhe ydp oXoo'? ouhe pi]yvv(j6ai (^aaiv 
edv KoWrjOfj. evropvorarov he (piXvKT], kuI 77 
Xev/coTTj^i (oairep 7) rod KTJXdarpov. rwv he dXKwv 
7) (jiiXvpa' TO ydp okov evepyov, oiairep eXex^V' 
hid /jLuXaKorrjra. evKafxirra he co? [xev dirXco^; 
eiTrelv oaa yXtaxpci' htacpepeiv he hoKel avKd- 
fiivo^; Kul epiveo^, hi kuI rd ifcpia kol rd<; 
are(f)dva<; Kal oXco? oaa irepl rov Koafiov €k 
rovrwv iroLovcn. 

YivrrpLara he kol Gi/o";^£(7Ta rd evL/c/xorepa rm' 

^ i.e. the strut becomes concave or convex respectively 
cj. Xen. Cyr. 7. 5. 11. 

'^ i.e. it cannot be used as a strut, or it would 'buckle, 
lliougli it will stand a vertical strain. 

» Plin. 16. 225. 

* cf. C.P. 5. 17. 3. tiiOuTtopuTaTa : (udvnoptay. 


oak and other woods which contain mineral matter 
but make good resistance. A proof of this is that they 
never split like olive and oak, but decay first or fail 
in some other way. Palm-wood is also strong, for it 
bends the opposite way to other woods : they bend 
downwards, palm-wood upwards.^ It is said that fir 
and silver-fir also have an upward thrust. As to the 
sweet chestnut, which grows tall and is used for 
roofing, it is said that when it is about to split, it 
makes a noise, so that men are forewarned : this 
occurred once at Antandros at the baths, and all those 
present rushed out. Fig-wood is also strong, but only 
when set upright.^ 

Of the, woods best suited for the carpenter's various purposes. 

^The wood of the silver-fir may be called the 
strongest of all. But for the carpenter's purposes 
fir best takes glue because of its open texture and 
the straightness of its i)ores ^ ; for they say that 
it never by any chance comes apart when it is glued. 
Alaternus ^ is the easiest wood for turning, and its 
whiteness is like that of the holly. Of the rest 
lime is the easiest, the whole tree, as was said, 
being easy to work because of the softness of the 
wood. In general those woods which are tough are 
easy to bend. The mulberry and the wild fig seem 
to be specially so; wherefore they make of these 
theatre-seats,'' the hoops of garlands, and, in 
general, things for ornament. 

^ Woods which have a fair amount of moisture in 
them are easier to saw or split than those which 

« c/. 5. 7. 7. 

• Rendering doubtful. XKpia has probably here some un- 
known meaning, on which the Bsnse of kSvuov depends. 
» PUn. 16. 227. 



TTafxirav ^ypcov ra fiev yap iravovraL, ra he 
'laTavrar ra he ')(\oipa Xlav avfi/xveL KaX ivi'^e- 
Tat iv TOt? ohovcn ra Trpia/JLara Kal i/nTrXaTTCi, 
hi' o Kal TrapaWuTTOvaLv aWyXcov tol/? 6S6i>Ta<; 
Lva e^dyrjrat,. €(Ttl he KaX hvarpvTrrjTOTepa ra 
Xiav x^copd' ^paheax; yap dva^eperat to, eKrpv- 
7n]/j,aTa hid rb j^apea elvar tmv he ^tjpwv rax^(o<i 
Kal €uOu<; 6 drip dva6epixaiv6/jLevo<; dvahihwai- 
irdXiv he rd Xlav ^r)pd hid rrjv aKXriporrjra 
hvcnrpLara' KaOdirep yap oarpaKov avfi^aLvei 
TTpUiv, hi o Kal Tpv7ra)VTe<; eTri/Spexovaiv. 

^vireXeKTjToTepa he Kal evropvorepa Kal ev^o- 
(OTepa rd ')(Xo3pd' Trpoa-KdOrjTai re yap to ropvev- 
Ti'ipiov fjidXXov Kal oxjK diroTrTjha. Kal r) ireXeKi^(jL<i 
TOiv /jLaXaKayrepcov pacov, Kal ?; f ecrt? he 6/jloIco<; Kal 
ere Xeiorepa. Icrx^porarov he Kal rj Kpdveia, ra)p 
he dXXcov ovx VKLara y) irreXea, hi b Kal Toi'? 
aTpo(f)ea<i, Mcnrep iXex^Vy '^^^^ dvpai<; TTTeXetvov^ 
TTOLOvaiv. vyporarov he jxeXia Kal o^vrj' Kal ydp 
rd KXivdpia rd evhihovTa eK tovtwv. 

VII. ''0\a)9 he irpo'; Tvola t^? vXr)^ eKacTTT] 
Xp^o-lfJiy^ Kal TToia vav7n]y}]aL/jbo<; Kal olKohopLLKr], 
TrXeLarrj ydp avrr) ?; Xpeia Kal ev /leylaTOL^, 
Tretpareov elirelv, dcpopi^ovra KaO' cKaarov to 


'EXarr; fiev ovv Kal nrevKrj Kal Kehpo<; co? aTrXw? 

' iravovrat can hardly be right : Plin. I.e. seems to have 
had a fuller text. 

^ fu7r\aTTf( : cf. de Sens. 66. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vi. 3-vii. i 

uc altogether dry : for the latter give/ while the 
former resist. Wood which is too green closes up 
again when sawn, and the sawdust catches in the 
saw's teeth and clogs - them ; wherefore the teeth 
of the saw are set alternate ways, to get rid of the 
sawdust. Wood which is too green is also harder to 
bore holes in ; for the auger's dust is only brought 
up slowly, because it is heavy ; while, if the wood is 
dry, the air gets warmed by the boring and brings 
it up readily and at once. On the other hand, wood 
which is over dry ^ is hard to saw because of its 
hardness : for it is like sawing through earthenware ; 
wherefore they wet the auger when using it. 

However green wood is easier to work with the 
axe the chisel or the plane ; for the chisel gets a 
better hold and does not slip off. Again softer 
woods are easier for the axe and for smoothing,"* and 
also a better polished surface is obtained. The 
cornelian cherry is also a very strong wood, and 
among the rest ehn-wood is the strongest ; where- 
fore, as was said,^ they make the ' hinges ' for doors 
of elm-wood. Manna-asii and beech have very moist 
wood, for of these they make elastic bedsteads. 

Of the woods used in ship-huilding, 

VII. Next we must endeavour to say in a general 
way, distinguishing the several uses, for which 
purposes each kind of timber is serviceable, which 
is of use for ship-building, which for house-building : 
for these uses extend far and are important. 

Now silver-fir, fir and Syrian cedar ^ are, generally 

" Ta \'iav ^rjpa conj. St. ; \eia Kal ^-qpa Ald.H. 
■* Sc. with the carpenter's axe. 
» 5. 3. 5. « See Index. 



elirelv vavTrrjyijaifia' Ta<; fiev yap TpL7]pei<; koI to, 
fxaKpa 7T\oLa iXciriva ttolovctl Blcl Kov^oryra, to. 
Be crrpoyyvXa izevKLva hia to aaaTre<^- evLOL Be xal 
Ta<i rpLr]p6i<; Bia to /jlt) eviropelv eXaxT;?. ol Be 
Kara '^.vplav koI ^oLvifcrjv €k KeBpov aTravL^ovai 
yap Kol irevKT]^. ol S' iv Kvirpo) ititvo^' ravTijv 
yap i) vrj(70<i e)(€i Kal BoKel KpeiTTCov elvai t/}? 
irevKTjf;. kcu ra /lev dWa etc tovtcov rrjv Be 
rpoTTLV rpirfpei fiev Bpvtvrjv, Iva avrexv tt/^o? Ta<i 
vecokKia^, rah Be oXkclgi TrevKivrjv* vironOeaai 8' 
eTL Kal BpvtvTjv eirav v€co\k(0(Tl, rah B^ ekaTToaiv 
o^vtvrjv KOL 6\co<; eic tovtov to ')(e\vapLa. 

Ovx diTTeTaL Be ovBe KaTO, Tt)v koWtjctlv 
ofioLW^ to Bpvlvov Tcov irevKLVoiv Kol eXaTivcov to. 
fiev yap irvKva to, Be fxavd, Kal tcl fiev o/xoia to, B' 
ov. Bel Be ojJiOLOTraOrj elvau Ta fieWovTa crvp,- 
^veaOau Kal p.r} evavTia, KaOairepavel \ldov Kai 

'H Be Topvela tol<; /xev TrXot'ot? yiveTai, avKa- 
fjLivov fie\La<i TrreXea? TrXaTavov yXiaxpoTrjTa 
yap exeiv Bel Kal lax^v. ^etyoto-r?; Be rj ri}? 
TrXaTavov Ta^y jap a-rjireTac. Tul^i Be Tptrjpeatv 
evLOL Kal TTiTuiVa? ttoiovctl Blcl to eXa^pov. to 
Be (TTepeoy/JLa, tt/^o? m to x^Xvcr/jLa, Kal Ta<; eirco- 
TtSa?, fjueXla^ Kal avKafiivov Kal TrreXea?* la-)(vpa 

* TpiT}p€i conj. W. ; Tpi-qp-q U; rpi-fiprjs MV; rpt-qpeffi Aid. 

' Ta?? 5' ikdrroaiv o^vIutjv conj. W. {to7s Sch. ); to'ls fitv 
i\6.TTo<Tiv oiv-n Aid. c/ Plin. 16. 226. 

' XiKva/xa, a temporary covering for the bottom : so Poll, 
and Hesych. explain. 



speaking, useful for ship-building ; for triremes and 
long ships are made of silver-fir, because of its light- 
ness, and merchant ships of fir, because it does not 
decay ; while some make triremes of it also because 
they are ill provided with silver-fir. The people 
of Syria and Phoenicia use Syrian cedar, since they 
cannot obtain much fir either ; while the people of 
Cyprus use Aleppo pine, since their island provides 
this and it seems to be superior to their fir. Most 
jiarts are made of these woods ; but the keel for a 
trireme ^ is made of oak, that it may stand the haul- 
ing ; and for merchantmen it is made of fir. How- 
ever they put an oaken keel under this when they 
are hauling, or for smaller vessels a keel of beech ; '^ 
and the sheathing ^ is made entirely of this wood. 

* (However oak-wood does not join well with glue 
on to fir or silver-fir ; for the one is of close, the 
other of open grain, the one is uniform, the other 
not so ; whereas things which are to be made into 
one piece should be of similar character, and not of 
opposite character, like wood and stone.) 

The work of bentwood ^ for vessels is made of 
mulberry manna-ash elm or plane ; for it must be 
tough and strong. That made of plane-wood is the 
worst, since it soon decays. For triremes some make 
such parts of Aleppo pine because of its lightness. 
The cutwater,^ to which the sheathing is attached,'^ 
and the catheads are made of manna-ash mulberry 

* This sentence is out of place ; its right place is perhaps 
at the end of § 4. 

' Topveia ; but the word is perhaps corrupt : one would 
expect the name of some part of the vessel. 

* o-Tepf'w/ia : apparently the fore part of the keel ; =<netpa. 
' trphs ^ rb x^^^f^t^o^^on], W. after Seal,; ■Kp6ffw tJ) cxf^vfffia 

Aid. (cxeAo/ia M, x^'^vo-jua U) Trpoaw rb Sc x^^^^f"-"^ mBas. 



7ap Bel ravT eivai. vavTrrjjTJai^o^ fiev ovv v\y 
a-)(ehov avrr]. 

OiKoSofMiK)] Se ttoWm 7r\€L(t)v, iXdrr) re Kal 
irevK-q Koi KeSpo^;, en KV7rdpLrT0<i Spv<; Kal dp- 
fcevOo's' o)? 6' dirXoi^ elirelv iraaa ')(^p7j(TL/jir) 7T\r]i> 
€1 Tt? daOevT]^ Trafirrav' ovk. el<i ravTO yap Trdaai, 
KaOdirep ovS^ eirl rf]<; vav7rr)yLa<i. at 8' dXkai 
TT/Do? rd cBia tmv Te)(VMV, olov a/cevr] Kal opyava 
Kal el Ti roLOVTOv k'repov. tt/oo? irXelara he a)(€hop 
r) iXdrr] Trape^^TaL 'X^peiav Kal yap 7rpb<; tov<; 
TTLvaKa<i Tov^ ypacfyo/xevov^. reKroi'iK-p fiev ovv )) 
TraXaiordTT] KpaTLarij, edv rj acraTr/;?' evOeret yap 
o)? elirelv irdaL j^prjaOar vauTryjyLKjj Be Bid rr]v 
KdjJLy^LV evLKfiOTepa dvayKaiov eVel tt/oo? ye rrjv 
koXXtjctlv rj ^Tjporepa avfi^epei. laraTai yap 
KaLvd rd vavTrrjyovfieva Kal orav avfiTrayr} Ka6- 
eXKuaOevra (rvfifjuvec Kal (Treyet, ttXtjv edv fir} 
iravrdiTaa'iv e^LKjiaaOf)' rore Be ov Be^eraL koX- 
XrjaLV rj ov^ 6/j,oiO}<;. 

Aet Be Kal KaO^ eKacrrov Xafi^dvetv eh ttolu 
y^prjcrifjio'^ ecrriv. eXdry] jiev ovv Kal irevKi], 
KaOdirep el'prjrai, Kal 7rpo<; vauTn^yiav Kal irpo^; 

^ iXdrr} . . . &pK€v0os conj. W. ; eXaTTj t« koI -xevKri koI KeSpos 
(Ti KvirdpiTTOS Bpvs TrevKT] Kol Kfbpos &picfv6os U; ixdrr] re Ka't 
irfvKV Ka) KtSpos Ka] ^.yKfvQos Ald.H. : SO also MV, omitting 
Ka\ before apK. 

~ (liy 5'\ws conj. Sch.; anXws 5' is Aid. 

' Kaiva conj. Sch.; kuI vvv Aid. 

* «Ti;/x7ra775 conj. W., wluch he renders 'when it has been 
glued together ' ; (rvfiirir) Aid. G's reading was evidently 


and elm ; for these parts must be strong. Such 
then is the timber used in ship-building. 

Of the woods used in hoase-huilding. 
For house-building a much greater variety is 
used, silver-fir fir and prickly cedar ; also cypress 
oak and Phoenician cedar.' In fact, to speak 
generally ,2 any wood is here of service, unless it is 
altogether weak : for there are various purposes for 
which different woods are serviceable, just as there 
are in ship-building. While other woods are service- 
able for special articles belonging to various crafts, 
such as furniture tools and the like, the wood of 
silver-fir is of use for almost more purposes than any 
other wood ; for it is even used for painters' tablets. 
For carpentry the oldest wood is the best, provided 
that it has not decayed ; for it is convenient for 
almost anyone to use. But for ship-building, where 
bending is necessary, one must use wood which 
contains more moisture (though, where glue is to be 
used, drier wood is convenient). For timber-work 
for ships is set to stand when it is newly ^ made : 
then, when it has become firmly united,'* it is 
dragged down to the water, and then it closes up 
and becomes watertight, — unless^ all the moisture 
has been dried out of it, in which case it will not 
take the glue, or will not take it so well. 

Of the uses of the wood of particular trees. 
But we must consider for what purposes ^ each 
several wood is serviceable. Silver-fir and fir, as has 
been said, are suitable both for ship-building house- 

* 7r\V ta" M conj. W. ; it. idu re M ; tt. idv ye Aid. 
® i.e. apart from ship-building and house-building, in 
which several woods are used. 



oiKoBofiiav Koi €ti Trpo? aWa tcov epywv, eU 
irXeiw he r\ iXdrrj. ttltvI Be y^pwvrai fiev et? 
dfi(f)Q) Kol ov'X^ rjTTOV eh vavTTTjjiav, ov fxrjv dWd 
raxv Biacr/jireTaL. Bpv<; Be Trpo? oiKoBo/jLiav Kal 
Trpo? pavTrrjyiav en re TTyoo? rd Kara y}]<; /caropuT- 
rofieva. <^i\vpa Be irpo^ rd (TaviBwpara tcov 
fiatcpoiv ttXoLwv koi Trpo? Ki^coria Kal 7rp6<; ti]v 
TMV /lerpcov KaraaKevijv. ex^o Be Kal rov (t>\oiov 
XP^f^i'P'OV irpo'i re rd axoivia Kal tt/jo? ra? Kiara^' 
TTOLOvcTL jdp €^ avTr)<i. 

S(f)evBa/jiv6<i T€ Kal ^vyia 7r/?o? KXivoTnjyuav 
Kal 7r/?09 rd ^uyd twv \o(f)Ovp(i)v. /jllXo^ Be et? 
TrapaKoWrjiiaTa Kt^d)TOt<; Kal viTO^d6poL<^ Kal 
oX,QJ9 T0?9 TOiovTOL^;. 7rpLV0<; Be tt/jo? d^ova^ ral<; 
p,ovoaTp6(f)oi,<; dfid^aif; Kal el<; ^vyd \vpai<; Kal 
'\lra\T7jpL0L<;. o^vtj Be 7rpo<; d/xa^OTrrjjLav Kal 
BK^poirr^ylav ttjv evTeXi]. irreXea Be 7r/?o? 6vpo- 
Trrjyiav Kal yaXedypa^;' p^^pwz^Tai Be Kal et? rd 
d/ia^iKd fxeTpiw^. 7rr}Bo<; Be et? d^ovd<; re TaL<; 
d/id^ai,<; Kal et? ekKTjOpa rot? dp6rpoL<;. dvBpdxX^] 
Be rat? yvvai^lv eU rd irepl tou? 1(ttov<;, dp- 
Kev6o<; Be et? reKT0VLa<; Kal et? rd VTvaiOpia Kal 
€t9 jd KaTopvTTo/jLeva Kard yr)^ Bid to daaTre^. 
(wcrauTco? Be Kal t) JLv/So'lktj Kapva, Kal Trpo? ye 
TrjV Karopv^LV en fidWov acaTr/}?. irv^w Be 
ypoivrai fiev tt/do? evia, ov /jLjjv aXX,* ^ ye ev rw 
OXv/jLtto) yLVOfievr) Bid to ^pa^^td tc elvai Kal 
6^(oBr}<i dxpeLO<i. TepfiLvdo) Be ovBev ;^/)&)i^Taf 

' Klaras : cf. 3. 13. 1 ; perhaps * hampers,' cf. 5. 7. 7. 

" TrapaKoW-nfiara: lit. * things glued on.' 

3 Plin. 16. 229. 

* ra'is fxoyocTTpScpois a/xd^ais : or, perhaps, ' the wheels of 



building and also for other kinds of work, but silver- 
fir is of use for more purposes than fir. Aleppo pine 
is used for both kinds of building, but especially for 
ship-building, yet it soon rots. Oak is used for 
house-building, for ship-building, and also for under- 
ground work ; lime for the deck-planks of long ships, 
for boxes, and for the manufacture of measures ; its 
bark is also useful for ropes and writing-cases,^ for 
these are sometimes made of it. 

Maple and zygia are used for making beds 
and the yokes of beasts of burden : yew for the 
ornamental work attached ^ to chests and footstools 
and the like : kermes-oak ^ for the axles of wheel- 
barrows ^ and the cross-bars of lyres and psalteries : 
beech for making waggons and cheap carts : elm 
for making doors and weasel-traps, and to some 
extent it is also used for waggon work ; pedos ^ for 
waggon-axles and the stocks of ploughs : andrachne 
is used for women for parts of the loom : Phoenician 
cedar for carpenters' work ^ and for work which is 
either to be exposed to the air or buried underground, 
because it does not decay. Similarly the sweet 
chestnut is used, and it is even less likely to decay 
if it is used for underground work. Box is used for 
some purposes ; however that which grows on 
Mount Olympus '^ is useless, because only short pieces 
can be obtained and the wood ^ is full of knots. 
Terebinth is not used,^ except the fruit and the resin. 

carts with solid wheels.' rats conj. Sch.; re Koi UMV; re /col 
fioPoaTp6<povs afid^as Aid. 

' iTTjSos (with varying accent) MSS. : probably = 7ra5cy, 4. 1. 
3 ; 7rt5|os Aid., but see §7. 

* r(K7ovlas can hardly be right. " cf. 3. 15. 6. 

* cf. 1. 8. 2, of box in general ; Plin. 16. 71. 
^ Inconsistent with 5. 3. 2. 



irXrjv ro) Kapirfo koX rij ptjrlvr). ovhk <^l\vkij 
7r\j]i' Tot? Trpo/SuTOL';' dtl ^/dp iarc Saaela. rf} 
Be d(f)dpKr) 669 '^^upaKci'i re Koi to Kaleiv. ktj- 
XdcTTpcp Se Koi aypLvBa tt/jo? /BaKT^jpla^;. evLOL Be 
/cat Bd(f)PT)- TCLfi yap yepovriKaf; Ka\ Kou(f)a<; TavT7j<; 
TTOiovcnv. Irea Be 7rp6<i re Ta? ao-TrtSa? Ka] 
Ta(; Kiara^ koI tcl Kava kol TciWa. irpoaava- 
XajSetu Be eari Kal tmv dWwv e/caaroi' 6/iOL(o<i. 

AiT^prjraL Be Kal irpo^ rd TeKTOVixd tmv opyd- 
vcov e/caara Kara rr^v ')(^peiav' olov a^vpiov fxev 
/cal Teperpiou dpiara fxev yiverai kot'lvov 'X.pSivrai 
Be Kal TTV^ivoL^i Kal 7rTe\e'ivoL<; Kal fieXeivoLS' xa? 
Be fieydXa'^ acfivpa'^ TriTviva^ iroLovaiv. 6/j,oLco<i 
Be Kal TCt)v dWcov CKacrrov eyei Tivd rd^LV. Kal 
ravra fxev al ')(^pelaL Biaipovaiv. 

VIIT. 'FjKdarrj Be t/}? vXr](;, Mcrirep Kal Trporepov 
€Xe)(6r], BcacfyepeL Kara tov^ tottov^' evda fiev yap 
XcoTO? €v6a Be KeBpo<; ylveraL Oavfiaa-rrj, KaOdirep 
Kal Trepl ^vplav ev Xvpla yap ev re toI<; opeai 
Bia<j)€povTa yiverat rd BevBpa r7]<; KeBpov Kal tw 
v^|reL Kal rw Trd'^er rifKiKavra ydp eajLv war 
evta /xev fir) BvvaaOac rpel<^ dvBpa^ irepCkafi^dveiv 
ev re roi? 7rapaBeLaoL<i ere pLei^w Kal KaXkico. 
(paiverai Be Kal edv rt? ea Kal yur; refivr) tottov 
oLKelov eKaarov e^ov ylveaOac Oavfiaarov tco 
p,7]K€i- Kal ird-xei' ev Kinrpo) yovv ovk ere/ivov 01 
fiaatXei';, dpLa /lev rr]povvre<^ Kal ra/Mievo/ievoi, dfxa 

' Inconsistent with 5. 6. 2. (ptKvpta conj. Sch. 

' Ka\ ar]iuv5a conj. Sch. ; ku] /j.v'ia U ; Ka\ fiva Aid. cf. 3. 14. 4. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANI'S, V. vii. 7-vi.i. 1 

^ Alaternus is only useful for feeding sheep ; for it is 
always leafy. Hybrid arbutus is used for making- 
stakes and for burning : holly and Judas-tree ^ for 
walking-sticks : some also use bay for these ; for 
of this 2 they make light sticks and sticks for old 
men. Willow is used for shields hampers baskets 
and the like. We might in like manner add the 
several uses of the other woods. 

* Distinction is also made between woods according 
as they are serviceable for one or other of the 
carpenter's tools : thus hammers and gimlets are best 
made of wild olive, but box elm and manna-ash are 
also used, while large mallets are made of Aleppo 
pine. In like manner there is a regular practice 
about each of the other tools. Such are the 

differences as to the uses of various woods. 

Of tilt localities in which the best timber groivs. 

VIII. Each kind of timber, as was said before, 
differs according to the place ^ where it grows ; 
in one place nettle-tree, in another the cedar is 
remarkably fine, for instance in Syria ; for in Syria 
and on its mountains the cedars grow to a sur- 
passing height and thickness : they are sometimes 
so large that three men cannot embrace the tree. 
And in the parks they are even larger and finer. It 
appears that any tree, if it is left alone in its 
natural position and not cut down, grows to a 
remarkable height and thickness. For instance in 
Cyprus the kings used not to cut the trees, 
both because they took great care of them and hus- 

^ toOttjs conj. H. ; Tavrai UMVAld. 

* Plin. 16. 230. 

' rSnovs conj. Seal, from G ; irSdas Aid. 



Be Kal Sia to hvaKOfiiarov elvai. ^r}Ko<; fiev rjv 
ra)P et? rrjv kvheicrjpr] rrjp /\r]/jL7)rpLov Tfirjdevrcov 
TpiaKaiheKaop'yviov, avra he ra ^v\a roJ /j,7]K€i 
Oavjiaara fcal ao^a /cal Xeta. /xeyLara Be koX 
Trapa ttoXv tcl ev ttj Kvpva) (f)aalv elvai' tmv 
yap ev rfj AarlpTj KaXcov yLvo/juepcov vTrepjSoXf) 
Kal Tcov eXaTLVwv Kal twv irevKiPcop — fiel^co yap 
ravTa Kal koXXlo) tcop ''IraXiKWP — ovBep elpai 

2 Trpo? ra ep rfj K.vppa). irXevaac yap irore tov<; 
'PwyLtatof? l3ovXojJiepov<i Karaa KevdaaaOai iroXiv 
ep rfi prjGw irevre Kal eiKOGi pavai, Kal r'tjXiKovTOP 
eipai TO jjLeyedo<; tcop BepBpcop ware elaTrXeopra^ 
€<'? K6X7rov<; Ttpa<; Kal Xifiepa<^ BLaa-)(^LadelaL rol^ 
IcTToh eTTLKipBvpevaai. Kal 6Xco<; Be iraaav rrjv 
prjaop Baaelap Kal wcnrep rjypKo/jiiprjp rfj vXr)' 
Bt o Kal aTTOO-rPjpaL ttjp ttoXlp OLKi^eLv BLajSavTa^ 
Be TLpa<; airoTe/j^eaOaL TrdfiiroXv ttXt}^©? ck tottov 
^pax^o^, a>^Te rrfXiKavr-qp Troiijaai ax^Biav f) 
exp^crcLTO rrepTrJKOPTa iarLOL<;' ov /irjp dXXa 
BLaireaslv avTtjP ep tw TreXdyec. Kupi^o? /xev oup 
ecre Bid rrjp dpeacp etre Kal to eBacpo^; Kal top 
depa ttoXv Bia(j)ep€L tcop dXXcop. 

3 'H Be TCOP AaTLPCop e(f)vBpo<; iracra' Kal 77 fiep 
TTeBeipt] Bd(ppr)v exet Kal fiypplpovf; Kal o^vrjp 
OavfiaaTrjP' TTjXiKavTa yap Ta firJKT] re/ipovai 
waT etvai BiapeKco<; tcop 'YvppiiviBcop vtto tyjv 
TpoTTtV' T) Be opeipi] Tr6VKt]p Kal eXdT7]p. to Be 

^ Demetrius Poliorcetes. cf. Plut. Demetr. 43 ; Plin. 16. 

^ iiriKivZvpivffai conj. W.; M rhr vvkvov Aid.; so U, but 


' i.e. against the overhanging trees. ? IffrCots, to which 
SiaaX' is more appropriate. 


banded them, and also because the transport of the 
timber was difficult. The timbers cut for Demetrius' ^ 
ship of eleven banks of oars were thirteen fathoms 
long, and the timbers themselves were without 
knots and smooth, as well as of marvellous length. 
But largest of all, they say, are the trees of 
Corsica ; for whereas silver-fir and fir grow in 
Latium to a very great size, and are taller and 
finer than the silver-firs and firs of South Italy, 
these are said to be nothing to the trees of Corsica. 
For it is told how the Romans once made an ex- 
pedition to that island with twenty-five ships, wishing 
to found a city there ; and so great was the size ot 
the trees that, as they sailed into certain bays and 
creeks, they got into difficulties'^ through breaking 
their masts.^ And in general it is said that the 
whole island is thickly wooded and, as it were, one 
wild forest ; wherefore the Romans gave up the idea 
of founding their city : however some of them made 
an excursion ^ into the island and cleared away a large 
quantity of trees from a small area, enough to make 
a raft with fifty sails ; ^ but this broke up in the open 
sea. Corsica then, whether because of its uncultivated 
condition or because of its soil and climate, is very 
superior in trees to other countries. 

The country of the Latins is all well watered ; 
the lowland part contains bay, myrtle, and wonder- 
ful beech : they cut timbers of it of such a size that 
they will run the whole length ^ of the keel of a 
Tyrrhenian vessel. The hill country produces fir and 
silver-fir. The district called by Circe's name is, it 

* StaBdvTUS 8e' rivas conj. St. from G; 5ia$dvTa Se riva Ald.H. 

* $? (Xph(TaTo irevT. lar. conj. Sch.; p ^XP'^'^"-^'^'' °* Ald.H. 
s 5iai'€Kta)s conj. Sch. ; S<ek rews Aid. 



KipKalov KoKovfJievov elvai /lev d/cpav v^ij\)]v, 
Ba(T€Lav he (T<j)6hpa koI e-^^eiv hpvv koX hd(^in]v ttoX- 
\'t]u Kol fiuppivov^!, Xeyeiu Be tou? iyx^P^^^'^ ^'^ 
epravOa )) Kt'pKTj Karco/ceL Koi heiKvvvai rov rov 
^E\7r)]Vopo<; rd(f)ou, e^ ov c^vovraL /xvpplvat KaOd- 
irep at aTe(f)ap(OTi,Se<; rcou dXXo)P ovtcov fieydXcov 
fxvpplvwv. Tov he TOTTOv elvai koi tovtov veav 
TrpocrOeaw, Kal irporepov fiev ovv vtjaov elvai to 
KipKa7ov, vvv he vtto TroTa/icov tlvcov irpoaKe- 
')(0}a6aL KoX elvai r)l6va. ri]<i he v^aov to /xeyeOo^ 
Trepl oyhorjKovra arahiovi. kol to, p.ev t(ov 

roTTcov ihta ttoWijv e-)(ei 8ia<f>opdv, uxjirep etprjTai 

IX. To ^e Kal nrpo^ ttjv TTvpcoaiv ttw? eKuarr] 
T?}? vXrjf; e^ei Xe/creov 6/uL0i(i><i Kal ireipareov 
XajSelv. dvOpaKe^ fxev ovv dpiaroi yivovrai rayv 
nrvKvoTdrcov, olov dpia^ hpv6<i KOjidpov areped)- 
raroi ydp, ware TrXelarov y^povov avrkyovai Kal 
fidXicrra iayyovci' hi o Kal ev TOi<i dpyvpeioi^ 
rovTOi<s y^pMvrai Trpo^ rr-jv 7rpd>Trjv tovtcov eyjrrjaiv. 
XclpicyTOi oe rovjoiv ol hpvLVOi- yecoheararoi ydp- 
p^et/JOf? he Kal ol tmv irpeo-fivTepcov rcov vecov, Kal 
fidXiara ol TOiV yepavhpucov hid ravro' ^-qpoTaroi 
ydp, hi o Kal irrjhoiCTi Kai6/j,evoi' hel he eviKfiov 
2 BeA,T^(TTOi Be ol rcov ev aKpLJ} Kal jxdXiara ol 

1 c/. Horn. Od. 10. 552 foil., 11. 51-80, 12. 8-15; Plin. 15. 

'^ viav Trp6nQfcnv conj. Sch.; etj avhphs Otaiv AlcL 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. viii. 3-ix. 2 

is said, a lofty promontory, but very thickly wooded, 
producing oak, bay in abundance, and myrtle. There, 
according to the natives, dwelt Circe, and they shew 
Elpenor's tomb,^ on which grow myrtles like those 
used for garlands, though other kinds of myrtle are 
large trees. Further it is said that the district is a 
recent addition ^ to the land, and that once this piece 
of land was an island, but now the sea has been 
silted up by certain streams and it has become 
united to the coast, and the size of the 'island'"^ 
is about eighty furlongs in circumference. There 

is * then much difference in trees, as has been said 
repeatedly, which is due to the individual character 
of particular districts. 

Of the usis of various woods in making fire : charcoal, fuel, 

IX. Next we must state in like manner and 
endeavour to determine the properties of each kind 
of timber in relation to making fire. The best 
charcoal is made from the closest wood, such as 
aria (holm-oak) oak arbutus ; for these are the most 
solid, so that they last longest and are the strongest ; 
wherefore these are used in silver-mines for the first 
smelting of the ore. Worst of the woods mentioned 
is oak, since it contains most mineral matter,^ and 
the wood of older trees is inferior to that of the 
younger, and for the same reason that of really old 
trees ^ is specially bad. For it is very dry, wherefore 
it sputters as it burns ; whereas wood for charcoal 
should contain sap. 

The best charcoal comes from trees in their prime. 

» c/. Pliii. 3. 57. * €Xe' conj. Sch. ; thai Aid. 
^ i.e. and so makes much ash. ^ cf. 2. 7. 2. 



roiv KoXo/3u)V' avfifieTpco^ yap €)(^ouai tw irvKvus 
Kol yccohet /cat rw vypa>' ^eXriov^ Se koI ck tmv 
eveiKdiV Kal ^ripdv kol 7rpoa/36ppcov t} etc tmv 
7ra\i(TKLa)v Kal vypcov Kal tt^o? votov Kal el 
evLKporepa<^ v\t)<;, iTVKvr}<i' vyporepa yap rj ttvkvi]. 
Kal oXo)?, oaa rj (f)iia€i i) Sid [rou] tottov ^yjpoTepop 
TTVKVorepa, i^ airdvrcdv ^eXruo Bed r^jv avrifv 
avTLav. %/3eia he aXKwv akXyy 7rpo<; evia yap 
t^7)T0vcn TOv<; fia\aKov<;, olov ev rot? cnhrjpeioi^ 
rov<i tt}? Kapva<; t/}? Evfio'iK7]<;, orav rjh-i KeKuv- 
fievof; fj, Kal ev rol^ dpyvpeioi^ tou? ttltvlvov^. 
')(p6)VTaL he Kal al Te)(yaL tovtol<^. ^i-jrovac he 
Kal 01 ')(a\Kel<; tol/? 7revKLvov<; pdWov i) hpvtvovi' 
KaiTOL daOevearepoi aX-V eU rrjv (pvaijaiv dfiei- 
uovi CO? rjaaov KajapiapaLvopevoL' ean he rj (f)\o^ 
o^vrepa tovtcov. to he oXop o^vrepa (pXo^ Kal 

T) TOVTCOP Kal 7) TUiV ^vXwV TOiV fiaVCOV Kal K0V(f)Q)V 
Kal ri T(t)V aVCdV l) S' €K TWV TTVKVCOV Kal ')(X(t)pdi)U 

vwOearepa Kal 7ra%fTe;9a- iraaSiV he o^vrdrrj rj 
eK TWP vXrjp^drcov dvdpaKe<^ he oXco^ ov yivovrai 
hid TO pLY) e'X^LV TO ao)p.aT(ohe<;. 

Tepvovcrc he Kal ^y]T0va-L el<; Ta? dvOpaKLd<; rd 

^ koKoBmv cod]. Palm.; Ko\\d$c»v U; KoAa)8ci>»' Aid. 

^ 5e Kol iK Twv conj. W. ; Se kuI oi rwv UMVP ; 5e ol tSdv 

^ Ka\ tl (PiK/JLOTtpas conj. W.; kuI oi iuaK/xorepas U; Ka) t) fV 
aKfj.r]T(pas MV; koI ol iv a.KiJ.r]Tepas Ald.Bas.Cam. Tlie sense 
seems to require vyporepas for (viKjj.oTepas and iuiKuortpa for 
vyporepa. G seems to have had a fuller text. 

* i.e. from growing in a damper place, cf. 5. 9. 4. 



and especially from trees which have been topped ^ : 
for these contain in the right proportion the qualities 
of closeness admixture of mineral matter and moisture. 
Again better charcoal comes from trees ^ in a sunny dry 
position with a north aspect than from those grown in 
a shady damp position facing south. Or, if the wood ^ 
used contains a good deal of moisture,* it should be 
of close texture ; for such wood contains more sap.^ 
And, for the same reason, that which is of closer 
texture either from its own natural character or 
because it was grown in a drier spot,'' is, whatever 
the kind of tree, better. '^ But different kinds of 
charcoal are used for different purposes : for some 
uses men require it to be soft ; thus in iron-mines 
they use that which is made of sweet chestnut 
when the iron has been already smelted, and in 
silver-mines they use charcoal of pine-wood : and 
these kinds are also used by the crafts. Smiths ^ 
require charcoal of fir rather than of oak : it is 
indeed not so strong, but it blows up better into 
a flame, as it is less apt to smoulder : and the flame 
from these woods is fiercer. In general the flame is 
fiercer not only from these but from any wood which 
is of open texture and light, or which is dry : while 
that from wood which is of close texture or green is 
more sluggish and dull. The fiercest flame of all 
is given by brushwood ; but charcoal cannot be 
made from it at all, since it has not the necessary 

They cut and require for the charcoal-heap straight 

* c/. § 1 ad fin. 

^ ^r]p6repov conj. W. ; fTjptJrepo UMV; WKpSrepa ^T)p6r(pa 
Aid. I have bracketed rhv. 

7 BeATiu conj. Sch.; ^ekrlwv UM ; ^(Ktiqv Ald.H. 
« c/. Plin. 16. 23. 



evOea tcaX to, Xela' Bel jap co? iruKVOTara avi 
OeivaL TTyoo? T^t* KaTarrvL^LV. orav Be irepi 
aXelyp-oyaL rrjv KUfiivov, i^uTrrovcn irapa fiepo^ 
7rapaK€VTovure<; 6^6Ki(tkol<;, eh fiev rrjv avdpa- 
Kidv TCI Toiavra ^tjtoucti,. 

Ava/caiTva Be tm jeveu fiev o\(o<; ra vypd' kui 
Toi ')(Xo)pd Bid Tovro BvaKairva. Xeyco Be rd vypd 
rd eXeia, olov irXuravov Ireav XevKifv atyeipov 
€7ret Kol T) d/x7reXo^ ore vypd BvaKa7Ti>o<;. ck Be 
T^^9 tSta? ^v(Tew<^ 6 (f)OLVi^, ov Bi) fcal fidXiard 
Tive<i v7reiX'>](f)aaL BvaKairvov 69ev kol Kaip/jpcor 
€7roL)](Te " rod tg BvaKairvordjov (^oivLKO<^ €k 7/}? 

5 pil^o(poLrijTov<; ^Xey9a9." Bpi/xiiTaTo<; Be 6 Kairvo^; 
avKri<; /cal epiveov koI el ri aXXo 67rcoB€<i' alria 
Be Tj vyp6Trj<i' (pXo'iaOevTa Be kol uiro^pex^Oevra 
ev vBaTi €7TippvT(p KOI /xerd ravra ^ripavOevra 
iravTcov uKairvoTara koI (pXoya fiaXaKooTari-ji' 
dvLTjaLV, are koI ri}^ oLKeiaf; iiypoTt'iTO'^ e^r]p7]fieu)i^. 
Bptfieta Be kol ?/ T€(f)pa kol t] Kovla 1) dii avTMv. 
fidXtara Be (pacn rrjv diro t?}? d/jLvyBaXrj<;. 

11/30? Brj Ta? KajiLvia^ kol ra? aXXa<; Tey^va^ 
dX\t] dXXoL<; ')(p7)aLfir]. efiirvpeveaOai, Be dpiara 
avKri KOL iXda' avKT] fiev, otl yXLa)(pov re Kai 
piavov, wcTTC €Xk€l re kol ov BieiaLV' eXda Be, oti 
TTVKVov Kal Xiirapov. 

* Afta conj. Seal, from G ; via Aid. 

* With sods. c/. Plin., I.e., who seems to have lia<l a fuller- 

' An Athenian tragic poet. Seal, restores the quotation 



smooth ^ billets : for they must be laid as close as 
possible for the smouldering process. When they 
have covered 2 the kiln, tliey kindle the heap by 
degrees, stirring it with jwles. Such is the wood 

required for the charcoal-heap. 

In general damp wood makes an evil smoke, and 
for this reason green wood does so : I mean the 
damp woods which grow in marshy ground, such 
as plane willow abele black poplar : for even 
vine-wood, when it is damp, gives an evil smoke. 
So does palm-wood of its own nature, and some 
have supposed it to give the most evil smoke of all : 
whence Chaeremon^ speaks of '^ Veins issuing under- 
ground from roots of palm with its malodorous smoke." 
Most pungent is the smoke of fig- wood, whether 
wild or cultivated, and of any tree wliich has a 
curdling juice; the reason lies in the sap; when 
such wood has been barked and soaked in running- 
water and then dried, it gives as little smoke as 
any other, and sends up a very soff* flame, since 
its natural moisture also has been removed. The 
cinders and ashes of such wood are also pungent, 
and especially, they say, those of almond-wood. 

For the crafts requiring a furnace and for other 
crafts various woods are serviceable according to 
circumstances.^ For kindling fig and olive are best: 
fig, because it is tough and of open texture, so that 
it easily catches fire and does not let it through,^ 
olive, because it is of close texture and oily. 

thus : Tov T6 SvaKaTtpuTOLTou I (poiuiKos 4k 7v)j pi^O(pOlT-flTOVS 
(pXf^as (f>iCo(piTVTovs conj. Schneidewin). 

* i.e. not sputtering. 

'«■«».,. XP^'^'V'7 conj. W. ; Tt'xfats 6.\\r}\ois XP^<'''V'J U; 
T. aW-rjKas xp' MV; rex^V "-^^V eVrj XP- P i T. a\\r}\ots iar] 
X/jrjo-j'/iT) Aid. • i.e. burn out quicldy. 



Uvpeia Se yiverat jxev ix ttoWwu, apiara Be, 
w? <f)t]cn Mevearcop, eK klttov' raY^crTa yap Kal 
irXeiarov avairvec. irvpelov he cf)acriv apLarov 
jiev e/c T?}? ddpayev)]^ Ka\ov/i€V')]<; viro rtvcov 
TOVTO 8' earl SevBpov Ofioiov ttj a/jLTreXo) koI rf, 
olvdvOr) rfj dypia' Mcnrep e/cetva Kal tovto dva- 

7 ^aivei irpo'^ rd SevSpa, Sel Se r7]v ia'^^dpav €k 
TOUTcov iroLslv TO Be rpviravov eic hd^vrf^' ov yap 
€K ravToi) to ttolovv Kal Trdaxov, dW* eTepov 
evdv Sel KaTCL ^vctlv, Kal to fiev Bel TradrjTiKov 
elvai TO Be ttoltjtikov. ov pbi-jv dWd Kal e/c tov 
avTov yiveTai Kal, w? ye TLi>e<i vTroXa/x/Sdvovcnv, 
ovBev Bia<^epeL. yiveTai yap eK pdpbvov kcli 
irpivov Kal (f)i\vpa<; Kal a)(€Bov €K twv TrXeiaTwv 
jrXrjv €Xua<;' o Kal BoKel utottov elvar Kal yap 
GKXrjpoTepov Kal XtTrapov rj eXda' tovto fiev ovv 
davfi/jLeTpov e;^ei ByXov otl ti]V vypoTTjTa 7rpo<i 
Ti-jV TTvpcoatv. dyaOd Be to, eK pdfivov iroLel Be 
TOVTO Kal Tr]v ea')(^dpav xpy^GTi^v irpo^ yap tm 
^Tjpdv Kal axujiov elvai Bel Kal fiavoTepav, Itv i) 
Tpt"v/rt9 la^vr], to Be Tpviravov dTraOeaTepov Bl 
o TO T7]<i Bd^vr)<i dpiaTOV aTraOh yap ov epyd- 
^€Tat TTj BpifjLVT7]TC. wdpTU Be TO, TTvpela ^opeioi^i 
fiep OaTTov Kal fxaXXov e^diTTeTai, votioi<^ Be 
rjTTov Kal ev fiev toU fieTeoipoL^ fidXXov, iv Be 
TOt? kolXoi<; r)TT0V. 

8 ^ KvUl Be Twv ^vXcov to, KeBptva Kal aTrXw? w; 

^ TT. 56 flviTai fxlv conj. Sch.; v. fiiv yherai 8i UMVAld. 

'^ cf. 1. 2. 3 n. 

' iciTTov coiij. Bod. from detune 64, Plin. 16. 208 ; napvov Al( 

* trvpuov cox\}. Salm. ; irvpoX UMVAld. 



Fire-sticks are made^ from many kinds of wood, 
but best, according to Menestor,^ from ivy ^ : for 
that flares up most quickly and freely. They 
say also that a very good fire-stick ^ is made of 
the wood which some call traveller's joy ; this is 
a tree like the vine or the ' wild vine,' which, 
like these, climbs up trees. The stationary piece ^ 
should be made of one of these, the drill of bay ; 
for the active and passive parts of the apparatus 
should not be of the same wood, but different in 
their natural properties to start with, one being 
of active, the other of passive character. Never- 
theless they are sometimes made of the same wood, 
and some sup])ose that it makes no difference. 
They are made in fact of buckthorn kermes- 
oak lime and almost any wood except olive ; 
which seems surprising, as olive-wood is rather 
hard and oily ; however it is plainly its moisture 
which makes it less suitable for kindling. The 
wood of the buckthorn is also good, and it makes 
a satisfactory stationary piece ; for, besides being 
dry and free from sap it is necessary that this 
should also be of rather open texture, that the 
friction may be effectual ; while the drill should 
be one which gets little worn by use. And that 
is why one made of bay is best; for, as it is not 
worn by use, it is effective through its biting 
quality. All fire-sticks take fire quicker and better 
in a north than in a south wind, and better in an 
exposed spot than in one which is shut in. 

Some woods, such as prickly cedar, exude ^ 
moisture, and, generally speaking, so do those 

* i.e. the piece of wood to be bored, c/. de igne, l.c, 

* avlei. ^ ayi^iei. 



iXaici)hy]<; rj vyporrji;' Be o teal ra aydX/uuaTa 
(})aaLi> IhUiv ivLore' TTOiovcn yap ifc tovtcov. o 
Se KaXovatv ol /jLcivreL^i Yjl\eL6via<; dcpeSpov, virep 
ov KoX €K6vovTai, TTyoo? TOL<i €\aTLvoi<; jLveraL 
avi'Lara/iiepy]<; Ttvo<i vyporrjro^, tm (T')(rifiaTi jikv 
arpoyyvkov fieyeOo^ Ee i)\ikov airiov rj kol fiiKpw 
jiel^ov rj eXarroi'. i/c^XacTTuveL Be /idXLara ra 
ekdiva kol dpyd KeL/.i€va kol elpyaajxeva iroWd- 
KL<i, edv LKfidBa \a/x^3dvr} kuI e%); tottov vorepov 
oiairep ijBt] Ti? aTpo(peu<; tT;? Ovpa<i i^XdaTfjcre, Ka\ 
eh KvXiKLOv ttXlvOlpov TeOelaa kcottt] ev iri'fXM. 

^ cj. CP. 5. 4. 4. ol fxavreis . . . iKarivois conj. Lobeck. : 
Ol \fiav . . . rols CKaripots U; ol\eiav . . . tovs eK/jLarlfois V; o't 
\f:7av TTJs et\r)d-fta5 . . . toTs eKixar'ivois M ; ol Ki'iav ti]s aKriQvlas 
6(pai5pov . . . TOVS fKarifovS Pj J i^i^av ttjs tiKrjBvias ecpoSpor . , 
rovs eKarivovs Aid. 



whose sap is of an oily character; and this is 
why statues are sometimes said to 'sweat'; for 
they are made of sucli woods. That which seers 
call the menses of Eileitimia/ ^ and for the appearance 
of which they make atonement,'^ forms on the wood 
of the silver-fir when some moisture gathers on it : 
the formation is round ^ in shape, and in size about 
as large as a pear, or a little larger or smaller. 
Olive-wood is more apt than other woods to pro- 
duce shoots even when lying idle or made into 
manufactured articles ; tins it often does, if it obtains 
moisture and lies in a damp {)lace ; thus the socket 
of a door-' hinge ' ^ has been known to shoot, and 
also an oar which was standing in damp earth in an 
earthenware vessel.^ 

- i.e. as a portent, cf. Chay; 16. 2. 

* (TTpoyyvKoi^ conj. Sch.; a-TpoyyvXrjs UMVPoAld. 

* cf. 5. 6. 4 ; Plin. 16. 230. 

^ Tr\ivd. reO. KwtrTj iv trriXtf conj. Spr. ; ■nKivQivov rebels rp 
Kciirp TtTjAJs PjAld.H. 


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